West Nile Virus in Horses
The objective of this work is to examine West Nile Virus in horses in terms of its’ origin, prevention and critical analysis for the reason of increase or decrease in statistical data related to West Nile Virus.
Both people and animals may become infected with West Nile Virus due to having been bitten by a mosquito that is infected with the virus. Infection is more likely in the late summer or early fall in the northeast and Mid Atlantic regions. Horses are a species that is stated to be “susceptible to infection with the virus” although infection does not always lead to signs of illness in human beings or animals.
TRANSMISSION of WEST NILE VIRUS
West Nile Virus is a mosquito-borne virus, which can cause encephalitis. West Nile encephalitis was first diagnosed in the United States when outbreak occurred in 1999 in the metropolitan area of New York City in 62 people and seven of whom did not survive the disease. First, the infection was diagnosed in several horse breeds, various zoo animals and various native species of bird and most particularly in crows. There were twenty-five horses from Long Island, New York in 1999 that were confirmed to have symptoms of West Nile encephalitis resulting in the death or euthanization of nine of the twenty-five horses. The following illustration depicts the transmission cycle of the West Nile Virus.
Transmission Cycle of the West Nile Virus
Source: College of Agricultural Sciences – Agricultural Research and Cooperative Extension
For horses that do become clinically ill “the virus infects the central nervous system and may cause symptoms of encephalitis” and include “a general loss of appetite and depression” as well as the following symptoms:
fever weakness of hind limbs paralysis of hind limbs impaired vision ataxia (weakness) head pressing aimless wandering convulsions (seizures) inability to swallow walking in circles hyperexcitability coma (Pennsylvania’s West Nile Virus Surveillance Program, 2008)
It is reported that West Nile Virus (WNV) was first diagnosed in horses in 1999 in the United States” and that it is now an important consideration in the “differential diagnosis of horses presenting with signs of a neurological disease in all areas of North America.” (West Nile Virus Vaccination Guidelines, 2005) West Nile Virus is a ‘flavivirus’ and was identified first as a “cause of infection and fatal encephalomyelitis (inflammation of the spinal cord and brain) in horses and people in Egypt, Uganda, and France…” (West Nile Virus Vaccination Guidelines, 2005)
III. INCUBATION PERIOD and SIMILAR NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS
The incubation period for this virus is stated at between approximately three to fifteen days. The mortality rate for horses exhibiting clinical symptoms of West Nile Virus infection is stated at approximately 33%. Data indicates that approximately forty-percent of horses surviving this illness will “exhibit residual effects, such as gait and behavioral abnormalities that were attributed to the illness by owners, six months post diagnosis.” (West Nile Virus Vaccination Guidelines, 2005) Stated as variable clinical signs associated with WNV infection which necessitate inclusion of many neurological disorders in the differential diagnoses are those as follows:
equine protozola myeloencephalitis (EPM);
eastern, western and Venezuelan encephalomyelitis (EEE, WEE, VEE);
cervical vertebral myelopathy (wobbler syndrome); myloencephalopathy; and equine degenerative myelopathy. (West Nile Virus Vaccination Guidelines, 2005)
IV. SEROLOGICAL TESTS for WNV DIAGNOSIS
Serological tests used to diagnose WNV include the following:
plague reduction naturalization (PRNT);
ELISA and antigen (IgM and IgG) capture ELISA (West Nile Virus Vaccination Guidelines, 2005)
Stated as the most reliable of these testing methods is the IgM-capture ELISA in a horse that is exhibiting clinical signs. Risk of exposure is stated to vary each year due to changes in the “distribution of insect vectors and reservoirs of virus.” (West Nile Virus Vaccination Guidelines, 2005)
V. VACCINATION SCHEDULE RECOMMENDATIONS
Because of this variation in the nature of risk factors and the effects of the disease, the recommendation has been made that all horses in North American receive vaccination against the West Nile Virus. Minimization of the risk for transmission of the virus from infected mosquitoes includes preventive management practices including reduction and elimination of stagnant or standing water as well as removal of old tires and keeping horses in the barn from “dusk to dawn” since this is the prime time for mosquito feeding. Setting out mosquito traps is advised as well as keeping air moving with fans and removal of organic debris (muck) quickly. There are stated to be specific controls through use of chemical agents including “use of topical anti-mosquito repellant agents” which have been approved for topical use. Finally, mosquito dunks may be used in areas that hold standing water. However, stated as the primary method of reduction of infection risk from West Nile Virus is that of vaccination although it is not always completely effective in prevention.
VI. MOST EFFECTIVE VACCINE
While many vaccines are currently available, only one of these vaccines is “monovalent or multivalent inactivated and the other is a live canarypox vector vaccine.” (West Nile Virus Vaccination Guidelines, 2005) Instructions for these vaccines states that two doses are to be administered three to six weeks apart. Boosters are a requirement depending on local conditions relating to disease risk. Vaccinations should be given semi-annually or even more frequently, stated at approximately every four months depending on the risk with “annual revaccination” being “best completed in the spring, prior to the onset of peak insect vector season.” (West Nile Virus Vaccination Guidelines, 2005)
None of the vaccines presently licensed are labeled for administration to mare that are pregnant however, it is stated that mares “be ideally vaccinated before breeding when possible.” (West Nile Virus Vaccination Guidelines, 2005) it is however stated that “practitioners have vaccinated thousands of pregnant mares due to the risk associated with pregnant mares getting the disease from infected mosquitoes” and in fact, “booster vaccination of pregnant mares 4 to 6 weeks before foaling provides augmented passive colostral protection to their foals, lasting for 3-4 months.” (West Nile Virus Vaccination Guidelines, 2005)
VII. VACCINATION SCHEDULE
Foals should be started with vaccinations between three and four months of age and foals born of non-vaccinated mares “may be vaccinated earlier than three months of age as they may not have colostral interference issues…” (West Nile Virus Vaccination Guidelines, 2005) Revaccination of foals should occur at one year of age, or “in the spring of the year following their birth to ensure adequate protection.” (West Nile Virus Vaccination Guidelines, 2005)
Veterinarians in the Southern U.S. states due to activity of mosquitoes year-round “prefer to vaccinate horses semi-annually or more frequently to help ensure uniform protection throughout the year, although this practice is not specifically recommended by manufacturers of vaccines.” (West Nile Virus Vaccination Guidelines, 2005) Horses that do become infected with WNV “should be vaccinated one year after the acute illness. Although the ability of horses to become re-infected with WNV is unknown at this time…” (West Nile Virus Vaccination Guidelines, 2005) the following table lists the West Nile Virus Vaccination Schedule for horses by age and type.
