Non-European, Portuguese and Spanish voyages

Question 1:

Comparison of the non-European voyages with the Portuguese and Spanish voyages
Before the year 1500 was believed to be the era of exploration. Many countries were exploring the nature of the world due to imaginations and the urge to fill the gaps. The non-European countries such as China and India were the first to explore the world through their various voyages. For instance, China had a leader and a prominent explorer named Zheng He who was known for his great seven voyages during his tenure. The Chinese voyages traveled through various seas and oceans such as the Southern China Sea, the Indian Ocean, the Red Sea, the East Coast of Africa, and the Arabian Sea. Also, the European voyages pioneered by Spain and the Portuguese initiated their plans to explore the world. Spaniards and Portuguese explorers were triggered by their presence of technology development which helped in sailing far from their continent. However, Chinese voyages engaged in the need for search of commodities that they needed in their country while the Europeans explored for trade and desire to conquer the world. The Chinese voyages led by Zheng He focused on the Indian routes while the European voyages laid their focus on Africa and Red Sea routes which helped in invading Africa. The two diverse types of voyages also differed whereby the Chinese were seen as explorers while the Europeans were believed and portrayed as barbarians and pirates.

How the Spanish managed to establish a territory in the New World

The establishment of the New World Empire was facilitated by various attributes within the Spanish voyages. The Spaniards took the path of sailing to the west and discovered the New World which is currently known as the American continent. The Spanish colonizers managed to establish a territory in the New World based on the nature of weakness in the region. The Spaniards had superior weapons and established unique strategies of fighting the indigenous people in the New World. For example, the Spaniards possessed advanced technology and weapons such as swords, horses, firearms, and armors which enhanced the fight against the Native Americans in the New World. Similarly, the Spaniards applied tactics that encouraged conquest and forced labor to the local natives in the New World. Forced labor and forced conversion helped the Spanish to establish a territory in the new regions. Also, the native citizens in the region were affected by diseases and calamities that disrupted their formation as well as weakening their resistance power to fight the heavily-armed Spaniards. Therefore, the Spaniards managed to easily conquer the New World based on their tactics and advanced technology.

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Was the technology superiority a major factor in the conquest of the Americans?

Technology development in European countries was the primary factor in the exploration period. The exploration was facilitated by the advanced technology whereby the European countries such as Spain and Portuguese enhanced exploration strategies and settlement in the American continent. Also, the use of advanced technology was applied in the manufacturing of weapons which were used to conquer the Americans. For example, the native Indians in the region used bows and arrows to fight the Europeans who were using guns and swords. The fighting tactics also facilitated the use of high technology facilities that led to the conquest of the Americans. The emergence of diseases that were deemed to be introduced by the Europeans also affected the Americans whereby the Europeans had their cure but the native Indians lacked special skills and technology to undo the damage of the diseases. Therefore, the use of technology and tactical skills in the Native Americans helped the Europeans to conquer the New World. Technology advancement was the key factor in the colonization of Native Americans.
Question 8

Why did the industrial revolution begin in England rather than any other country?

