Sewerage and Drainage System in Outskirts of Auckland

Table of Contents

Section A: 3

Project Brief and Scope. 3

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Scope Management 4

Cost Management 8

Communication Management 10

Audience: 10

Timing: 11

Information Needs: 12

Quality Management 13

Cost-Benefit Analysis. 13

Benchmarking. 13

Quality of Materials. 14

Section B: 15

References. 18

Section A:

Project Brief and Scope

The following project monitoring and control system relates to the project that will be recently accomplished. With respect to the project brief, the project involved the overhaul of the drainage and sewerage system in New Zealand. In the project, the whole project involved overhauling a section of sewage system that had become smaller and inefficient in draining the wastes effectively. The project will, therefore, entail constructing an underground system for that purpose. The new sewer infrastructure project will encompass constructing tunnels and tributary pipes as well as manholes inappropriate places. These also included drill drop manholes and trunk sewers. The main objective of the project is to develop drainage and sewerage system that supports effective surface water and waste management in the outskirts of Auckland amidst the ever-increasing demand for wider trunk sewers that can accommodate the huge capacity. This project will be called “Auckland B Drainage and Sewerage System Project” for the sake of uniformity in communication about project specifications other communications that relate to the project.

The project will be essential in achieving the goal of reducing the frequency of flooding in the area during storm events and expand the sewerage and drainage system to accommodate the growing demand for larger sewerage and drainage system due to increase in development and population. With respect to the time frame of the project, the project will be scheduled to be completed within 26 weeks and more on this is provided in the Gantt chart given later in this project monitoring and control plan. In addition, the project involved on site construction of the sewer trunks and other materials needed in building and construction of the various sections of the infrastructure. Time will be fixed and a crucial aspect of the project since the project touched on many critical aspects of the society including health and sanitation. This monitoring and control system plan looks at four key areas of the project plan monitoring and control system: Scope Management, Project Cost Management, Quality Management and Communication plan.

Scope Management

Scope management will be a vital part of the project and it entailed ensuring that changes to the project scope are well controlled (Ibbs et al 2001). The scope management started by slotting in allowance for changes but it will be intended to avoid unaccepted new work packages while allowing the accepted new work packages to be integrated into the work break down structure. The control and management of project scope will be achieved by using three basic tools to ensure that the project does not go out of its scope beyond the acceptable new work packages. First, a change control system will be used to document process by which the scope can officially be altered. Any change that would be deemed to have a negative impact on the scope of the project without improving the overall value of the deliverables would totally be eliminated and would not form part of acceptable new work packages. The firm has an initial approach to addressing the issue of project through the use of database for previous projects and changes and whether these changes were accepted or not integrated into the projects. These databases help in facilitating overture assessments of changes on any projects before they commence. This approach of the firm is supported by the views of Nahod (2012) who also points out that in addition to having databases for previous projects to help future projects in controlling project scope, it is important that when evaluating how the project scopes of the past were handled, the calculations also consider project-specific goals and constraints.

The following diagram illustrates the scope management plan used by the firm in making sure that the projects do not go beyond the allowed scope. As the diagram shows, variance analysis will be the main tool used in the scope control where the project’s outputs will be evaluated based on the expectations and inputs.

Figure 1: Scope Control Chart

From the diagram, the firm controls scope by ensuring both inputs and outputs are well managed. On the inputs side, the first aspect is inclusion of project management plan which is given along other vital project documents such as project documentation. This project management plan will be used to provide a yardstick for measuring the completion of the project scope at various project stages. Thus before anything else is set in motion in terms of the project processes, all the requirements that are  vital to project completion will be collected and compiled. These requirements will be elicited, e valuated and recorded before the execution of the project commences.

Another important document will directly be related to managing the project scope is the project charter which will be used as a formal document to expound on the purpose of the project, the business need of the project, and explain the resulting product. By having the project charter, the main aim will be to ensure that there is clear explanation of the boundaries within which the project can be conducted based on the purposes hence expectations.

The work performance measurements will be done against the project management plan to make sure that the project falls within the boundaries of the documented scope at all times and avoid scope creep. Since the deliverables of the project will be measured against time limits of 26 weeks for completion of the Auckland B drainage and sewerage system, the various activities as highlighted under the Cost Management section shall be based on completion as measured against the specified time of the particular activity.

As the work performance information is provided and the various activities performed, the documents will be updated continually to ensure that the project keeps track of the phase and stage of completion and also so that the project keeps track of any changes that were integrated or incorporated as new work packages and this will further help in the updating of the project documents.

Requirements documentation will help in ensuring that all the requirements of the project are put together and listed so that any other crops in is treated as either necessary or unnecessary change for the new project work package. For change approval, the following chart will be used in approving change to the project scope.

Causes of Change Percentage of Change Source of Change
Investor’s change requests due to further accepted needs for a project    
Partially unfinished project documentation    
Change of technology due to lack of accessibility of requisite technology in the market    
Unavailability of concrete construction material in region due to some particular factor    
Unavailability of financing for the timely accomplishment of the project    
Contractor’s change requests for easier operations, higher income, within the allowable limits for the project    
Project documentation alignment with new regulations adopted in the period between project design and realization    

Table 1: Change Control Template

For the requirements traceability matrix, there will be a requirements analysis team whose sole responsibility will involve ensuring that all requirements are traced and tested for their requirement in the project completion process. The team shall also ascertain that no supplementary requirements are incorporated into the project process without the due process of approval. The due process of approval shall involve the customer and project manager signing to consent to the inclusion of the requirements and also settle on the repercussions of such inclusions including costs (Bowman 2009). The process of requirements traceability will be carried out as an on-going process.

Change requests must be made formally and documented hence enhance the updating of the projects database (Lee et al 2004). Moreover, to make sure that all the requirements are addressed, inspection will be done from time to time during the 26 week projected project period and this will involve critical review of the documentations in juxtaposition with what is being executed to verify that all requirements are addressed as stated. In addition, analysis of alternative solutions will help in revealing the nature and function of every alternative is assessed to be the best accomplishing. The project management plan will be updated and put in the projects database for future reference.

Cost Management

This section highlights how project budget will be controlled and managed to ensure that the project does not go outside the set budgetary boundaries. The project budget included several issues that were essential in the cost management aspect. The first is the work elements, which involved various project job cost accounts disaggregated into specific scheduled activities. The various work elements are shown in the table that will later be given below. In addition, the schedules provided progress on individual activities and this made it possible for achievement of milestone completions to be compared with the main project schedule. Moreover, this would also help in monitoring the progress of activities and as such made it possible to use overruns in specific cost categories to be a signal for possible problem and indicate precisely what hitches were being encountered. Since the project did not entail very many activities and it is basically a project that encompasses few activities that are in fact considerably repetitive the cost management approach will be mainly expense, which puts focus on the cost categories to be included in the final cost estimation. The table below shows how cost management will be achieved and it shows how both physical and non-physical resources were represented in the cost management endeavor.

Account Category Account Name Cost Estimate ($)
101 (Main)   Clearing and Preparing Site    
102 (Main)   Building Substructure    
  102.1 (Sub Category)   Excavation and Shoring  
  102.2 (Sub Category)   Piling  
  102.3 (Sub Category)   Concrete Work  
  102.4 (Sub Category)   Main Trench and formwork  
  102.5 (Sub Category)   Reinforcing  
201 (Main)   Main Trench Excavation    
202 (Main)   Services    

Table 2: Cost Management Chart

In terms of breakdown of the costs for easier management, the costs will be broken down and classified according to the diagram below:

Figure 2: Cost Break Down by Category

It is expected that labor will take considerable amount of costs and therefore these will be put in its specific set in order to track the costs spent on labor and these will comprise the costs spent on casual employees who will be employed from the area, costs on internal employees of the firm, costs on supervisors, site inspectors and any other technical team. Another category of costs shall comprise that of materials and these shall include the direct materials used in the actual construction of the sewerage and drainage system. These will include the costs of cement, concrete, sand, wire meshes, pipes, nails and any other material used or spent on the project. Meanwhile, the materials costs will also encompass the costs spent on communication materials such as printing materials such as papers, pens and posters. On the third category, costs on equipment will put aside in its own set and these will include costs of machinery repair, costs of machinery and tools used.

Communication Management

To ensure smooth and uniform flow information, the following communication plan will be used. The communication identifies the audience of the communication, information needs, the media used in communicating the information, timing or frequency of the communication and responsibilities identifying the individual or individuals responsible for the communication. In this case, a team within the project will be responsible for the project communications. The overall aim of the project communication plan will be to boost the success of the project by meeting the information needs of the various project stakeholders.