Source: (West Nile Virus Vaccination Guidelines, 2005)
There is no evidence to support that horses transmit West Nile Virus to other horses “birds or humans” and in fact, “evidence exists that the virus can be found in the horse’s bloodstream for only a few days during the entire course of the infection.” (Penn State University: College of Agricultural Scientists, nd) This makes it very important that one follows precautions handling the “blood, spinal fluid or nervous tissue from suspect animals, since these may contain the virus.” (Penn State University: College of Agricultural Scientists, nd)
VIII. TREATMENT REGIMEN
West Nile Virus is stated to represent a “real threat to horses because they appear more susceptible to the disease than other livestock or companion animals.” Penn State University reports that the “killed virus vaccine seems highly efficacious when administered properly…” however, it is reported to have failed to “protect 100% of all horses studied.” (nd) it is reported that in August 2003 licensing was issues for an antiserum for use in horses which would aid in controlling “signs and progression of the disease.” (Penn State University, nd)
IX. TRACKING SPREAD of WEST NILE EQUINE INFECTION
In 2008, it was reported by the Science Daily website that a new and improved test for West Nile Virus in Horses had been developed and states that West Nile Virus is “widely distributed in Africa, the Middle East and Europe.” (2008) U.S. researchers are stated to have discovered a new test “designed to detect antibodies produced by horses” and claims are that this test is “highly effective at diagnosing West Nile virus infections” and as compared to the former testing method, the new test “is much faster and gives accurate results. It was also useful in confirming past infections.” (Science Daily, 2008) the method, while developed specifically for testing for West Nile Virus in horses “can be easily modified to develop new antibody tests for humans and wildlife.” (Science Daily, 2008) it is related that these testing and diagnosis of West Nile in horses assist in the identification of where the disease is spreading and helps in the decision concerning whether to vaccinate horses in an area. Dr. Magnarelli states that the information used in this testing ” is useful in confirming the epidemiology of the virus, determining when it arrived in certain areas and how it spreads.” (Science Daily, 2008) the following illustration shows West Nile Virus (2008) in State with Equine cases with the total number of cases as of September 2, 2008 being 42.
West Nile Virus in 2008 (States with Equine Cases)
Total number of cases September 2, 2008
Source: United States Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (2008)
SUMMARY & CONCLUSION
West Nile Virus in horses requires diligent preventive factors because horses are more prone to become infected with West Nile Virus than are other animal species. West Nile Virus is a mosquito born infection and there are precautions that can be taken to reduce the risk of infection such as putting horses in the barn from dusk to dawn, installing screening around barn stalls that are open to the outside, and by eliminating standing water on the property where horses are pastured. Because the horse is more prone to become infected with West Nile Virus than are other animal species, vaccination of horses has been deemed by veterinarians to be very important even to the point of vaccinating mares who are pregnant and vaccinating colts as early as three months of age. Optimum vaccination schedules are stated to be semi-annually for horses while some veterinarians are known to vaccine as often as every four months. There has been a new vaccine developed for horses infected with West Nile Virus and it is believed that this same vaccine could be modified for use in vaccinating humans against West Nile Virus. Horses that have contracted the West Nile Virus infection often have the same signs and symptoms of horses infected with other diseases therefore, it is very important that the horse be tested upon notice of the telltale symptoms related in this research study.
West Nile Virus Vaccination Guidelines (2005) American Association of Equine Practitioners. Supplement to the AAEP Guidelines for Vaccination of Horses, January 2001. Online available at http://www.aaep.org/pdfs/AAEP_WNV_Guidelines_2005.pdf
West Nile Encephalitis in Horses (nd) Penn State University. College of Agricultural sciences – Agricultural Research and Cooperative Extension. Online available at http://pubs.cas.psu.edu/FreePubs/pdfs/un008.pdf
Society for General Microbiology (2008, August 22). New and Improved Test for West Nile Virus in Horses. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 13, 2008, at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/08/080819213052.htm
Animal Health Monitoring & Surveillance (2008) West Nile Virus – States with Equine Cases, Total Cases as of September 2, 2008-42. United States Department of Agriculture – Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.
West Nile Virus (2004) Veterinary Services. Aphis.usda.gov. 2004 October Online available at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/lpa/pubs/fsheet_faq_notice/fs_ahwnv.html
Minimizing the threat of West Nile Virus (2008) WSDA. Online available at http://agr.wa.gov/FoodAnimal/AnimalHealth/Diseases/WestNileVirus/default.htm
West Nile Virus in Horses
Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?
- Plagiarism free papers
- Timely delivery
- Any deadline
- Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
- Subject-relevant academic writer
- Adherence to paper instructions
- Ability to tackle bulk assignments
- Reasonable prices
- 24/7 Customer Support
- Get superb grades consistently
Online Academic Help With Different Subjects
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!