England is considered the first nation in the world to experience the industrial revolution. England initiated the strategy of enlarging its economic superiority whereas other countries in Europe and the United States followed. Various attributes facilitated the growth of the industrial revolution in England compared to other countries. For example, England had various industries that increased the percentage of employed citizens in the country. the increased rate of employment facilitated productivity and growth of urban centers. Also, the local businesses grew and enhanced productivity in the country which enhanced industrialization. Another attribute involved the growth of the cottage industry which offered a wide variety of jobs and income to the country. The agriculture revolution and the reliance on locally produced products enhanced productivity and the economic nature of the nation. Population growth was also a factor in the origin of Britain’s industrial revolution based on the availability of labor. Financial innovation such as Central Banks and Stock Markets encouraged people to invest in the country which led to the growth and development of the nation. Also, the scientific revolution such as craftsmanship, technology innovation and development of strategies that enhanced the approach of avoiding technical challenges influenced the growth of the industries in the country. Navigable rivers and availability of transportation facilities as well as developed infrastructures enhanced the growth of the country in the industrial revolution. Therefore, England emerged to be the first country that managed to implement industrialization in the entire world.
What is meant by the Industrial Revolution? What were the economic changes that revolutionized manufacturing in the eighteenth century and led to the factory system?
The industrial revolution started in the early eighteenth century in England due to various factors. The industrial revolution was a change that led to increased industries in manufacturing industries which led to urbanization and increased the production of products. Also, the industrial revolution is deemed to be the period where manufacturing shifted from home-made products to the mass-production of products due to technology innovation and infrastructure development. England was the first nation to experience the industrial revolution but later spread all over Europe and other parts of the world such as the United States. The industrial revolution also facilitated the emergence of other activities that facilitated the quality of life. For instance, education development, improved infrastructure, transport system, national income, and scientific innovation were the consequences of the industrial revolution facilitated by the economic nature of the period. The industrial revolution also led to the emergence of a factory system that focused on mass production of various products. For instance, technology innovation such as steam engine and water-powered engines helped in enlarging the productivity of the industries which had acquired larger markets across the world.
How did the technology innovation of the industrial revolution change societies in the industrialized countries?
Technology innovation was among the causes of the industrial revolution in the 18th century. The rise of industries was facilitated by technology innovation such as the introduction of steam energy, electricity, and combustion steam engines. Also, technology innovation facilitated the living standards of the societies whereby urbanization was among the effects of technological innovation. For example, the introduction of innovative sewing machines helped society to develop economically due to its effect on the mass production of their products. The population obtained a chance of developing financially based on the returns from the availability of the innovative sewing machine. Women also benefited from the introduced sewing machine as they were able to work at home and increase their income in society. The innovation of light bulb helped the society as they were able to work at nights and under the mining locations. The steam engine innovation also facilitated the lives of the civilians in the society. For example, the power enhanced mass production in the textile industries as well as pumping water from the mining wells. The technology innovation helped in the betterment of the lives of the societies which facilitated urban development and creation of a stabilized community.
Question 10
How did Britain secure hold on India, and what colonial policies led to the beginning of Indian nationalism?
Britain was the colonizer of the Indian empire since the 1700s. The British Empire was considered a superior country which had vas presence of resources and power over many non-European nations. The rise of the British in India was facilitated by various attributes that helped the nation to get hold of the Indian empire. For instance, the British initially entered in South Asia with the motive of business with the Indian locals. The strength and penetration of business ties lured the Indians who entrusted the Britons with most of their resources and control. Also, the decline of the Mughal Empire which was the strongest regime in India led to the domination of the country by the Britons. The application of the indirect rule in India also influenced the aspect of taking control in the country based on the divide-and-rule whereby the Britons used the chance to dominate India. Also, the British Empire established imperialism in India which caused the rise of nationalism in the country. Several factors caused the rise of nationalism in India such as political unity, English language, transport and infrastructure development, modern press, economic exploitation, and the influence of western civilization.
How did British policies in India change as a result of the Sepoy rebellion?
The Indian revolt against the British rule was caused by the increased tension and the fight towards liberation. The Indians participated in the Sepoy rebellion as a way of liberating their country from colonization. Many Indians had been killed during the revolt which led to the readjustment of British policies in the region. The Sepoy rebellion did not guarantee the freedom of the Indians but however led to the implementation of even firmer policies that affected the Indian colony. The new policies introduced were aimed at preventing a similar event that halted the development and peace of the Indian communities. The first policy introduced changed the title of the Indian Governor-General in the administrative office representing the Indians although his powers were limited. Also, the British rule introduced the Indian Civil Service which was mainly to represent the Indians in British governance. The strategy helped in portraying the collaboration of the British government with the Indians. The Britons also gave back the local leadership to the Indians due to the respect of the Indian culture. The strategy influenced the establishment of stability in the Indian communities which enhanced peace and stability towards both parties. Therefore, the effect of the Sepoy Rebellion helped in shaping the future of the Indians as it was the pioneer of liberation from colonization.
How did imperialism contribute to the growth and globalization of the world economy?
The growth of imperialism in the world economy led to many factors that led to the emergence of globalization. Imperialism was introduced by Britain and spread to other nations. Imperialism was deemed to be the take-over or colonization of a country by another stronger nation with the objective of taking control of the economic, political, and social aspects. The Britons were the pioneers of imperialism as they invaded India among other nations. The effect of imperialism facilitated the introduction of globalization and the growth of international trade which enhanced the world’s economy. Also, imperialism enhanced the exchange of products and commodities from different nations which were transported and traded in different countries. Imperialism also helped in the development of new technologies that facilitated the manufacturing and transportation of products in various countries. Imperialism as well as pioneered free trade policies which helped in the exchange of goods and services across different nations. Therefore, imperialism was the first form of globalization as it helped countries to exchange products and ideas.
