Factors that lead to studying abroad paper

The Executive summary

In the last decade, institutions of higher learning and policymakers have doubled efforts to sensitize study abroad participation. The efforts impacted are on the understanding that going for further studies will improve on intellectual competence. This is a factor that is crucial in taking education to the 21st century (Morris & Gillespie, 2009).

As higher institutions of learning continue to invest heavily on international undergraduate study abroad, and the increase in funding for study abroad scholarships important to determine the reason why study abroad and whether these investments produces intended results. The purpose of the study seek to examine whether studying abroad improves intellectual competence, and finds out the factors that are forcing learners to go abroad to study (Knight, 2004).

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The methodology adopted is qualitative and quantities research where both interviews and questionnaires were used to collect data. After data collection, analysis was carried out. In conclusion, there are several factors that lead to study abroad but despite this, some learners do not see it as the main reasons since one can earn a degree in home country. The rate of completion is only determined by personal hard work and efforts (Burns & Bush, 2006).

In conclusion, the researcher found out the study abroad is accelerated by factors that compel individuals for studies abroad. It is not only for a special thesis but competence and career development. Besides this, some students take this as a chance to go and adventure new cultures. Despite this, a few students are of the contrary opinion since all the factors can be realized at home.

Table of Contents

The Executive Summary. ii

Table of Contents. iii


1.0 Introduction. 1

1.1 Background of the study. 1

1.2 Statement of the problem.. 2

1.3 Purpose of the study. 2

1.4 Research Objective. 2

1.4.1 Research objective 1: Travel opportunities. 2

1.4.2 Research objective 2: Culture experience. 2

1.4.3 Research objective 3: Special Thesis. 2

1.4.4 Research objective 4: Graduate early. 3

1.4.5 Research objective 5: Career Development 3



2.1 Theories of Impacts of College on learners. 4

2.2 The Cultural Competence. 6

2.3 Study abroad and Intercultural Competence. 7

2.4 Growing Emphasis on study abroad. 8

2.5 The impact of Study abroad. 8

2.5.1 An opportunity to learn a foreign language. 9

2.5.2 A chance to travel 9

2.5.3 Experience a different culture. 10

2.5.4 Skill Development 10

2.5.5 Employment opportunities. 10

2.5.6 Different education system.. 10



3.1 Introduction. 12

3.4 Questionnaires. 13

3.5 Research Instruments. 14

3.6 Sampling. 14



4.1 Travel opportunities. 15

4.2 Culture experience. 16

4.3 Special Thesis. 17

4.4 Graduate early. 17

4.5 Career Development 18



References. 21








1.0 Introduction

The purpose of the study seek to examine whether studying abroad improves intellectual competence, and find out the factors that are forcing learners to go abroad for studies.
1.1 Background of the study

There is increasing intellectual growth through education all over the world and learners are thirsting to earn degrees for the betterment of their lives. Graduates must acquire the ability to interact and communicate across cultures, ethnic, and ethnic background if there are to participate, contribute, and successfully engage in the new century. Institutions and organizations have gone further to invest resources in order to get students from abroad enrolling for studies. This with the aim and believe that when students get their studies abroad, they will develop intellectually, cultural awareness, sensitivity, and communication skills that they could not obtain if they study locally (NAFSA, 2003; Green, Luu, & Burris, 2008).

The America Lincoln commission report set out goals that must be achieved by America by the year 2016-17, and also the NAFSA in security America’s future: Global Education for a global Age of 20% of the undergraduate learners have not been achieved in USA, and efforts are still far from achieving (Lincoln Commission, 2005). Moreover, the importance of studying overseas attachment on the intellectual competency may be a trendy description than a pragmatic beached claim. This is due to limitation in prior research (Pascarella & Terenzini, 2005), the slight transfer of enthusiastically supported beliefs into acknowledged truth (Wolf, 2007), and guidelines preference among worldwide teaching administrators and study overseas programs that emphasizes boosting involvement rates ensuring educational quality (Vande Berg, 2007).
1.2 Statement of the problem

