properties in TPE-E nanocomposites paper

Processing-Structure-Property Relationships in (TPE-E) Nanocomposites


The processing structure-property relationships in (TPE-E) nanocomposites offer rich opportunities in research and development of polymer nanocomposites, with great possibilities in improving material properties. The many improvements in materials properties include electrical conductivity, toughness, optical properties, shear and bulk modulus, film scratch resistance, yield strength, and many more. The addition of nanofillers like carbon black to rubbery polymers has a great effect upon the properties of such materials, and only very small amounts of nanoparticles are dispersed in the polymer matrix.

An understanding of the basic physical relationship in nanoscale structural variables and micro scale properties of polymer nanocomposites is very important in this study. The development of polymer nanocomposites optimally using carbon nanotube and carbon nanofibre requires full comprehension of the processing structure-property relationships.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
properties in TPE-E nanocomposites paper
Just from $9/Page
Order Essay

Aims of the Research

The aim of the research is to develop improved materials properties in TPE-E nanocomposites using the processing structure-property relationships. The research will develop the following objectives which will be investigated:

  1. To optimally disperse the nanofillers into the TPE-E via melt processing and reactive extrusion (Nanocomposite processing).
  2. To develop a complete understanding of thee processing morphology property in the nanocomposite system, most importantly the interplay between TPE-E nanophase domains and an engineered low and high aspect ratio nanofillers (Morphology and properties)
  3. To comprehensively determine the mechanical and electrical performance of these nanocomposites.

Literature Review

An overview of the synthesis and characterization methods of nanocomposite is important in clay layer orientation, and its dispersion in various nanocomposites. Many previous researches have tried to relate the clay orientation to the enhancement of materials properties from a qualitative viewpoint. Quantitative studies are limited may be because of lack of techniques to to quantitatively determine the three dimensional orientation of structures in nanocomposites. In one of the recent developed technique of determining the three-dimensional orientation is the effect of compatibilizer concentration upon the orientation and dispersion of structures in polyethylene nanocomposite films, was found to be thickness. An increase in concentration showed a corresponding decrease in orientation of clay layer along the thickness of the film.

Other researches have explored ways of using commercially available products to create new materials by synthesising TPE-E, to register a wide range of property improvements. The TPE-E synthesis may comprise melt compounding and reactive extrusion using organic clays as nanofillers. Hybrid composition morphology within nanocomposites, when treated in various processes, demonstrates maximum range of properties of materials. The various methods of attaining a wide range of property enhancements are the organoclay nanofiller surface modification, additional processing parameter, and the TPE-E hard and soft segment composition ratio together with the organ clay filler aspect. These materials properties are governed by the manipulation of these variables, then assessing the sizes of intercalating molecules.

Many other studies have focused on the microstructure processing and property relationships, which have helped in knowledge development and comprehensive understanding of these processes to develop more innovative products both for personal and commercial purposes. Hytrel products have been produced in procedures that involve component fillers using thermogravimetrics. These products are associated with improved strength of plastics and flexibility in rubber, which are available in different grades such as flame retardant and stabilizers. The knowledge of nanocomposites processing in improving property grades will help products that are applied in various fields in both domestic and industrial applications. The properties enhancements could be chemical resistance, and other solvents to protect industrial workers from harmful chemicals.

Studies based on the processing property relationships compare the structure property relationships that come from two processes. The impact of ingredients and processing parameters on each process of microstructure and alignment. These microstructures properties are distribution of agglomerates, dispersion, scanning electron, confocal, and transmission electron microscopy. Deagglomeration is critical in magnitude of shear rate and the residence time, the structure property relationships  is modelled based on the amount of percolation by representing the material as interpenetrating phase composite, annealing re-establishes interconnectivity and improved electrical properties, degree of dispersion resolved by thermogravimetric analysis, and extrusion speed increment inhibits thermal decomposition and asymptotically increases strength and stiffness through aspect ratio and agglomerates size reductions.

Reliable models of relating macro scale mechanical properties of solid polymer nanocomposites and nanoscale structural variables are very rare and unacceptable. While there is a need to create reliable predictive algorithms for industrial mechanical properties needed for structural applications of composite materials engineered at the nano scale is highly advantageous. Physical based bridging laws would be able to close the gap that exists between the discontinuous nano scale structure and continuum macro-scale models.  For ergodic systems, the macro scale experiments of averaging homogenization from cooperative relaxation domains together with their statistical weights which is proportional to the total volume fraction of domains relaxing. In the case of spherical particles, the distribution of surface curvature and radial distribution of filler particles is equally very important. For anisotropic particles, more descriptive detailed indicators are required.

New combinatorial approaches have been developed to determine the processing structure relationships of polymer nanocomposites, with the aim of processing high performance and multifunctional polymer nanocomposites.

Significance of the Research

The research hopes to stimulate the development and improvement of nano structured materials in a cost effective processes to augment in the manufacture of domestic and industrial appliances. The research also hopes to address the critical issues in nanocomposites such as the great uncertainty that exists in theoretical modelling and experimental characterization of the nano scale scale reinforcement materials. Challenges related to nanocomposite processing are uniform dispersion of nanoparticles, alignment of nanotubes in polymeric matrix, high volume rate and high rate of fabrication in commercial manufacturing of nanocomposites, and cost-saving in reinforcing nanotubes.