The intended communication audience of the Auckland B Sewerage and Drainage System will be the project manager, the entire project team, the sponsor of the project, the west Auckland community (through the local environmentalist groups, which have been very vocal in raising concerns about environment during the initial environmental inspection) all senior leaders and the project audit board of the Parchem Construction Supplies. There are various important factors to be considered and these include the name of stakeholder or audience to whom the communication will be addressed, the title of the audience, their contact information, the type of communication to be used and any other information that may increase the value and efficiency of the communication. The full table with this information is provided in section B that follows.

Name Title Contact Communication Vehicle Comments
Sam Lakefield Project Manager        
Auckland Rural Development Authority Project Sponsor        
Project Team Project Team        
Auckland Save the Environment Group External Stakeholder        
Table 3: Communication Matrix



With the above plan set, the following communication matrix will help in addressing further effectiveness and directive in the project communication needs. In terms of timing of communication, the communication with all stakeholders will begin at the start of the project after which the frequency of communication will change depending on the stakeholder and respective information needs.

Vehicle Target Description
Frequency Owner Distribution
Status Report All Internal Stakeholders Communication of project progress and deliverable status Weekly Sam Lakeland e-mail and organization chart Internal  
Status Report Auckland Rural Development Authority Communication of project Progress and deliverables Bi-Weekly Sam Lakeland Official letter External  
Status Report Auckland Save the Environment Group Communication of project Progress and deliverables Beginning, mid and end Sam Lakeland e-mail and posters External At the start mid-project and finish of the project
Table 4: Communication Plan for Frequency


Information Needs:

The communication plan is made with consideration that the various stakeholders have differing information needs hence the need for communication varies from one stakeholder to another. The Auckland Rural Development Authority being the project sponsor is mainly concerned by being informed that the project is progressing successfully and the progress is in line with the objectives. Therefore since the sponsor is interested is interested in knowing that every stage of the project goes in line with the laid down procedures as per the contract sheet, communication will be very frequent and the subsequent communications will mainly be to inform the sponsor hence one-way communication unless where the sponsor makes scope change requests.

Another group that will require frequent communication is the project team which will have to be informed whether the project progress is on track or not, on schedule or behind schedule and whether it is within the laid down budgetary parameters or not. This frequent communication to the project team will also be vital and pivotal in guaranteeing successful supervision of resources; both human and non-human.

During the environmental inspection of the place, the adjacent community through a local environmental lobby group showed concern that the project would lead to environmental degradation and they, therefore, wanted assurance that the project would not environment in dereliction. That can be communicated at the beginning, in the middle of the project and at the end of the project.

Quality Management

For quality control, the quality management objective will be achieved through a number of principles, which are also identified by the Project Management Institute (PMBoK 3, p 181). First the quality control will aim at ensuring that customer satisfaction is targeted as the utmost goal hence quality will be defined by the requirements laid down by the Auckland Rural Development Authority who is the customer and sponsor of the project. Secondly, the principle that preventing mistakes is better than later carrying out inspection and repairing defects will be important in guaranteeing that mistakes are avoided during the construction process. The third principle is that costs incurred in the project must be approved by the management thereby respecting management responsibility.

Cost-Benefit Analysis

A special team will be responsible for carrying out cost-benefit analysis to establish if the desired quality standards should be paid for. To do this, the benefits that accrue to the quality standards wished must outweigh the costs.


Benchmarking will be achieved through the use of the database for previous similar projects as a way of comparing the Auckland B Sewerage and Drainage project against other projects (PM4DEV, 2008). This benchmarking will provide grounds for measuring performance in the current and helping in generation of more ideas for improvement.

Quality of Materials

Quality of materials greatly affect the quality of the end product hence the quality control and management process will also encompass ensuring that the materials used are of the right quality (PM4DEV, 2008). A special team will be in charge of ensuring that the materials are of the right quality and any material that does not meet the stipulated quality level will not be included in the construction materials.