The high institutions of learning continue to invest heavily on international graduate and undergraduate studies abroad, and the accelerated increase in scholarship funding for study abroad, it is of concern to determine the reason why learners go for studies abroad, and whether these investments produces intended results.
1.3 Purpose of the study

The purpose of the study examine whether studying abroad improves intellectual competence, and find out the factors that are forcing learners to go abroad for studies.
1.4 Research Objective

The researcher developed five clear objectives based on the, overseas potential, students in order to assist specify in the collection of information and to address the information gaps.
1.4.1 Research objective 1: Travel opportunities
To determine whether students go abroad for studies or as travel opportunities. These will take into account the factors driving the learner, the goals, and the purpose of studies.
1.4.2 Research objective 2: Culture experience
To determine, what culture experience are important to students. The takes account of interaction of students between themselves, and the interaction between the, immediate surroundings, environments.
1.4.3 Research objective 3: Special Thesis
To determine, what learners consider being the most important personal benefit sought from studying abroad.
1.4.4 Research objective 4: Graduate early
To determine, whether going abroad for further studies will accelerate the time to degree completion. This will take into account the time taken to graduate in the home country.
1.4.5 Research objective 5: Career Development
To determine, what goals are driving an individual to go for studies abroadCHAPTER TWO

2.1 Theories of Impacts of College on learners

Studies trace an increasing evolution of research on what college on learners. Studies done by Pascarella and Terenzini on their publication “How College Affects Students” scrutinized 6,500 studies done how college affects learners over a period of seventy years. In each study reviewed, it indicates that there is an increasing concern compared with what Feldman and Newcomb’s 1,500 studies within a forty year period. This body of researches reveals that college experience can impact the development of learners across a wide range of outcomes way and above the inevitable effects of growth. This field of studies can be roughly divided into studies that examine college experience that affect change in learners and that which examine the nature of change attributed to impact of college (Pascarella & Terenzini, 2005). Both these theories are crucial in pinching out the study.

According to Astin’s model of Input-Environment-Output (I-E-O); and Pascarella’s general model give a framework of understanding the impact of college that have occasionally and successfully utilized to identify aspects of the college experience that influence learners growth ((Pascarella & Terenzini,2005). The I-E-O model has the input that describes the characteristic of the student; the environment showing all features that shape college experience, and the output that shows the characteristics of the learner upon graduation. This model is essential in higher institutions in the design of their programs. In the study of research, the model is assist to examine the end results and as an element of the environment that influence subsequent education activities that are pertinent (Gonyea, 2008). The model of Assessing the Effects of Differential Environment on Student Learning and Cognitive Outcomes of Pascrella went ahead and expanded on the I-E-O model into four segregations and differentiate potential aspects confounding variables not found in Astin’s model and divide it into the characteristics of the institution, the environment, the interaction, and the quality of learners efforts (Pascarella & Terenzini, How College affects students, 2005). This gives room for analyzing separate elements shaping up individual learner in the involvement of educational endeavors together with the institution’s curriculum, and informal experiences that directly or indirectly affect the learner.

Another theory is Erikson’s theory which focuses on the nature and change seen in college learners. The theories try to explain development constructs such as psychological, cognitive, moral, identity and a holistic development. They enumerate the stages of development which an individual go through over time of growth. In every stage, one encounters complexities that require a more understanding of the previous stage, and members of every stage require having knowledge of the previous stage in order to build on the stage that follows. In each stage, there are transitional phases, which are extremely; hard to negotiate, and thus need some efforts, but sometimes this stage may be impediments to development (Polonsky & Waller, 2005). In order for an individual to move to higher stages, it requires one to be ready to progress and create equilibrium of current stage, and an individual has to gain the ability to experience empathy and detach from self (Pascarella & Terenzini,2005). In each stage, the theories focus on the years that one spends studying in college.

In the examination of these two theories, it is clear that the study abroad program is distinct and of beneficial to learners thereby fit into I-E-O theory; the environment block and Pascarella’s quality of learner’s block. Furthermore, engagement in the participation of study abroad relates with personal growth and development. The interlaced scenery of all the growth spheres accelerates academic ability intended for educational outcome of study abroad participation.
2.2 The Cultural Competence

Institutions of higher learning prioritize cross-cultural amalgamation when drawing up the strategic plan and mission statements in order to communicate learning outcomes of internationalization (Knight, 2004). The aim is instilling intercultural competency skills necessary to produce graduates who can compete, and can thrive in diverse and interconnected globe (Deardorff, 2006). Measuring intercultural competence proves to be extremely difficult, but a consensus emerges that give a chance to examine its elements as an outcome (Deardorff, 2006).

As the diversification increases with population and both policymakers and employers have recognized the need of intercultural competence among college graduates, college scholars have gone ahead and identify educational experiences that enhance learners’ attitude toward diversity and develop intercultural competence skills (Pascarella & Terenzini, 2005). Even though, it describes domestic interracial interactions research has employed measures that closely follow cognitive, intrapersonal, and interpersonal capacities required for intercultural competence which include openness of diversity, racial tolerances, and respect for racial and ethnic differences, cultural knowledge, multicultural understanding, increased interracial comfort, international understanding, and pluralistic approach (Engberg, 2007). It is found that college experiences can influence intercultural competence positively by (Pike, 2002) racial awareness workshop, diversity-related courses, racial awareness workshop, leadership training, and participation in a study a broad program (Burns & Bush, 2006). All these factors can be attributed to the benefits of going abroad for further studies. College life changes the life of an individual both intellectually and socially since there are many avenues of dynamic growth.
2.3 Study abroad and Intercultural Competence

As study abroad research continues, scholars have endeavored to demonstrate the benefits getting education abroad. They have included general academic success, graduation rates, and time to degree, retention, and grade point average. Furthermore, second language dons found that it has an impact on second language acquisition as learners are able to go abroad and acquire a second language. Moreover, research has shown study abroad have other activities that are of benefits while in college as well as specific career choices after college (Green, Luu, & Burris, 2008). On top of this study abroad has been linked with personal development, identity development, values development, intellectual development and holistic development (McKeown, 2009). This has been considered as a powerful mechanism of developing academic competence. The contact hypothesis proposes that prejudice held by one group against another can be eliminated if all groups are involved in sustained contacts (Knight, 2004). Research by (VandeBerg, 2007) found out that even though most finding support the assertion that contact produce change in attitudes of both groups towards one another, the condition in which the contact occurs influences the direction and attitudinal change. Amir also noted that, in spite of the positive side, there are some conditions which hinder positive change. These conditions include unfavorable contacts, tension, and objectionable moral values. These unfavorable conditions can be mitigated by creating socio-cultural awareness, adaptability, and flexibility through informed choices and empathy to seek a deeper understanding while withholding judgment (Patterson, 2006).

Studies conducted show that those learners who study abroad demonstrate positive changes on intercultural competence upon return to their home campuses or countries. Even though, studies conducted vary, most studies have researched on the effect of studying abroad on major three areas: the view of the host country, the global perspective, and the academic awareness. The outcomes of these studies show that learners who study abroad have a positive view of the host country (Gonyea, 2008). Despite the findings of these studies, there are some short comings. First, they focus on a small group of learners at an institution. They also limit it to some major not abroad spectrum of majors. These groups are small in number and therefore, cannot effectively represent a bigger sample globally. Secondly, they do not look at students who do study and does not study abroad in order to get a systematic view of their attitudinal and inspirational characteristics.
2.4 Growing Emphasis on study abroad

There is a growing emphasis on the number of learners going for studies abroad. These have drawn increased attention to universities, and this has been taken as an educational activity important to the individual, and the nation (Lincoln, 2005). The report of Braham Lincoln on study abroad fellowship program (2005) noted that this is a very vital role that every institution of higher learning must take to embrace the program (Lincoln, 2005). This is for the importance of an individual in the development of their own future, that of the nation, and to gain intellectual competence internationally. Most institution of higher learning has demonstrated this through the inclusion of this in the mission statement (Lincoln, 2005). The emphasis to study abroad translates into small participation when compared to the number of students that are completing secondary education. Research shows that the pattern of learners who go for studies abroad is very small, and these have seen little change in the pattern over the past decade (Green, Luu, & Burris, 2008).
2.5 The impact of Study abroad

The global higher education has diversified, and internalization is no longer new. These have been accelerated by the global economic growth, socialization, and culture. Studies suggest that studying abroad have profound effects on the life of an individual more than the college experiences (Engberg, 2007). The research suggests that there is increase strictness in international policies due to increased mobility of students, exchange programs that have attracted many students from overseas. The only hindering factor is the global economy that has seen many countries and institutions impose limits on internationalization (Pike, 2002). The UK crackdown on immigration issues is such an example. These have increased many criticisms as this is conflicting to higher education in their pursuit to development of academic extensions to cut the competitive edge in the development of talents globally (Woolf, 2007).
Research conducted on student from china studying in UK shows that, despite very strong challenges on cultural changes and struggles, most of them have adopted and learn in a new learning environment (Saliburry et al, 2009). Studying and living abroad is a transforming experience allowing students to live life from a different perspective yielding to intercultural growth and maturity. The reasons that are driving learners to seek for further studies abroad are outlined below:
2.5.1 An opportunity to learn a foreign language

When on goes abroad, the surrounding environment is students who speak a language that one is not familiar with. The constant interaction forces one to learn the language. Some institutions use a foreign language as a method of instructions. This will leave the learner with no option but to struggle and learn the language fast enough so that he can continue with studies (Spiering & Erickson, 2006).
2.5.2 A chance to travel

Since one is in a new continent and a totally new country, one will venture during weekends and academic breaks in order to explore both within the campus surrounding outside the campus. On the other hand, there are programs in the curriculum where learners are allowed to travel for excursions to learn. This will also give an opportunity to the learner to explore the new surroundings (Woolf, 2007).
2.5.3 Experience a different culture

There is an opportunity to mingle with people from diverse cultures and experience a variety of food, language, appearances, and habits. Students who experience diverse cultures can understand why other cultures are coming from and is able to value others’ culture (Spiering & Erickson, 2006).
2.5.4 Skill Development

Students are able to acquire new skills, strengths, and abilities that one cannot experience in their home country. One is able to encounter situations that are not familiar and learn how to adapt and respond effectively (McKeown, 2009).
2.5.5 Employment opportunities

There are high possibilities of getting employment since the world has become a global village. One is able to expose their talents. Students who study abroad are self motivated, independent, willing to embrace challenges, and are able to handle diverse problems (Spiering & Erickson, 2006).
2.5.6 Different education system

Different countries have their own education system. For example in US, institutions of higher education are functioning differently with other education institutions because they employ the services professors (McKeown, 2009). When one go for studies abroad, there is a high possibility that the experience will be different from that at home country. This in itself is a unique experience that is vital for a learner to grow intellectually. Universities abroad focus much on learning to increase knowledge and understanding other than grades (Saliburryetal, 2009). The mode of instruction is much more of lecture, and there is very little or no class discussion. There is less one on one interaction with the professor. However, there is flexibility to the student to explore more on their own interest within the course and learn more himself (Stroud, 2010). Despite these facts, education within one owns’ country is not in any way different with that in abroad.