Anticipated Outcomes

The tensile strength of nanocomposites will significantly increase, which will also see an improvement in impact of strength that corresponds to the same amount of nano clay concentration with positive matrix filler interactions. Thus expected results are reduced yields stress and the overall tensile stress. The items produced by this process will have multiple applications in human life, as some of the common products include mechanical devices for athletic footwear application, manufacturing stretch watchbands, seals, bushings and belts, pump diaphragms, impact absorbing devices, protective gears: like boots and gears, chemical and solvent resistance.

New ways of processing nanocomposites is another expected outcome of the research in the manufacture of different products. The processes of producing raw materials that is applied in the production of other products, so that there is an establishment of a wide variety of goods to satisfy human’s day to day requirements

These expected outcomes will contribute in building a knowledge base for future considerations in manufacturing of products with novelty and innovation aims and concepts. The knowledge generated will enable the use of commercially available commodities to create new raw materials by the synthesis of TPE-E to produce meaningful improvements in materials properties. According to Du pont, the Hytrel thermoplastic polyester elastomer consists of a combination of desired characteristics that offer a high level of flexibility, and high performance elastomers with a unique amount of resilience and hardness. The desired flexibilities within low and high temperatures, while retaining creepiness and flex fatigue. The knowledge will also contribute to nanoengineered materials that will provide low weight and numerous options to the already available conventional filled plastics. A lot of prospects of growth are anticipated in this area associated with many functionalities of the nanoscale together with the added value properties that this development is promising. With more studies dedicated to this field, nanocomposites investigations in this study will lend ideas to future researches and studies in the development of cost effective and environmentally acceptable products from the knowledge of composites.

Conceptual Framework

The research conceptual framework outlines the courses of action so as to provide an approach to an idea, or is an immediate theory that attempts to connect the problem definition, purpose, literature review, methodology, data collection and analysis.

The research problem is to identify how processing structure property relationships in (TPE-E) nanocomposites synthesis may contribute to product and materials property improvements. This problem definition gives rise to the following research questions: whether nanocomposite processing optimally disperses the nanofillers in TPE-E via melt processing and reactive extrusion. If morphology and properties develops a complete understanding of the processing morphology property in the nanocomposite systems. Finally, if mechanical and electrical performance determines the improvement of property improvements in nanocomposites

Design and Methodology

Highly multilayered oriented films areas are induced to high level of shearing to the melt are to be obtained during the non conventional moulding processes. The structure development is to be observed by the use of polarized light microscope and scanning electron microscopy. Fracture energy to be computed from the specimens.

The polymer materials are polypropylene homopolymer, polycarbonate, maleic anhydride grated polypropylene, and organo modified nanoclay. Then several different material compositions are studied, after which the specimens are prepared, and the moulding process set at different conditions to provide bar specimens. The morphology characterization is then observed by polarized microscope and scanning electron microscope.

Surface Modifiers

Nanoclays were  modified by alkyl ammonium salts, with a structure having the ammonium halide connected to the organic tail group, such as ammonium chroride or ammonium bromine. The alkyl salts being obtained in a variety of lenths from 6 methyl units to over 00 methyl units. The surface modifiers used were Ethoquad 012 (Etho), choline chroride (CC), octadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide and dimethyldiocadecylammonium chroride. The chemical structures are illustrat in figure 1. The four modifiers were used with increasing hydrophobicity to observe the modification levels. To assist the interaction between the  TPE-E nanoclay increases, the degree of intercalation and exfoliation increases, as expressed in table 1

  1. a) b)              c)


Figure 1. Chemical structure of surface modifiers: a) Etho b) CC c) ODTMA d) DMDOA

Nanofiller Surface Modification
Abbreviations Compositions

  1. ME100


Emod 75% Etho and 25% CC
Qmod 100% Etho
Dmod 75% ODMTA and 25% CC
Amod 75% DMDOA & 25% CC


Table 1. Types of surface modification applied to the nanofillers

The proposed Research

Getting products from DuPont (Hytrel), which are commercially available aims at generating new materials having a wide range of material properties. Therfore, a lrge range of TPE-E is synthesized through  meltcompounding together with reactive extrusion using organoclays as the nanofiller. This allows for documentation of the process and hybrid composition morphology of the nanocomposite material subjected to different methods of treatment to see the widest range of materials properties. This is achieved by the key variables being manipulated such as the organoclaynanofiller aspect ratio, organofiller surface modification, TPE-E hard and soft segment composition ratio, and other processing pine clay that is modified arameters. The manipulation allows for the assessment of the size of intercalant molecule and other functiona;l groups affecting the nanocomposite properties.


Research Timeline Over 30Months


Activity 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30
Literature review                                                        
Synthesis of organo-clays with:
(a) Variation of modifier’s hydrophobicity
(b) Variation of clay aspect ratio                                                            
Characterisation of organo-modified clays by FT-IR, XPS, XRD, TGA, DLS, contact angle, SANS, TEM, SEM                                                        
Preparation of TPE-E nanocomposites by melt compounding (Nanofiller with different surface modifiers)                                                            
Mechanical testing on TPE-E nanocomposites (tensile strength, tear strength, tensile creep, compressive set)                                                            
Thermal testing (DMTA, DSC)                                                            
Preparation of TPE-E nanocomposites by reactive extrusion (Nanofiller with different surface modifiers)                                                            
Mechanical testing                                                            
Thermal testing (DMTA, DSC)                                                            
Confirmation preparation                                                            
Expansion and more details study of processing parameters of TPE-E nanocomposites                                                            
Mid-candidature preparation                                                            
Identifying area of application                                                            
Conference Preparation                                                            
Thesis write-up                                                            










Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper