Establish whether or not transition tows are a solution to lowering carbon emission for the future
Table of Contents
Transition Town Movements in U.K.. 7
Issues surrounding lowering carbon emissions. 8
Approaches towards lowering carbon emissions. 9
Initiatives towards reduction of carbon Emissions. 13
Initiatives towards reduction of carbon Emissions. 15
Initiatives towards reduction of carbon Emissions. 16
The Towns Strengths and weaknesses in the reduction of Carbon Emissions. 16
A statement on carbon emission should be made by the town officials. 18
Set task force to establish vulnerabilities within the towns. 18
Setting achievable targets for a reduction in the towns’ fossil fuels consumption. 18
A combination of two global issues, climate change, and peak oil gave birth to the transition movement known as the transition town initiatives, a community-led response towards the twofold pressures of fossil fuel depletion and climate change. Transition towns, therefore, reflect communities increasing awareness of the fears associated with climate change and peak oil, and assuming practical steps towards a post-industrial future (Oakvillegreen, 2010) . The main objective of the transition movement was to mobilize community action and promote public empowerment and engagement around issues related to climate change, with the aim of catalyzing a transition to a low carbon economy (Transition Town Totnes, 2011.).
The Transition Town Idea was developed by Rob Hopkins (permaculture teacher) in 2005 in Kinsale, Eire. Hopkins had concerns about the implications of “Peak Oil”, that is, the point at which the rate of growth of oil production process begins to decline. This resulted in the development of an Energy Descent Action plan which outlined practical steps which could be taken by Kansale in preparation for the post-cheap oil period. The plan proposed a transition to more sustainable systems and infrastructure in adapting to the new changes. This eventually transformed into a network of rapidly growing grassroots transition initiative not only in the UK but also in the international stage, and has evolved as an important tool for addressing the twin challenge of climate change (with the need to reduce carbon emission) and Peak Oil(Seyfang, 2009).Transition Movement has become very successful at replication of its model of community- led initiatives in various parts of the world (Hopkins, 2010). In addition, Transition Network Ltd was then formally constituted and charged with supporting and coordinating activities among the local groups (Hopkins and Lipman, 2009). However, despite the phenomenon growth in publicity to such an initiative, there has been very little research into the nature, development of such initiatives and their areas of failure and success. This research is therefore vital for guiding any future development by evaluating whether or not transitions towns are sustainable solutions for lowering carbon emissions for the future.
Need an Overall aim
- To analyze existing transition towns within the UK in order to understand the current progress and the future implications of transition towns
- To compare the three transition towns in order to identify factors influencing the success of these towns in promoting low carbon futures.
- Investigate into whether or not transitions towns are sustainable solutions for lowering carbon emissions for the future
- Provide recommendation of improvements of transition towns in the future
The research objectives will build the foundation of the dissertation. Each objective will play a vital role in the analysis of the sustainability of transition towns within the UK. Objective 1 will examine the current progress and current debates in regards to transition town theory. Objective 2 will play an important role in measuring success in current transition towns. Three case studies of three transitions will be used. Objective 3 will illustrate the realities behind transition towns and critically analyze whether or not these towns are sustainable for communities in non-transition towns. Finally, the final objective will provide recommendations.
Transition Town Movements in the U.K
According to Squidoo (2010), the transition town movement is strongly rooted on the idea that individuals taking action within their communities, not only to deal with environmental threats but also, in the course of doing so, lead lives that are more satisfying. It is, therefore, more about optimism in an otherwise desolate seeming future, bearing in mind that the world is vastly complicated and the efforts to bring change may possibly boost transition towns for their constructive contribution (Chamberlin, 2007).In particular, it is all about the power of a different vision of how a society could be and not relying on the government or the politicians to have it right (Williams, 2008).
Totnes became the first UK transition town in 2006 and by February 2009 there were about 100 transition town, cities, villages and islands in the UK alone. Initially, the objective of the transition towns was to create awareness of peak oil. On the other hand, Vander Ven (2010) highlights that the objectives of the transition towns have expanded and now covers a range of various issues that are wide-ranging. The issues cover economic, environmental, social as well as personal system. In a number of ways, the transition town movement symbolizes a rebadging and revitalizing of the past community-based campaigns as well as activities covering local environmental action, life quality and social inclusion. In this case, the transition town initiative is viewed as a new social movement that capitalizes on the need for a sense of belonging, purpose, identity as well as solidarity, that a number of people feel when encountered with the enormity of present environmental as well as social problems (Trainer 2010).