3.1 Introduction

In order to ensure that the study is valid and reliable (Polonsky & Waller, 2005), appropriate research approach for every research objective chosen (Burns and Bush, 2006). This is because every research problem is unique and there is no applicable research which exists. In the research undertaken, the chosen research combines quantitative and qualitative methods. The term qualitative is research whose findings are not subject to quantitative analysis, and methods can be characterized as interpretive. The research sample in this is not representative of the population of interest because of the small sample size (Hague, 2002). Nevertheless, qualitative research is a technique used to gain the current and relevant information concerning the research problem. This is to get a proper definition of the research problem at hand. Also, to determine relevant variables for the instrument used so that it improves the efficiency of the method. The basic research questions and objectives were brainstormed and summarized. Then after reviewing secondary data from journals articles to refine and clarify the research topic (Polonsky & Waller, 2005). The literature review provided the necessary information and formed the basis for current research study. Qualitative research techniques such as interviews was undertaken in so as get an imminent on the grounds of study abroad in today’s world. The researcher decided to conduct two interviews as there is no general rule of deciding how many interview is conducted (Hague, Hague, & Morgan, 2004).
3.2 Expert Interviews
This is a technique used to information for respondents who are aware and knowledgeable in an area or field (Burns & Bush, 2006). The study interview was conducted with scholars from different areas and countries who gave information on the reasons why people go for studies abroad. They provided the importance of studying abroad believing that having studies in a new environment is an exposure, increase competence, and complete the degree much faster. Other factors proposed include the chance to travel, get to know other people’s cultures, meet friends, and an opportunity to get employment in a competitive world. The experts acknowledged the benefits of studying abroad and wish that all avenues were open so that all interested can get the chance to go abroad for studies. They also proposed that education institutions should make their programs flexible and affordable so that it can be universal to all learners.
3.3 Individual Depth Interviews
This is a mode of interviewing where interviews are not structured and done in a conversational manner. There is no pattern to follow when interviewing (Hague, Hague, & Morgan, 2004) and the way are usually directed by the reaction of the respondent (Hague, 2002). Questions are unrestricted and nondirective to make the most of the chance for respondents to express their own opinion and judgment (Hague, Hague, & Morgan, 2004). The interviewer critically inquires more and uses the replies of the respondent to pose further questions (Hague 2002). This technique increases the understanding of issues encountered by the respondents.
In the study, the researcher conducted three individual depth interviews with learners in the specified target group. The researcher employed focus group guide even though there is no predetermined questioning order. Respondents also gave competence, employment opportunity, completion of degree on time, and travel opportunity.

3.4 Questionnaires

The quantitative research uses standard questions that are formalized and determined reply options in questionnaires, which are issued to a larger section of the target people (Burns & Bush, 2006). In the design of questionnaires it is paramount to consider the information required and each question should be framed. The target respondents are put in consideration (Hague, 2002). The survey questionnaire covers all the objective set for the study and is set using different formats such as the nominal, ordinal and interval scales. The data collection at several places in different borders and socio-economic regions and via the internet was done. This is done so as to cater for different views and opinions in a wide range.

3.5 Research Instruments

The researcher used nominal, ordinal, and interval scales in the questionnaire to enable in the determination of why learners study abroad considering the objectives of the study.

3.6 Sampling

In the definition of the scope of the research for overseas potential students, the researchers decided that only students from abroad and lectures would be surveyed. One of the reasons why both of this was chosen is due to the recent opening of numerous students abroad. The researcher wanted to determine how important study abroad to overseas students. Also, in terms of target marketing, the researchers wanted to learn what particularly students wanted from abroad. The students and lecturers were chosen as it was seen to be the most target group in education. The selected sample was 200, and the researcher prepared 210 questionnaires so that the extra could allow for invalid completed questionnaires. The survey employed judgement sampling due to the fact that students from abroad were not many and the respondents who were only active were targeted. This method of sampling implies that there is less chance of selecting certain individuals (Burns and Bush, 2006).




4.1 Travel opportunities
The objective was to determine whether students go abroad for studies or as travel opportunities. The respondents were asked to rate three statements under this objective in the scale where 1 was not important and 7 very important. This is as revealed below in figure 2.

Table 1

Have fun Experience Exposure
Mean 7 6 5


Figure 1.

From the bar graph of  figure 1, it is evident that majority of learners go abroad fun as is ashown on the graph. Those who go for experience and exposure are quite a number.  The main reason for this is that beside educational experiences, learners travel abroad as one way to have fun, experience cultures, and to get exposure.

Based on the results, we can say that learners goals for studying abroad vary from individual to individual. The majority of learners who are going for fun are still young in age and they are still exploring new environments. Compared to adults this is a large population.
4.2 Culture experience
This was to determine, what culture experience are important to students. This takes account of interaction of students between themselves, and the interaction between the immediate surroundings, environments. The statements under this was four and measured in the scale of 1(not important) and 7(very important). The table below shows the results and the diagram illustrates the results.

Table 2

Experience new culture To study To venture new environment
Mean 5 7 6


Figure 2

The tabulations in figure 2 show that the majority of learners got abroad for the sole aim of studying, quite anumber get the chance to go and venture, whereas new culture experience is rated low in the nominal scale. From the results, we can say that large group of learners go to study and to venture into new environment.
 4.3 Special Thesis

The objective is to determine what learners consider as the most important personal benefit sought from studying abroad.

Table 3

  Culture interaction For competency Good facilities Learning Exposure
Mean 1 7 7 1


Figure 3

The figure 3 shows that learners who go abroad for special thesis in order to gain competency, and because they get new learning facilities that can not be found at their home country. Culture interraction and learning exposure is rated very low.This implies that learners who go abroad for special thesis are focused on academic achievements and this due to good facilities.

4.4 Graduate early
The objective determines whether going abroad for further studies will accelerate the time to degree completion. This will take into account graduation time in the home country.

Table 4

  Yes No Not sure
Respondents 80% 15% 5%


Figure 4

From figure 4, it is clear that learners go abroad for studies due to shorter time of completing the degree as is depcted by 80% of the respondents. There are 15% of the respondents who does not agree, amd 5% are not sure obout it. Universities abroad run all programs making it flexible for learners. Learners from abroad want programs that are shorter in terms of completion.

4.5 Career Development
The objective was to determine if individuals go abroad to advance careers.

Table 5

  Yes No Not sure
Respondents 65% 10% 15%


Figure 5

From the pie chart we see that 65% go for career development, 15% are nit sure what they are looking for, and 10% go abroad for other activities and find themseves studying there. This objective go hand in hand with the above objective. Learners go abroad to develop there careers.


The research survey addressed five proposed research objectives. The outcome of the study shows that there are factors that lead to acceleration of student to study abroad. The respondents indicated that going abroad is a chance to travel and experience the world. This, according to many is any opportunity that is very rear. Most learners suggested that going abroad develops a better way to understand their home country and appreciate the fact the all nations have varying features and developments. This is further strengthened by the fact that culture vary from country to country and from races to race. The chance to go abroad is an opportunity for many learners to experience other people’s culture. The interaction at college and at the surrounding environment shapes the intellectual perception of an individual. The chance to experience variety of food from a different culture is another way to learn of other’s cultures.

There are universities that do not have certain programs. Learners go abroad for special thesis. The reason is that exposure in terms of academics is better when abroad. This is due to the sophisticated learning environments.  Among the respondents interviewed, majority study abroad because they a special degree in order to have a positive impact on the job when they return back home. Likewise, graduating early was a factor also determined. From the findings, studying abroad is much better than home country since the completion time is shorter. Students from countries like Africa prefer abroad because of completing their degree early. Compared with universities in their own country, completing degree abroad is much is much faster and one can graduate early.

Career development is a key to every learner. Studying abroad according most learners is a way of advancing their careers. People are forced to study abroad when they found themselves in that country due to migrations from one country to another forces people to study. The study shows that most of the students find themselves abroad and are therefore left with nothing but to study.

In spite of the above reasons, some students do not agree that studying abroad can develop their career. They believe that career development start at their home country and going abroad is one way of furthering their studies. They are also of the opinion that graduating early cannot be achieved in studying abroad but depending on individual’s effort in academics.


The institution of higher learning should develop programs to cover shorter completion period in order to reduce the influx of students abroad. Also, special programs that require special experts and technology should be addressed. This calls for universities to embrace technological advancements and periodically review curriculum so as to go with technology advancement.

Furthermore, universities should employ experts in all areas of academics so as to reduce studying abroad but at their home countries.


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