Integration of wireless technology in healthcare

Answer 1

 One of the primary areas of concern is the load management i.e. increase in website visitors lead to slow response and sometimes making it inaccessible. Likewise, on the first day of its launch, the website was crashed due to the massive number of visitors trying to register and do online shopping. Currently, the website is able to perform load management to a certain level; however, there are concerns, as one of the expectations from this website is to process seven million applications that need to be logged before a certain period of time. One more issue incorporates integration and changes of a module for the website. For instance, on its initial launch, users need to register for an account prior to do online shopping for insurance plans. There was a design flaw that was provoking uncertainty to the website visitors/users and hence was imposing a serious error in user e-commerce experience. Moreover, the design was constructed by non-technical personnel without any knowledge of how the website will utilize the technology available at the backend. It is astonishing that the user can access all the contents of the website without registration and the website should not degrade its performance when a large number of users trying to purchase health insurance. However, for a federal function website, 700, 000 is not a massive number in terms of other federal or government website visitors. Moreover, if we compare the number of visitors with some other popular social networking sites, they have billions of daily visitors. Likewise, the integration of this site with the other sites such as Internet Revenue Service and the Department of Veteran affairs has severely affected its navigation response. Moving forward, the website needs to validate information from different interfaces of other systems that are using old technology, there is a dependency that needs to be sorted in the design phase of this website. Currently, the delay occurring on these old systems is reflecting on the website and end user is suffering. Secondly, there is one more issue that adds more problems for the end-users i.e. data corruption that has already been identified and it is increasing day by day. The data submitted by the end users is submitted to insurance companies via and they have already reported about receiving bad data, as there are issues in dependent classifications etc. As already more than fifty vendors were working on different areas of this site, glitches were expected. Experts conclude that the project was not handled to perfection and project management best practices were not followed along with the alignment of technology that was used to achieve objectives from this website. Besides, the security of this website currently does not portray any vulnerability in terms of poor software programming and validation checks. However, it is high probability that security can also be compromised if the issues stand still, as they will increase by the period of time. In a short period of time, this project seems to be rushed through, and it is high likely for oversights that are yet to be explored. A comprehensive tier 3 penetration testing is required for identifying any potential vulnerability that can be exploited by a threat.

I would have aligned the solution with the relevant technology required for communicating with other systems as well as optimization for handling the number of users visiting the site. Moreover, I will change the layout of the website and restrict contents that can be seen by guest users also and unregistered users. Moreover, I would call a meeting with all the major stakeholders, technical teams and third party website as well. The issues will be discussed and weaknesses in the system can be discussed and sorted out.

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Answer 2

The Paid Search Engine Marketing (Pay per Click) is displayed on top of the search engine results and tagged as ‘ads by Google’. Likewise, all of these results are paid advertisements and the charge is made only when someone clicks on these advertisement links. This feature makes it a great tool for advertisement with minimum cost. However, the search engines calculate quality scores for every keyword that needs to be focused. The advertisement company needs to maintain quality scores in order to get a better return on investment. A high price for pay per click comes in a range of $8 to $10 per click. The second search engine marketing method is called as organic search engine marketing where keyword research, search engine optimization, competition on research and making the right keywords are the factors that need consideration. There is no cost or fee for this type of marketing; however, there is one major drawback i.e. a lot of time is required for getting the website on top of the search engine list. Likewise, in the long term benefits, search engine optimizing wins because of getting thousands of clicks without pay, based on the development of organic rankings

Answer 3

 As per a survey that was conducted by Software Productivity Research in 2009, inadequate software development leading to bad quality costs above $500 billion per year on a global level (Dave, 2011). Application is a core component of a computer that operates on an application layer of the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model. Everyone interacts with the application and not the hardware, if software quality is not present, Users will become reluctant to use it again. For instance, vulnerability is reported that may impose risks, bugs, and errors, incompatibility issues, etc. moreover, a news report of a new threat targeting user information may become a great challenge for organizations to sustain their business and customers. However, these news reports may lead to programming flaws and bad quality that may result in massive business losses. For a core banking application, errors, bugs or inadequate security measures cannot be ignored, as a single vulnerability may lead to a major threat for business. For this reason, integrating security in the product lifecycle is the most important factor. As mentioned earlier, security breaches are now making headlines, as dependency on applications, mobile applications and online applications has skyrocketed. Users are now making complex online transactions from their cell phones and websites resulting in a rise of application threats. Consequently, there is a requirement of addressing security issues in an application to a relatively high degree. Moreover, many organizations purchase applications from the vendor that all imposes inherent risks that are not known by that time. A recommended solution for addressing application security must be conducted during the feasibility study. Integration of security controls followed with a secure application development approach will ensure quality and security of an application. Furthermore, deciding recommended security controls in a feasibility study will justify the cost of implementing and integrating them within the application. Traditionally, organizations are not addressing application security during the software development life cycle. They conduct security audits by auditors with specialized tools (Edwards, 2006) and with partial resources, at the end of a finished product making the security isolated. If any issue arises during the security audit in end stages of a software development lifecycle, it is more time consuming and expensive to address. Moreover, security auditors have their own criterion that is their primary objective. For instance, analyzing all risks are addressed or not, the level of compliance by classifying vulnerabilities and controls for mitigating threats. All these issues are addressed before an official release of an application. Similarly, the development team has to ensure timely and cost effective development of the software modules and to make their name in the market first (Dave, 2011). Likewise, the audit report with a list of security vulnerabilities is submitted to the application development team for making any suitable changes (Dave, 2011). However, the report does not include any method or a hint of where these vulnerabilities exist.  Developers on the other hand, launch the product as per schedule and therefore, security issues were not addressed. However, the best solution of addressing application security is in the software development life cycle, so that developers can rectify and remediate any security vulnerabilities through this process, as afterward there is no time and the product launches without addressing security vulnerabilities that may result in major threats to organizations afterward.

There are ways in which secure coding practices can be established. However, there is no coding standard available that is globally recognized, as for this reason; organizations customize secure coding standards as per their own requirements. CERT established the CERT C secure coding standard that was developed by 320 technical experts and its new version was released on May 2010 by the reviewing process (Tai-hoon Kim et al.). For addressing security issues in application development, CERT secure coding standards are adopted by many organizations. Initiating a secure coding standard for several programming languages is a complex mission that entails comprehensive contribution and involvement of the community. Likewise, to establish a standard that reflects top quality, CERT is in the process of deploying the development process that is demonstrated below (Pincar, 2008):

Coding standard’s rules and recommendations can be asked from the communities that are involved in the applications for every programming language along with the development. Likewise, this will incorporate standard bodies considered as de facto and are responsible for maintaining documentation standards. Secondly, modification in rules and recommendations for content and style is only authorized to high ranked members of the technical staff associated with CERT. moreover, these modifications to the content and style will be placed on a website for comments and feedback. Thirdly, users can discuss and share their views on a publicly available forum i.e. a website. Likewise, if consensus is developed among authorized members of the CERT to approve or modify a rule, after approval the rule is added into the coding standard.

However, there are other standards as well for implementing secure coding standards. (Samek, n.d) Industry-specific standards called as the Motor Industry Software Reliability Association (MISRA) guidelines highlighted the usability of C language in vital information systems are also available publicly. As mentioned before, many organizations adopt their own secure coding standards. For instance, a publicly released coding standard known as the Joint Strike Fighter Air Vehicle C++ Coding Standards is also available that is used for federal or military systems (Samek, n.d). Likewise, there are many online coding standards in which one of them is addressing security in a website. This standard is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) National Cyber Security Division (Samek, n.d). Moreover, SAMATE Reference Dataset (SRD) is sponsored by the National Institute of Science and Technology that offers a combination of programs with available vulnerabilities in the code, architecture, and design for minimizing weaknesses that are exploitable. Furthermore, The Common Weaknesses Enumeration (CWE) that is sponsored by MITRE is a dictionary for all the security vulnerabilities that are exploited so far in the code, architecture, and design. So many ways of addressing applications security have been discussed so far but none of them provides standards for secure coding practices that can be recognized and adopted uniformly.

Organizations fail to address application security issues resulting in major business loss or reputation in the market due to single security vulnerability i.e. security flaw in a user authorization and authentication module. If no automated tools are used for addressing application security, workload will increase for compliance with rules. Likewise, the use of tools will decrease the workload not only for programmers but for scripting languages as well. However, if the organization is already utilizing tools for addressing application security, it must be aligned with a formalized framework (Bradbury, 2008). Moreover, one of the pitfalls associated with application security is to analyze issues that are injected in the code. There must be a mechanism to avoid these issues by finding how they make their way in the code. Gordon Alexander, who is a technology manager at Compuware, spots a vital issue that is associated with mistakes from the developers. He says (Bradbury, 2008) “Defects manifest themselves in operation, and the cost of that will be borne out of the operational budget. The development budget does not see that cost,” he says further, “That makes it difficult for developers to invest in the process to fix these security problems.” Moreover, as far as management pitfalls are concerned, application security is considered as a governance issue (Bradbury, 2008). For instance, the programmers were not able to address security issues in the development phase, ultimately customer data will be at risk. However, in order to address the governance issue, it must be driven by the top and training must be provided at all levels. Likewise, if there is no adequate training for the programmers, they will make the same mistake repeatedly and it will be corrected by the quality assurance team. This concludes that the programmers cannot be blamed of their mistake apart from the fact that they are not following proper secure coding standards. However, below are the top seven technical flaws that impose risk for a security breach or a possible vulnerability in an application (Bradbury, 2008):

Invalid input must be checked on a continuous basis in order to eliminate anonymous or unscrupulous that needs to be processed. Moreover, application programming interfaces defines a combination of definitions that synchronize and combines software communication within an application. Likewise, it also provides abstraction via high level and low level application and defines subroutine calls and data structures. Although, networking application programming interfaces provide the entrance for libraries that deploy protocols associated with data communication and network (Application programming interface.2007).

