Tasking and Coordination – Research Proposal
The applicability of tasking and coordination in institutions is meant to give a clearer vision upon the strategic and operational goals, but at the same time propose an approach on how to reach those goals by satisfying both the needs and expectations of the employees and reaching the actual organizational goals. The current paper is a research proposal on the tasking and coordination model applied in Abu Dhabi Police that elaborates how the actual research will be conducted. Background of the study, based on a brief literature review, is the starting point of this research proposal which will be developed in the actual research with a more consistent approach on the existing studies on this topic. The research proposal suggests the application of a mixed methodological design besides a consistent scan of the literature review. This should be based on the questionnaire survey and the interview methodology. These methodologies should assess different targets or stakeholders, as they are presented in the current paper: the employees from Abu Dhabi Police (military personnel and civilians), the line management of Abu Dhabi Police and the citizens of Abu Dhabi. The research proposal identified the aims and objectives of the research, the hypothesis, the research question and briefly discussed how the research methodology, data analysis, and ethical considerations should be applied and approached. A reflection upon the strengths and weaknesses, plus a brief exposure of the timeframe and the budget completes the research proposal and offers a transparent and clear vision regarding what is expected from the actual research.
Keywords: tasking and coordination, model, Abu Dhabi police, employees, line managers, citizens, methodology, questionnaire survey, interview
Table of Contents
Background and Significance. 7
Research Question/Hypothesis. 9
Research Design and Methods. 10
Sample Size and Selection of Sample. 12
Ethics and Human Subjects Issues. 14
Strengths and Weaknesses of the Study. 16
Tasking and Coordination – Research Proposal
This paper presents a research proposal for an actual study that will elaborate on the tasking and coordination model applied by Abu Dhabi Police. Studying tasking and coordination in the current economy is a condition for actively adjusting to the new and permanently changing organizational context. Understanding how tasking and coordination is applied and studying how the management can improve tasking and coordination can considerably develop the efficiency and effectiveness of doing services. The principles, techniques, and different models of tasking and coordination will be studied. This will be followed by examining the tasking and coordination models that are applied at Abu Dhabi Police. A comparison between the developed coordination model and other models used all over the world will be studied and the existing gap analysed. This will be enhanced by looking at coordination systems at Abu Dhabi police in two perspectives: the local and global benchmarking.
Analysing the tasking and coordination model applied in Abu Dhabi Police in its daily activities is a discussion that should be related to the local and regional specificities: culture, history, religion, and behavioural aspects of the local authorities and stakeholders of Abu Dhabi Police. Citizens, employees, management and partners, the research paper should develop these aspects.
This current research proposal will further present the steps involved in developing the actual research paper. The problem statement, the objectives and aims, background information, and the significance of the research will also be described.
In the later chapters, this proposal will also provide the methodology and the data analysis that will be used. Finally, the work plan will be presented in a timetable and the budget for making this research successful will also be estimated.
Due to the global competition, organizations are aiming at improving the efficiency and effectiveness of doing operations. At Abu Dhabi Police, there is a problem with tasking and coordination of these tasks. This has led to negative feedbacks from customers and a reduction in the agility of meeting the targeted goals. As a way of solving this problem, this research proposal suggests a model; if implemented, it will help solve the existing challenges as far as tasking and coordination are concerned.
As specified in the introduction, the research paper will analyse the tasking and coordination model applied in the Abu Dhabi Police. Why and how this model is applied will be examined in the research paper and this discussion will also follow to identify the steps involved in the tasking and coordination model implementation and whether there is a certain procedure to apply this managerial method.
Objectives and Aims
The research paper will present a comprehensive framework regarding the tasking and coordination and its applicability in Abu Dhabi Police. The study will also propose to develop a practical approach for the tasking and coordination problem by investigating the specificities of the model applied in Abu Dhabi Police to its daily activities. In this sense, one of the objectives of the research paper is to apply a research methodology based on the questionnaire. The aim of the research paper is to acknowledge the organizational culture of Abu Dhabi Police and to reflect on how it influences the tasking and coordination model adopted within the institution.
Another objective of the research paper is to assess the opinions and perceptions of Abu Dhabi’s citizens regarding the efficiency of Abu Dhabi Police. This objective will be met by accessing the feedback data that the police organization possesses.
A specific objective of this research paper is to evaluate how Abu Dhabi police manages risks and challenges specific to their activity. This is a measure of the effectiveness of applying tasking and coordination procedures at Abu Dhabi Police.
First, the research paper should evaluate the tasking and coordination model implemented in Abu Dhabi Police. Second, the research paper should analyse the organizational culture at Abu Dhabi Police in order to identify the relationship between organizational culture and the effectiveness of implementing the tasking and coordination model. Lastly, the study will assess the efficiency of implementing the tasking and coordination model in doing daily operations at Abu Dhabi Police.
Studying the mechanisms through which the Abu Dhabi police accomplishes its activities will create a clearer picture regarding the efficiency of the task execution within this organization. Another aim of the study will be to analyse whether there are certain working procedures meant to trigger the performance within specific departments. In this context, the paper will elaborate on the principles of the tasking and coordination and will assess how the specific model that Abu Dhabi Police implements is customized on the organizational values, with the purpose of generating productivity.
The background will be set by briefly reflecting on the history of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, and more specifically, on the history of Abu Dhabi Police. At the same time, this evaluation is expected to serve as an explanation to why Abu Dhabi police needs a customized model for tasking and coordination. Another specific aim is to scan the literature review regarding tasking and coordination in general, and the tasking and coordination models applied in different police organizations.
Background and Significance
Several authors and scholars attempted to give definitions of tasking and coordination. A more precise attempt by Smither and London (2009)1, defines the term tasking and coordination, as a system that contributes to a planned and organized deliverance of the strategic and operational goals that the company sets.
In order to develop desired objectives, tasking is implemented in different organizations in two specific ways namely: strategic tasking and tactical tasking. Strategic tasking aims at setting up control strategies like, prime concerns in security matters; enforcement and prevention, which when set the principle recourse commitments are made. Tactical tasking on the other hand aims at applying and commissioning the set tactical plan to the defined control strategy, addressing to new requirements and most importantly, monitoring of employment of agreed plans. Strategic tasking is a long term activity while tactical tasking is short term, which means combination of both will give effective outcome(HOBS, 2006)2.
According to the report by National Centre for Policing Excellence (2007)3 in the U.K., tasking and coordination is the key driving force of the operation of the policing and intelligence business. This is because the tasking and management groups have the sole responsibility of setting a control strategy and establishing the level at which the control strategy is operating thus; in relation to agenda for enforcement, prevention, and intelligence.
The ministry of finance from Finland gives a close observation on the functionality of tasking and coordination systems. The report demonstrates that application of tasking and coordination in the organization enable efficient and effective responses to identified problems thereby improving confidence in the community. It also pointed out that, if the tasking and coordination process is merged with analysis of problem solving, it enhances proactive and intervention capacity of the existing problems within a given department (OECD, 2004)4.
Abu Dhabi Police obviously has a setting not so different from the two examples identified in the study and report analysis in the Euro zone. Applying the suggested principles and practices will thereby enhance the functionality and operations of the police department for effective deliverance of high standard services to the citizens and the state at large. This includes some activities like protection of citizens and their property, crime control mechanism and regulation of existing security measures.
Tasking and coordination model involves a wide range of factors which include risk management, coordination and involvement of other key bodies in policing business, scheduling of events, assessment and evaluation of the development, amongst other elements. For this reason, it is advisable to give adequate education and frequent trainings of the diverse stakeholders who are involved in the police business (OECD, 2004)4.
The premise of research paper will be based on this theoretical background. The actual research will focus on the way Abu Dhabi Police goes about its daily duties and responsibilities and in which degree it applies effective model of tasking and coordination. This will help in relating and applying the study methodology to the practices of the police authorities in Abu Dhabi in aspects tasking and coordination indicating the fallacies and areas of conformity with the standard model and the areas which need development. In so doing, a comparison of these practices in Abu Dhabi Police will be compared with that of other police institutions in other parts of the world thereby addressing the question of the gap. Gap analysis will help in distinguishing which parts of the model are applied in other parts of the world. The comparison of the model used in the Abu Dhabi police with those of other nations will enable the research paper to give a wider framework of how tasking and coordination works in different parts of the world.
In addition, the paper will seek to contribute to the existent research based literature with its implemented research and practical study. The developed model in this research will enhance the available information in the field of tasking and coordination, its applicability in an Arab state police institution.
This section introduces both the main question and additional questions that will be followed by the research paper. This research paper is structured in a way that the main question will be answered by answering the additional questions.
Main Research Question
- How are the employees and the management of Abu Dhabi police applying procedure management in coping with the organizational culture and values in meeting strategic goals?
- How is the tasking and coordination model applied in Abu Dhabi police contributing to reducing, mitigating or eliminating the risks to which it confronts?
- What do the citizens of Abu Dhabi feel in relation to Abu Dhabi Police as an institution meant to offer them security? Is this a credible organization for them? Do they feel comfortable with the Abu Dhabi Police’s programs?
- What do the Abu Dhabi Police employees feel about this organization? How do they relate to it? What is their understanding of the tasking and coordination model applied by their institution?
The research proposal suggests the following hypotheses for the actual research paper:
- Abu Dhabi Police employees are effective in applying the procedures required in their work.
- Effective implementation of the tasking and coordination model will improve the services offered by Abu Dhabi police
- The employees of Abu Dhabi Police are not aware of the overall picture of how their activities suit the tasking and coordination model
- The citizens of Abu Dhabi feel safe in their country
Research Design and Methods
This research study will limit itself in the evaluation of the tasking and coordination model applied in Abu Dhabi Police and its efficiency in managing the daily activities; the research design applied aims at addressing the objectives postulated in this study.
To make the research successful, a number of methodologies and research techniques will be used:
- The questionnaire survey
This will be applied to assess the awareness of the employees from Abu Dhabi Police regarding the tasking and coordination model in their organization. The questionnaire will also seek to know the general perception of the employees towards the model. The research paper should include a dedicated section in developing the theory regarding the questionnaire survey that is meant to define this concept in order to better understanding its applicability for practical studies developed in practice.
- Direct interviews
For the relevance of the study, a direct interview with the management of Abu Dhabi Police should also be applied. This should focus on assessing the expertise and experience of the line managers with the tasking and coordination system. The purpose is to evaluate how the line managers perceive the model of tasking and coordination in the organization functions and how do they contribute to make this model efficient.
The contribution of the line managers to the effective implementation of the model will be reviewed. Other factors that will be considered in the questions are setting of goals and selection of subordinates.
The two research methodologies should be applied separately and preferably un-simultaneously. The results from the methodologies should be analysed individually. After this stage, the results of each of the applied methodology should be solid enough to answer the research questions identified to the aims and objectives set.
The direct interview will be done before the survey. This is because the results from the direct interview will be used in designing the survey. The direct interview should be used in the actual study for underpinning a quantitative research, which should double and further develop the information processed from the literature review.
Sample Size and Selection of Sample
For each of these identified targeted groups of the research, a sample size should be identified. For the first design methodologies, the evaluation should be quantitative. This means that the research should be applied on a large number of people. For the second design methodology, the research should be qualitative. This means that the study will be more concerned about the evaluation of the process from a limited sample size. Both samples should be considered representative for the targeted population in order to obtain an accurate and representative impression regarding the services of the Abu Dhabi Police, related to the tasking and coordination model that it applies.
Out of the 30000 employees working at Abu Dhabi police, 1000 will be investigated. The random sampling technique will be used in the sampling. Information about the random sampling technique should be provided in the actual research paper, which will also explain how the random sampling was applied.
Regarding the one-on-one interviews, the line managers should be listed and contacted individually for establishing interviews with them. From the total number of 800 managers within Abu Dhabi Police, a representative sample for the qualitative research would be 150 respondents.
Sources of Data
Both primary and secondary sources of data will be used in the survey. The data used for developing the actual research paper should be retrieved from various sources. The primary source of data will come from the two sources described in the previous sections (questionnaires and direct interviewing).
The secondary sources of data can be obtained from the existing information about the tasking and coordination models. Files, journals, published materials, and books will provide secondary data to be used in the study.
Collection of Data
The research proposal suggests that the data should be collected based on the type of methodology design utilized. As such, for the interview with the managers, the data should be recorded. For the questionnaire surveys, an online system will utilized to reduce the total time wasted in distributing questionnaires.
Data Analysis Strategies
The data received from various sources should be initially transcribed in order to have a clearer identification of the available information. Afterwards, there should be relationship correlations and meaning by organizing the information in relating categories. This will allow enumerating the data and searching to identify the frequency of themes or patterns. Afterwards, the research paper should reflect on the themes and patterns. There should be diagrams created at the end that must reflect the identified results (Lopez, 2009)5. Tables, graphs, scatter plots, correlation relationship, ANOVA analysis, and histograms are some of the techniques that will be used in data analysis.
Ethics and Human Subjects Issues
The research paper should elaborate on the ethical conduct, where the research has been developed. This signifies that it should mention whether the samples were informed about the examined study or regarding the confidentiality clauses of non-disclosure. The accurateness and the soundness of data are aspects that should also be mentioned in the actual research.