Issues surrounding lowering carbon emissions
All humankind practices depend closely on access to energy resources. This means primarily a reliance on fossil fuels consumption (Loorbach 2010). This has in turn led to the emission of carbons to a level that is currently acknowledged as unsustainable. Peters (2010) highlights that shifting these patterns and weaning ourselves from carbon reliance, needs more than just a technological tasks hence the ideas such as the transition towns. It requires therefore that the society untangle the various provision structures and create new, more sustainable practices.
According to MacKay, (2010)the basic reasons for the reduction of carbon emissions is based on the analogy that humankind has an addiction to fossil fuels despite the fact that it is not sustainable. The developed world for instance, obtains 80 per cent of its energy from fossil fuels. And this is not sustainable in three ways. First, fossil fuels when easily accessed will in the near future run out, as a result forcing people to looking for other alternative energy sources elsewhere. Second, the burning of fossils fuels is without a doubt, having a dangerous impact on the climate. Evading dangerous climate change prompts an instantaneous change from our present utilization of fossil fuels. Third, even if people are not concerned about climate change, a drastic reduction in the consumption of fossil fuel would be a wise move if people are to care about the security of supply.
Approaches towards lowering carbon emissions
Horst (2008) highlights that transition towns revolve mainly around new social practices, behaviors, and institutions. Technology may therefore only have a second role. Some of the approaches towards lowering carbon emissions include:
Low carbon innovation
This refers to an innovation that plays a role in reducing carbon emissions from human activities. The initiative is defined according to the objective behind the innovation or by the outcome. However, the two, do not need to correspond: well-intended ideas may not certainly fail to deliver and considerable carbon emissions reductions may be the result of attaining other objectives (Baker 2009).
Bottom-up innovation is generated by individual citizens or community groups rather than the government, business or industries. It, therefore, relates to the locus of innovation. This can also be related to the concept of user-led. Horst (2008) indicates that users can also make significant improvements to innovations at the diffusion stage by providing various feedbacks to manufacturers or by re-inventing the innovations for their respective purposes and use.
Mulgan (2006) describes social innovation as those innovative activities as well as services that are stimulated by an objective of attaining a social need. Mulgan (2008) highlights further that drivers of social innovation are founded on dissatisfaction or an apparent need. Social innovation is, therefore, a new solution to various social problems that are more effective, sustainable or even better than the existing solutions and for which the value obtained accumulates to the society in general rather than individuals. According to Mulgan (2008), they contend that social innovation is the most suitable concept to identify with as well as produce a long-lasting social change. The term can also be used to imply the creation as well as the implementation of new ideas regarding how various individuals ought to organize interpersonal activities or social interactions in order to accomplish one or more goals. This may involve coming up with new social institutions such as the transition towns(Parrish 2008).
In summary, social innovation can be related to the focus, motivation and the impact of motivation; bottom up can be linked to the locus of the innovation while low carbon can be linked to the motivation as well as the impact of the innovation. Low carbon can therefore refer to a particular social need or issue that the innovation is addressing. Climate change is a social as well as an environmental problem.
This concept of low carbon, bottom-up social innovation can be summed up as shown in fig 1.
Please create a chart headed Social innocation | Bottom-up innovation | Low C Innocation
and compare the 3 case studies and put a cross in each section it applies to the case study. Analysis please
The study has considered a number of data collection method that could be used in this research process with due regard to the objectives of the research, source of information targeted and nature of the process at hand. Based on the nature and objectives of the study and the existing available sources of information relating to such topic or subject, a case study of selected transition towns has been chosen as the approach to use in undertaking this study. However, in doing such selection, the pros and cons of all other possible methods have been used as the informants or guiding principles of such selection.
On that basis, the study has considered other possible methods such as documentary analysis, interviews, surveys, and questionnaires use. In undertaking this study, use of interviews despite having the advantage of allowing room for more probing and asking of questions would require more time and resources to undertake which may not be feasible under the circumstances of this study. The use of questionnaire, on the other hand, has been viewed some times to be less accurate in its population representation since in many instances some respondents normally fail to return the filled questionnaire making the research to be biased against the and bringing to doubt the accuracy of the data (Introduction to Research Methods 2005). Therefore, the study has opted for a case study, since it allows for the collection of information from a wide range of sources and the collected information can then be analyzed with easy using a multidimensional point of view on a given program or subject.