One of the challenges that arise for accessing API’s is that they can be accessed in a way that can exploit a security vulnerability that may result in a threat to the application. Secondly, not configuring appropriate encryption and authentication modules in an application can impose a serious threat. Organizations, do not give importance to access management procedures that may become inherent vulnerability that can be exploited anytime.

Thirdly, there are some challenges with autonomous system that are not addressed by the security personnel. As these systems are linked together across different networks, they must recognize state of operation for each one of them. If a cyber-criminal or hacker successfully detects a vulnerability to identity state differences, applications running on distributed network can be compromised.

Moreover, inadequate or improper error handling or incident response plans are essential to overcome the current situation. Organizations do seems to be reluctant for addressing errors that may contain meaningful and critical information that may lead to the root cause of certain issues that may become exploits afterward. Furthermore, careless coding may also lead to improper functionality of the application that may lead to security vulnerability ready to be exploited by a threat.

Lastly, encapsulation that hides transactions or data that is classified as highly sensitive also create pitfalls for organizations. There are no trust boundaries defined leading to a complex situation. As these boundaries defines the specific part of data transmission that need to be protected, probability of threats will be minimized. However, coding must adhere to these boundaries encapsulating highly sensitive data transmission.

Top ten application security risks for the year 2010 were rated by the OWASP and are illustrated below (Bradbury, 2008):

  • Cross Site Scripting XXS
  • Structured Query Language (SQL) Injection
  • Cross site Request Forgery (CSRF)
  • Insecure direct object request
  • Cracked authentication and session management
  • Failure for limiting URL accessibility
  • Inadequate cryptographic storage
  • Inadequate transport layer safeguards
  • Un-validated requests

Answer 4

 Electronic health architecture represents life history of a patient’s medical history. In fact, it is an electronic version of the patient’s medical history and is updated by health care professionals as required. The electronic version also includes, all the primary administrative clinical data, pertinent to that patient’s care under a particular health care professional. In addition, the electronic health record includes demographics, progress notes, issues, vital signs, medications, immunizations, test reports, laboratory data and radiology reports (Carter, 2008). Moreover, a comprehensive idea related to its architectural requirements stated as a group of technical and clinical supplies (Carter, 2008). The definition represents the flow of these health records across the different geographical locations within the computerized network. As the information flows on the network, there is always a probability related to security and data protection of these health records. Moreover, the program named as Advanced Informatics in Medicine (AIM) highlighted severe safety problems. Furthermore, the group was created for addressing the issues on the basis of Six Safety First Principles for medical informatics. Consequently, the findings were remarkable as previously no issues were highlighted with prime concerns (Lacoste, 2000). For instance, the issues involve giving the wrong treatment to the patients, refuse to give the appropriate treatment, delay the treatment due to insufficient information, etc.  These issues are of prime concern, as they can result in premature death for any patient or patients (Mennerat, 2002).

We can use the following tools for detecting anomalies to and from the wireless computer network. In order to deploy Snort, network administrator will inject a tracing mechanism that will collect raw data packets from the network interfaces. As per the current scenario, protocols related to wireless access will be considered i.e. WAN, SLIP, PPP, VPN by deploying kernel named as ‘Libpcap’, in order to get prepared for preprocessing mechanism in the packet decoder. Likewise, the preprocessor modifies data packets prior to their way to the detection engine, in order to analyze them and generate alerts for anomalies related to wireless attacks associated with headers of the packets. Likewise, (Cox & Gerg, 2009) the core function of a preprocessor is to prepare or shape the network traffic for applying rules that are applicable at the next stage that is detection engine. This is usually called as packet defragmentation (Cox & Gerg, 2009). Moreover, Snort will decode HTTP and will also re construct TCP streams that are currently being used by hackers. The detection engine is based on time and operates in an extensive evidence collection mechanism. It is time- based because, if many rules are applied, the packet processing will consume time. The detection engine of Snort, stops’ processing, whenever, a rule is matched.  Network administrator will only apply rules on protocols that are currently been utilized by attackers. According to the defined parameters of a specific rule, the detection engine will log the packet or else generate an alert. Consequently, before Snort generates an alert, it makes sure that all rules are matched. The next component of Snort known as the collection engine will gather evidence from the hosts and networks that is an input for a forensic investigation team.