Table 1 below shows a summary of the key activities to be done
|Activity||9th Sep – 3rd Nov 2012||4th Nov-19th Nov 2012||20th Nov -4th Dec 2012||5th Dec – 9th Dec 2012||10th Dec -24thDec 2012||25th Dec -8th Jan 2013||9th Jan – 14th Jan 2013|
Table 1: Gantt Chart
Table 2 below shows the description of these key activities
|1||Preparing the final research proposal|
|2||sending the research proposal to the Learning Facilitator Dr. Mohan Agrawal|
|4||Preparing and testing of the actual research designs|
|5||Applying actual research designs|
|10||Report verification by the Learning Facilitator Dr. Mohan Agrawal|
|11||Sending the Final Report|
Table 2: Summary of Key Activities
Strengths and Weaknesses of the Study
As it appears from this research proposal, the study may lack the accuracy and the soundness that it needs. This is because the employees who fill out the questionnaire surveys might feel uncomfortable with presenting their actual perceptions about the institution for which they work for and would probably influence their responses.
Nevertheless, through its mixed methodological design and its complex approach to project management, the research paper is ambitious and sets high standards through its specific aims and objectives. Not only does it assess the application of tasking and coordination in Abu Dhabi Police, but also it reflects on the history, culture, and spirituality of Abu Dhabi. The information gathered from Abu Dhabi Police will enhance the transparency of the institution, which is the other strength of the study.
Table 3 below shows a budget estimate
|Activity||Times(H)*cost(per H)||Cost (AED)|
|Preparing the final research proposal||24*0||0|
|sending the research proposal to the Learning Facilitator Dr. Mohan Agrawal||1*0||0|
|Preparing and testing of the actual research designs||4*0+4*400||1600|
|Applying actual research designs||20*400||8000|
|Report verification by the Learning Facilitator Dr. Mohan Agrawal||1*0||0|
|Sending the Final Report||1*0||0|
Table 3: Budget Estimate
The applicability of tasking and coordination in institutions is meant to give a clearer vision upon the strategic and operational goals, but at the same time propose an approach on how to reach those goals by satisfying both the needs and expectations of the employees and reaching the actual organizational goals. The current paper is a research proposal on the tasking and coordination model applied in Abu Dhabi Police that elaborates how the actual research will be conducted. A background of the study, based on a brief literature review, is the starting point of this research proposal which will be developed in the actual research with a more consistent approach on the existing studies on this topic. The research proposal suggests the application of a mixed methodological design besides a consistent scan of the literature review. This should be based on the questionnaire survey and the interview methodology. These methodologies should assess different targets or stakeholders, as they are presented in the current paper: the employees from Abu Dhabi Police (military personnel and civilians), the line management of Abu Dhabi Police and the citizens of Abu Dhabi. The research proposal identified the aims and objectives of the research, the hypothesis, the research question and briefly discussed how the research methodology, data analysis, and ethical considerations should be applied and approached. A reflection upon the strengths and weaknesses, plus a brief exposure of the timeframe and the budget completes the research proposal and offers a transparent and clear vision regarding what is expected from the actual research.
- Smither, J. W. and London, M. Performance Management: Putting Research into Action. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2009.
Retrieved 3rd October 2012 from http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=g9xZzFlwLEcC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Performance+management:&hl=en&sa=X&ei=FGGVUOOiA9KFhQeejoCYCw&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Performance
- Home Office Police Standards Unit, Association of Police Authorities (2006). Police tasking and coordination: Practical guidance. London: PA Consulting.
Retrieved 5th October 2012 from http://www.google.ae/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=Home+Office+Police+Standards+Unit%2C+Association+of+Police+Authorities&source=web&cd=2&cad=rja&ved=0CCcQFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.apa.police.uk%2Fadmin%2Fuploads%2Fattachment%2FPolice_Performance_Management__Practical_Guidance_for_Police_Authorities-Police%2520performance%2520management%2520-%2520Practical%2520guidance%2520for%2520police%2520authorities.pdf&ei=5C2cUJL5LtOFhQeEsoDYBw&usg=AFQjCNHx9oACnhzYoyIFwiHCXtw2SiUQFQ
- National Centre for Policing Excellence. (2007). Introduction to Intelligence-Led Policing.
Retrieved 3rd October 2012 from www.npia.police.uk/en/docs/Intelligence_Led_Policing_PA.pdf
- OECD, (2004) OECD e-Government Studies OECD e-Government Studies: Finland 2003. Boston: OECD Publishing. Retrieved 5th October 2012 from http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=sl7_d4_3kOwC&dq=tasking+and+coordination+in+finland&source=gbs_navlinks_s
- Lopez, A. (2006). Qualitative data analysis (strategies). Retrieved 1st October from http://www.slideshare.net/guest7f1ad678/qualitative-data-analysis-strategies.
- DePaulo, P. (2000). Sample size for qualitative research. Retrieved 1st October from http://www.quirks.com/articles/a2000/20001202.aspx?searchID=530698612.
- Fink, A. (2006) How to conduct surveys: a step – by – step guide. California: Sage Publications, Inc. Retrieved 5th October 2012 from
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