Evaluation of a Workplace Bullying Cognitive Rehearsal Program in a Hospital Setting
Workplace bullying happens in any field of occupation and even today is part of the greatest challenge facing the majority of registered nurses nationally. Most significantly, workplace bullying in hospital setup can be very dangerous as it can lead to considerable consequences particularly to the bullied victims whether in the health care organization or nursing profession. Bullying can result in high costs of replacing the affected nurses and also has a detrimental economic impact on a healthcare organization. The title of this article is therefore relevant as it helps to address the various issues facing healthcare organizations, its weaknesses, strengths, and solutions to such issues.
Workplace bullying is a critical problem which is facing health care organization and has contributed to the lowering of morale in this setup. The article focuses on the study which was conducted with the aim of determining the rate at which bullying occurs as well as assess the efficacy of a training program on a cognitive rehearsal to common bullying conduct. The program basically focuses on the need to increase the knowledge of management to the nurses. The article will cover the three workplace bullying constituents which include pilot survey testing, a 2-hour cognitive rehearsal training program on management of workplace bullying, a piloted Internet-based survey overseen to the medical and surgical nurses. The outcomes of the study conducted shows that about 80% of the nurses who were investigated experienced workplace bullying over the preceding year(Stagg, Sheridan, Jones & Speroni, 2011). It was also observed that after the training program, nurses’ knowledge of workplace bullying management expressively amplified. Moreover, nurses were considerably more expected to report that they had perceived bullying and had bullied others. To add on that, nurses felt more sufficiently prepared to handle work bullying. Outcomes of the research support the provision of a workstation bullying administration program for nurses as well as the necessity for an explicit policy on workplace bullying.
Workplace bullying can negatively impact on health care organization in a negative way. According to various studies conducted, it was noted that although bullying has higher consequences on the bullied nurses, it has a greater bearing on the nurses who witnesses the bullying incidence. , According to the study conducted by Zogby International (2007), it was found that most of the individuals who were bullied failed to report the incidence hence making it problematic to completely comprehend the problem. This article will basically focus on the frequency at which workplace bullying occurs in the nursing industry, the effects of bullying, the negative aspects resulting to the bullying (Stagg, Sheridan, Jones & Speroni, 2011). It also focuses on the implication of bullying on the health care industry, The article also displays various forms in which bullying may occur. For instance, bulling may encompass psychological, physical and social aspect, it leads to interpersonal conflict, increased rate of absentees and lack of morale. The article provides more clarity on the challenges facing the nursing industry and also seeks to find solutions to these challenges.
The article has appropriately introduced the problem faced by health care organization and the challenges facing the nurses as a result of bullying. It shows the emotional torcher faced by the victim as well as those who witness the incidence. I believe that this article has expounded the purpose of the study. The purpose of the article also focuses on determining whether cognitively rehearsed reactions to common bullying conducts lessened bullying by increasing staff nurses’ knowledge of workplace bullying management. The purpose of the article is also to highlight the higher cost incurred after the incidence of bullying occur, the reduced productivity f nurses, high rate of absenteeism, low morale, reduced care as well as minimized patient care. The article also highlights the higher nursing turnover as a result of being bullied.
The article also clearly defines the research questions which have made a great impact in coming up with this study. The research questions aim to identify the challenges of bullied nurses, the negative impacts of being bullied, it defines the frequency of workplace bullying in nursing, it identifies the consequences of workstation bullying and also describe common bullying behaviors experienced by nurses. The theoretical framework of this study helps to introduce the key topic as well as describe the theory which expounds why the research problem under Workplace Bullying Cognitive Rehearsal Program exists. (Stagg, Sheridan, Jones & Speroni, 2011).
The theoretical framework that guided this project is Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). SCT theory suggests that an individual’s behavior is determined by their prospects about their environment, self-efficacy, and the desired outcome. Expectations, reinforcements, and past experiences all help determine if an individual will perform and maintain certain conduct. When applying this framework, conducts are. observed in the social context in which they occur. The literature review of this article is relevant, comprehensive, and include recent research, aligns with the title of the article and support the need for this study. It involves both quasi-experimental and no experimental evidence as a means to avert as well as manage programs in the education, business, and health care disciplines provided the basis for this study. The literature review identified four health care strategies necessarily to avert and manage workplace bullying. This strategy includes teaming nurse mentors with academic participants, workplace bullying management intervention which provides information about bullying, the third strategy involves workplace bullying management intervention which provides information about bullying, the final strategy of workplace bullying which involves piloted aggression and violence minimization modules. In this regards, the literature review support the need for this study
The methods used to obtain data and other relevant information in this article includes descriptive and quasi-experimental methods. The study involved three major components which include pilot survey testing, an intervention with a pretest and posttest study design as well as survey administration. More so, the study involved a pilot of an Internet-based workstation bullying review of staff nurses on the neuroscience unit of the study facility. It is also worthy to note that changes to the study instrument resulted from the pilot. The key study was conducted at two allied rural community hospitals, using the piloted Internet-based survey instrument in addition to one 2hour training program. The method used was able to account for the reliability and validity of all information collected(Stagg, Sheridan, Jones & Speroni, 2011).