Question 9
What role did liberalism and nationalism play in Latin America?
Liberalism and nationalism were ideologies employed by the colonial system in governing their colonies. For instance, Latin America was colonized by the Spanish and Portuguese nations whereby both ideologies were applied. Liberalism was important in the growth and development of Latin America such as Mexico, Venezuela, and Brazil. Liberalism was considered as an ideology that supported liberty and the nature of freedom to the colonies. Liberalism helped in protecting the civil liberties in the Latin world. The basic rights of people were protected. Also, liberalism played a vital role in promoting equality in the context of laws and constitutional rights. Freedom of assembly, press, and speech was also protected through liberalism. The citizens were as well protected from arbitrary arrests, religious toleration, rights to own properties, and representation of communities in the government. The liberal laws were required to be written in a document. Therefore, liberalism helped Latin America to acquire independence from the Europeans. Nationalism also played part in liberating the Latin American nations. Nationalism was deemed to be the attribute of giving a nation a sense of independence. A nation with a sense of nationalism was based on the attribute of increasing awareness within a community as a strategy of creating common institutions, traditions, beliefs, languages, and customs. Nationalism helped the Latin American countries in creating revolutions that promoted the strategy of liberation. Therefore, the interrelationship of both liberalism and nationalism played a major role in the liberation of the Latin American nations.
How did the task of abolition vary between the different nations of the western hemisphere?
The slave trade was abolished in the 19th century whereby many colonizers saw the need for the liberation of the African slaves. The abolition movements started flocking in many nations but others were reluctant to let go of their cheap laborers. The abolition strategies differed depending on the diversity of nations in the Western hemisphere. For instance, the United States adhered to the liberation of slaves whereas Latin America such as Brazil and Cuba were the last nations to accept the changes. The Europeans were the first nations to implement slave trade abolition followed by the United States. The abolition movements in America played part in fighting against the slave trade. For instance, the United States participated in anti-slavery movements whereby their argument was based on the implementation of legislative strategies in ending the slave trade. Also, the abolition societies and movements persuaded the legislators to emphasize on honorable and gentlemanly regulations that would end the slave trade. However, the Latin American nations colonized by the Spanish and Portuguese were inactive in the fight against the slave trade. For example, Brazil was the last country to import slaves from Africa fifty years after other countries had ended the slave trade. Latin America utilized the slaves in plantations and farms for cheap labor.
What factors account for the success of the abolitionist movements?
The slave trade was abolished and was considered successful in the early 19th century. The first success factor of the movement was facilitated by the introduction of the 13th Amendment which banned the slave trade in the United States. Other nations such as the British had implemented regulations and legislation that abolished the slave trade at its roots in Africa. Also, the sugar boycott in Britain also facilitated the fight against the slave trade where Britons were advised not to purchase products manufactured or farmed by the slaves. The national petition campaign in 1788 also influenced the end of the slave trade whereby the campaign documented the evils of the slave trade to the society. Public opinions towards the slave trade were also gathered and many people were against the conduct which also facilitated the abolition movement. Therefore, the end of the slave trade helped in protecting the rights of humanity and the improvement of the quality of life of the slaves.
Question 2
What were the long-term political effects of the Protestant Reformation?
Protestant Reformation was based on a revolution introduced in the early 16th century which laid claims against the Catholic Church and its beliefs. Protestant Reformation is believed to be the origin of Protestants in the Christianity field. The pioneer of the reform, Martin Luther from Germany was a Catholic Monk who believed that the Catholic ways of leadership and worship were questionable and he also claimed that salvation depended largely on personal beliefs and prayers other than loyalty to the Pope. The effects of the protestant reformation movement are felt even in modern societies whereby the movement facilitated the democracy, skepticism, individualism, capitalism, and the fight for civil rights. Protestant Reformation birthed a nation that believed in centralized bureaucracy whereby oppression and dictatorship rule was abolished. Democracy was formed after the protestant reformation movement which is evident in modern society.
Discuss the significance of the Catholic-Reformation and the politics of religion.
The Catholic Reformation was formed to counter-reform the preceding information laid by Martin Luther against the Catholic practices. The counter-reformation was meant to straighten the information that had been directed to the Catholic fraternity. The reform was introduced to portray that the Catholics had accepted their past mistakes and were ready for improvement based on the need for the development of Christianity. The effect of counter-reformation spread the idea of intellectualism which facilitated the idea of equality in most of the political and social aspects. Also, counter-reformation helped in shaping the future of politics whereby every person in the society had a say in a democracy. The reforms also facilitated the concept of freedom whereby man was supposed to live by choice and made decisions based on their beliefs and political aspects. Therefore, the role played by the counter-reformation helped in shaping the ancient and modern aspects of political stability in Europe and other parts of the world.
In what ways did the scientific revolution and the enlightenment challenge the intellectual and political status quo in early modern Europe?
The scientific revolution was vital in the birth of intellectuals who believed in innovation was a basis for reasoning and enlightenment. However, the scientific revolution questioned the intellectuals due to the notion and beliefs of reasoning and political stands. The scientific revolution pioneered and gave rise to modern thinking whereby every aspect of life was explained with different versions. The arguments were based on facts and assumptions such as how the world was managed. Also, the scientific revolution and enlightenment argued about the concepts laid by intellectuals and the political status quo. For example, the enlightenment thinkers argued that the communities were entitled to have their thinking and reasoning towards their lives. The arguments also were based on the individual duties of every person in society. The scientific revolution along with the enlightenment argued that the intellectuals were wrong about the role of communities in the development of the society. For example, they claimed that community development depended on the improvement of agricultural activities, religion, the laws, and social hierarchy which was deemed to be the perpetrators of social and political development. Therefore, the new modern societies were influenced by the arguments laid down by the scientific revolution and the enlightenment.

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