The Use of Case Studies
Case studies may be particularly useful in illustrating a holistic portrayal of an individuals or groups experience and result relating to a given program, event or activity. In this study, the research seeks to take a deep study and assessment of selected transition town with emphasis to their current activities, achievements, challenges and perceived similarities and differences. The results of this study are therefore founded on a holistic and multi dimensional approach leading to a more informed conclusion which may be useful in future decision making.
Transition Town Totness
Transition town Totnes has been fronted as a dynamic, community led initiatives that is strengthening the local community economy, reducing the cost of living and planning for a future with less and changing climate. According to the Transition Town Totness Website (2011), the project as sparked a global movement that occupies a surprising limelight as one of the most-watched community project about transition movement. The initiative recognizes that the era of economic uncertainty, rising fuel prices, and climate change bring many challenges to the world (Transition Totness, 2010).
The transition town has brought an estimated 122, 000 pounds to the local economy and over 300 people have visited the town to undertaken transition training. Totnes transition town has also managed to raise funding for 74 Solar panels located on Civic Hall set to generate about 13,000KWh (which is a third of its demand leading to saving of over 5,500 pounds on the part of the council).
Other initiatives by the town include provision of hybrid food to the community, organizing workshops on renewable energy, development of new transition towns there are now 59 “Transition Together’ groups in and around Totnes town, In addition, Transition tours, which are structured tours designed for people who are interested in visiting the town so as to learn about transition has so far had an impact of 52, 166 pounds. The work of TTT has served to inspire an international network of transition initiative and promoted its partnership with over 25 organizations. TTT has also organized the creation of Energy Descent plan engaging over 800 local people, gave talks to 35 local organizations, held 27 public meetings, taught 50 people how to garden through their basing gardening course while 500 people attended their Energy fair in the year 2010 (Transition Totness, 2010).
Initiatives towards reduction of carbon Emissions
One of the broad aims of Transition town Totness is the reduction of carbon emissions and the dependence on fossil fuels. Various initiatives have been undertake towards this particular objectives. One of the actions taken was the formulation of groups that work towards reducing carbon emissions .The groups targeted reducing their carbon emission by 1.2 tones resulting in a saving of 601 pounds per year for each group.
Another carbon reduction strategy adopted in Transition Totness the adoption of the NHS carbon reduction strategy.The NHS project was grounded on taking liability in acting to solve the problem of climate change. The initiative has been useful in showing were Carbon emissions originate from as a results actions are proposed on how to reduce the carbon footprints (Transition Totness, 2010)
Carbon Reduction and Health Conference was also held in Totnes various expert opinions were taken that are profitable in reducing carbon emissions in day to day activities.
Totness also works in partnership with organizations such as The Carbon Trust a non- profit organization that gives specialist assistance to the public sector and business in saving energy , reducing carbon emissions and the utilization of low carbon technologies. The company offers a 10 month program on carbon management where business and the local community can develop a unified strategy to reduce emissions in their day to day activities. The Carbon trust has worked with Totness local authority and the community. The latest reports from the Carbon Reduction and Health Conference highlighted that the program has the annual rate of Co2 reduction by 4,100 tonnes saving about £450,000 pounds per year (Transition Totness, 2010)
Transition Town Lewes
TTL, as one of the members of the transition community in the international Transition network, is working on a blueprint to promote living without reliance on oil (Transition Town Lewes, 2011).TLL is guided by the core principles of team work, shared responsibility, accountability towards keeping to the principles and objectives of the group, transparency at work, and openness to diverse opinions and view it as their inner source of strength.
Furthermore, TTL is organized into groups which are formed when the need arises and dissolved as soon as the problem at hand has been solved. TTL is surrounded on the belief that the key to the solution of the massive problems of climate change and oil peak issues is localization of every thing essential to human life such as food, water, transport, energy, money supply and waste management (Campbell, 2011).
Initiatives towards reduction of carbon Emissions
Town Lewes has initiatives such as the ‘’300 Years of FOSSIL FUELS in 300’’ which started by the Town Lewes’s Carbon Institute Transition. The project involves a network of Lewis community who work together on local solutions for the reduction of carbon emissions (Transition Town Lewes website).