.The tools used in the study comprised an Internet-based survey and a training program pretest and posttest. The Internet-based survey portion of the study consisted of three constituents. The first part of the survey was an informed consent form. The second portion of the survey collected participant demographic information. This included work unit, current work status, age, gender, marital status, highest educational level, length of time worked as a nurse, length of time worked at the study site, and usual work schedule. The third is, an adapted Workplace Bullying Inventory (WBI) was used with permission from Hutchinson, Wilkes, Vickers, and Jackson (2008). Testing of the cognitive rehearsal training program was based on a study conducted by Griffin (2004).
The Internet-based survey contained a total of 27 questions, 9 demographic questions and 18 questions on different bullying behaviors experienced during the last year. Sixteen of the questions about bullying were from the original survey. Internal consistency of the survey was measured using coefficient alphas (Cronbach’s) (Stagg, Sheridan, Jones & Speroni, 2011). Lastly, the descriptive statistics for all data were analyzed. Within the survey analysis, the examiner determined the frequencies for each unit and a combined total for the units. For the pretest and posttest knowledge comparisons, frequencies of responses to the test questions were calculated. In addition, the researchers assessed the frequency of correct test answers on both pretests and posttests (Stagg, Sheridan, Jones & Speroni, 2011).
From the written comments, a common theme of increased awareness of bullying behaviors emerged, which included the participants’ own actions as well as those of others. Additionally, 20% of the nurses had thought about leaving their positions prior to attending the workplace bullying cognitive rehearsal program, but only 10% had thought about leaving their current workplaces since attending the program. Of the twenty (32%) of the 62 staff nurses from the medical and surgical units completed the survey. Of these, 90% worked on a medical unit. Workplace bullying was experienced by 80% of the respondents, and 75% of the bullying occurred in the medical units. The majority of the nurses were employed full-time 80%. Forty percent of the respondents were 41 to 50 years old. All 20 respondents were female and 60% were married (Stagg, Sheridan, Jones & Speroni, 2011).
In this study, bullying was witnessed by 50% of the nurses, which is unacceptably high. Although the nurses may not have experienced the bullying directly, health care administrators must realize that they may still be significantly affected by witnessing bullying. Even though many nurses felt their ability to intervene in bullying had improved, only one nurse reported responding to workplace bullying. Failure to respond to bullying could be due to fear of retaliation or loss of employment. To recognize and respond to bullying, some of the staff nurses reported that education regarding workplace bullying was essential. Nurses must be aware of bullying concepts, common bullying behaviors, effects of bullying, and what to do about workplace bullying (Stagg, Sheridan, Jones & Speroni, 2011).
Consistent with the outcomes observed by Vessey et al. (2009), the percentage (80%) of medical and surgical staff nurses reporting workplace bullying in this study was immense. As a result of heightened awareness of workplace bullying, nurses were significantly more likely to report that they had observed bullying and had bullied others. Further, nurses were significantly more likely to report that their training in workplace bullying management was adequate. More so, attendance at a cognitive rehearsal training program significantly increased staff nurses’ short-term knowledge of workplace bullying management. The training program used the components recommended by Griffin (2004). The theoretical concepts of bullying, the most common bullying behaviors, the consequences of bullying, organization-specific workplace bullying policies, an evidence-based behavioral intervention, responses to common bullying behaviors (Stagg, Sheridan, Jones & Speroni, 2011).
Numerous limitations that might have affected the outcome of this project have been identified. These limitations, evaluation tool, valuation tool, include the sample, statistical test, qualitative data analysis, and follow-up interval impede the results from being generalized to other populations. Each limitation will be discussed in depth and suggestions will be presented to address them in future studies(Stagg, Sheridan, Jones & Speroni, 2011).
This research study endorsed that a number of surgical s as well as medical nurses experienced workstation bullying. Staff nurse presence at a cognitive rehearsal training program increased awareness of bullying behaviors and knowledge of workplace bullying management. Whether the training program really reduced workplace bullying has yet to be determined, but the staff nurses reported feeling more adequately equipped to handle workplace bullying after the training session. From this study, staff nurses reported decreased workplace bullying 6 months after attending a cognitive rehearsal of suggested responses to common bullying behaviors training program. Though, even after appearing on the program, numerous nurses were unsuccessful to respond to workstation bullying. Consequently, occupational health nurses need to assess other methods to avert and manage workplace bullying.
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