Moreover, Windump will detect for any unknown malware installation on each workstation including servers on the network (Ec-Council, 2009). The primary focus is to analyze and report any file that is installed on any workstation providing remote access to the hacker. The tool is specifically developed for supporting functions related to digital forensics investigation. The tool can specifically analyze traffic broadcasting from the workstation that has a malware installed in it. Likewise, it extracts the source information from the packet header in terms of IP addresses (Ec-Council, 2009). Moreover, the tool can also facilitate the investigation team to filter the required information. For instance, investigation team is currently analyzing SSL packets because of an online crime. Consequently, the tool will only provide information related to SSL packets only and ignore the rest.

Answer 5

A wireless connectivity will be preferred, as ‘Access points’ are the device which is used to connect devices equipped with wireless technology. ‘Access points’ transmits and receive radio signals adjacent to a network hub over a limited distance. However, distant varies from different model types and wireless technology adopted. The clinical staff needs access to the network resources for pulling electronic health records securely on their handheld devices. The integration is based on an intra-room network including computing devices that are communicatively coupled with the primary computing device Likewise, computing devices consists of vital signs monitor, devices for patient bed, IP cameras, motion sensors, etc. The type of devices is dependent on facilities provided. In order to access healthcare systems, a user-friendly web portal is available for the staff to administer and monitor patient and staff activities. These web portals are used extensively in a metropolitan area network or wide area network to link staff and resources where required. Furthermore, the most prevalent health care systems in the USA named as “esri”, navigates via a web portal in order to ‘geographically’ monitor and analyze service issues in hospitals.

The integration of wireless technology in healthcare systems has significantly triggered health care with rapid responses to the patient. The information required for any particular disease is easy, as online doctor is now common and is accessible by anyone connected to the Internet. Similarly, mobile technology provides SMS based alerts for patient appointments, booking, medication reminder, disease symptoms, dietary information etc.  Furthermore, RFID systems connect the network wirelessly for automating patient monitoring and track treatment from which they are suffering. Instead of documenting patient wealth information that is also time-consuming, RFID systems enable instant access to the information by simply scanning tags. The patients will receive a quick response of the health care services because the doctor may get all the information related to a patient in seconds. Patients can review the treatment history by scanning the tag. The treatment history includes what care has already been provided and what treatment they need next. This feature will increase the productivity of a doctor (Health-care tracking systems). The requirements for a health care professional are associated with;

  • Shielding patient privacy,
  • Abide by regulations,
  • Improving Information Technology efficiency,
  • Business alliance
  • Controlling costs

The integration of healthcare technologies in the cell phone is more beneficial rather than taking the patient to the hospital. For instance, doctor can give medication and instruction to the patient as soon as the doctor detects any uncertain event. However, the monitoring of pulse rate via cell phone is not in the picture, again, there are many diseases that can be cured at the initial stage by only curing them by monitoring the heart rate or blood pressure. The role of information technology is to provide a priority based calling whenever there is an emergency “Health Call” in order to secure the transmission channel of the doctor and the patient. Hence, the integration of health care system in the cell phone with the required mechanism to detect blood pressures and heart rates can significantly save lives of millions.


Application programming interface. (2007). Network Dictionary, 40-40.

Bradbury, D. (2008). Secure coding from first principles. Computer Weekly, 18.

Carter, J. H. (2008). Electronic health records: A guide for clinicians and administrators American College of Physicians.

Cox, K. J., & Gerg, C. (2009). Managing security with snort & IDS tools O’Reilly Media.

Dave, R. (2011). Best practices for tackling security early in development. Electronics World, 117(1908), 10-11.

Edwards, M. J. (2006). Audit your web applications for better security. Windows IT Security, 6(6), 6-10.

Ec-Council. (2009). Computer forensics: Investigating network intrusions and cybercrime [with access code] Course Technology Ptr.

Lacoste, G., 1946-. (2000). SEMPER–secure electronic marketplace for europe Springer; Springer Verlag, 1120 U.S. Highway 22 East, Bridgewater, NJ, 08807.

Mennerat, F. (2002). Electronic health records and communication for better health care: Proceedings of EuroRec 01 IOS Press.

Pincar, J. (2008). Development process – C++ secure coding practices – CERT secure coding standards Retrieved 3/9/2012, 2012, from

Samek, M. Practical UML statecharts in C/C++ event-driven programming for embedded systems Amsterdam ; Newnes/Elsevier, c2009.

Tai-hoon Kim, Adeli, H., Slezak, D., Frode Eika Sandnes, Xiaofeng Song, Kyo-Il Chung, et al. Future generation information technology: Third international conference, FGIT 2011, jeju island, December 8-10, 2011. proceedings (lecture notes in … applications, incl. Internet/Web, and HCI) Springer.


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