Energy houses have also been constructed to assist people in saving money, saving their environment while at the same time reducing carbon footprints. About 250 people visit the 13 open houses every weekend.
Town Lewes also devised the 10:10 pledge which is a pledge to cut carbon emissions by 10% in the year 2010.Each group in the community has to sign up for the initiative and then get started.
Transition Town Alnes
Alnes Transition town , started back in December 2007 when a number of local residents and business people got together to have a discussion about ways they could cut down on energy consumption and their reliance on fossil fuels, waste reduction and buck viable local food production (Transitional Town Alness Website,2010).
Alness Transition Town Group is a network of Local people united and working together in building a low carbon more sustainable community for the future. It is of the view that with the looming threats of climate change coupled with peak oil, foundering economic system and widespread food crisis, it is clear that there is need to make changes in the way people live their lives in the future (Chris, 2008).
Initiatives towards reduction of carbon Emissions
The town had energy advisers who are usually very much available and visit people in their houses .The main role of the advisers is to provide advice on strategies of saving money through the reduction of carbon emissions.
The town also has developed a Post carbon organization which is an action group that brings people together in order for them to work towards a sustainable transition which entails a world without fossil fuels (Transitional Town Alness 2010).
Case study Analysis
The Towns Strengths and weaknesses in the reduction of Carbon Emissions
From the case studies presented above, what is evident is that transitional towns are actually useful social movements that have facilitated various positive initiatives, reduction carbon emissions being one of the essential projects. There is a lot of strive within the transition towns towards formulating a sustainable environment where less carbon is emitted. These strive and commitment is actually one of the similarities of the three transitions towns (Totnes, Lewes, and Alnes). As highlighted by the case scenario of each of the transition towns, each one of them has a variety of initiatives for the basic objective of reduction of carbon emissions.
It can therefore be argued based on the findings of the case studies that transition town movements have actually to a great extent been effective in the reduction of carbon emissions. For instance as highlighted by the latest reports from the Carbon Reduction and Health Conference, the program has the annual rate of Co2 reduction by 4,100 tonnes saving about £450,000 pounds per year.
The basic challenge of carbon reduction within the all the these transition towns which also forms their weakness is that as Daniel Lerchone one of the coordinators of the program puts it, there are no real solutions ,in addition no real responses available for the problem. Lerchone argues that society is complex and systems that are interdependent are squeezed by the declining and growing demand of resources .As a result renewable energy will never effectively substitute fossil fuel. As a result managing sustainability in the reduction of carbon emissions in the 21st century is still a crisis even with the existence of transition towns (Transitional Town Alness , 2010).
The recommendations given below are meant for the successful realization of the resolutions provided based on the secondary research carried out. These include:
A statement on carbon emission should be made by the town officials
The respective towns should adopt an official stand regarding carbon emission by directly addressing this issue of carbon. Providing an official statement provides a sense of direction, authority and a drive to what would have otherwise been an unfocused as well as a controversial policy making process (Rotmans etal 2006).
Set task force to establish vulnerabilities within the towns
A carbon emission task force ought to be established to probe the way in which the communities are reliant on fossil fuels. Once the respective town councils have carried out investigations of their reliance on fossil fuel, they can afterwards start making plans for their “energy descent”.
Setting achievable targets for a reduction in the towns’ fossil fuels consumption
Setting targets will enable the respective town councils have a goal to work towards and this means they will be dealing with carbon emissions from the grassroots level (Seyfang 2006)
This study, provides a snapshot of the UK Low carbon planning, through some selected transition town, and has discovered a great deal about these trends in terms of origin , characteristic, main objectives, similarities and differences and achievements and failures of selected transition towns in the UK. The findings indicate that transition models seem to offer new groups and towns an opportunity to learn speedily from others’ experiences, and the Networks are acting proactively in developing best practices, idea-sharing, training and publication in order to give additional support to these groups. The research reveals that establishing transition groups, maintaining their momentum and managing the dynamics is an essential issue in the reduction of carbon emissions, in despite of existing challenges.
- Transition town initiative
- Low carbon reduction initiatives
- Contributions of transitions towns
- Transition town Totnes,
- Transition town Lewes
- Transition town Alnes
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