types of fast-flux
It’s a nonprofit research organization dedicated to investigate the latest attack and develop open source security tools to improve on internet security.
The topic of discussion in “know your enemy” is fast-flux service networks, this is a domain name with multiple IP addresses assigned to it, swapped in and out of flux with extreme frequencies using a combination of round-robin IP address for any given particular DNS (RR). There are two main types of fast-flux namely; single and double flux. In single flux, the first flux technique uses blind TCP and UDP redirects any directional service protocol with a single target port, a good example is money mule where the attacker through fraud withdraws money from the customer account by confusing the bank that it is dealing with the real customer and then it transfers the money to different location for collection. In double flux, a security layer with an intention to correct fast-flux service network errors. The authoritative name server for the domain and web serving hosts for the target are regularly changed to make fast-flux more dynamic. A typical example is a phishing attack by use of a fake website which keeps on changing NS and DNS RECORD making it hard for security professionals to shut down the website. The most common type of malware used is Straton and storm which keeps on multiplying to frustrate the anti-virus and use of novel techniques to counter spam respectively. Due to the complexity of detection and shutting down of fast-flux service network such as upstream mothership nodes through probe, the following mitigation measures should be put in place ; establish a policy to enable blocking, block access to controller infrastructure, improve domain registration response, increase of awareness, back hole BNS and BGP Router , and passive DNS monitoring .
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