Section B:

Examples of the documents are given below:

Causes of Change Percentage of Change Source of Change
Investor’s change requests due to further accepted needs for a project Up to 30% Investor
Partially unfinished project documentation 15% Internal Stakeholder
Change of technology due to lack of accessibility of requisite technology in the market 25% External Company Environment
Unavailability of concrete construction material in region due to some particular factor 10% External Company Environment
Unavailability of financing for the timely accomplishment of the project 9% Project Stakeholders
Contractor’s change requests for easier operations, higher income, within the allowable limits for the project 5% Contractor
Project documentation alignment with new regulations adopted in the period between project design and realization 6% Internal project Environment

Table 5: Scope Change Incorporation



Account Category Account Name Cost Estimate % and ($)
101 (Main)   Clearing and Preparing Site   3%(10 216.50 $)
102 (Main)   Building Substructure    
  102.1 (Sub Category)   Excavation and Shoring 3% (10 216.50$)
  102.2 (Sub Category)   Piling 2% (6,811$)
  102.3 (Sub Category)   Concrete Work 11 % (37,460.50 $)
  102.4 (Sub Category)   Main Trench and formwork 8% (27,244 $)
  102.5 (Sub Category)   Reinforcing 4% (13,622 $)
201 (Main)   Main Trench Excavation   23 % (78,326.5 $)
202 (Main)   Services   46% (158,700 $)
Total 100% (340,550 $)

Table 6: Cost Estimates

Name Title Contact Communication Vehicle Comments
Sam Lakefield Project Manager Phone and e-mail available in contact book Status Reports and Internal Project Status Meeting Through phone and mail Two-way communication with feedback needed
Auckland Rural Development Authority Project Sponsor Phone, e-mail and official address Initial Communication on project commencement Through e-mail, phone call and official letter Communication to inform
Project Team Project Team Phone, e-mails, Deliverables and project expectations Through mail, phone calls and SMS Communication to inform and clarify
Auckland Save the Environment Group External Stakeholder Posters, e-mails, local media Addressing concerns on environment Through newspaper, posters and e-mail Posters and newspaper ads for general community, e-mail for lobbyists
Table 7: Communication Matrix



Vehicle Target Description
Frequency Owner Distribution
Status Report All Internal Stakeholders Communication of project progress and deliverable status Weekly Sam Lakeland e-mail and organization chart Internal  
Status Report Auckland Rural Development Authority Communication of project Progress and deliverables Bi-Weekly Sam Lakeland Official letter External  
Status Report Auckland Save the Environment Group Communication of project Progress and deliverables Beginning, mid and end Project Team e-mail and posters External At the start mid-project and finish of the project
Table 8: Communication Frequency Plan



Bowman, D. (2009). Requirements Traceability Matrix. Retrieved 14 May 2014, from

D.M. Dilts, K.R. Pence (2006), “Critical factors in Project Failure”, Journal of Operations Management, 24 378–396

Ibbs, C., Wong, C., & Kwak, Y. (2001), “Project change management system”Journal of Management in Engineering ASCE,17/3, 159-165

Lee, M., Hanna, A., & Loh, W. (2004), Decision tree approach to classify and quantify cumulative impact of change orders on productivity”, Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering ASCE, 18/2, 132-144

Lee, S., Pena-Mora, F., & Park, M. (2006), “Dynamic planning and control methodology for strategic and operational construction project management”, Automation in construction, 15, 84-97

Love, P., Li, H., & Mandal, P. (1999), “Rework: a symptom of a dysfunctional supply chain”, European Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, 5/1 , 1-11

Love, P., Mandal, P., Smith, J., & Li, H. (2000), “Modelling the dynamics of design error induced rework in construction”, ConstructionManagement and Economics, 18/5, 575-586

Lyneis, J., & Cooper, K. (2001), “Strategic Management of Complex Projects: A Case Study using System Dynamics”, System Dynamics Review, System Dynamics Society, 237-260

Meredith, R. Jack and Mantel, Jr., Samuel J., (2008) Project Management: A Managerial Approach, 7th edition, Wiley, ISBN 0-470-22621-8

Motawa, I., Anumba, C., & El-Hamalawi, A. (2006), “A fuzzy system for evaluating the risk of change in construction projects”, Advances in Engineering Software, 37, 583-591

Nahod M.M. (2010), Change Management in the Realization Phase of Construction Projects, Published MSc Thesis, Construction Management Department

Nahod, M. (2012). Scope Control Through Managing Changes in Construction Projects. Organization, Technology \& Management In Construction: An International Journal, 4(1), 438–447.

Pinto, J. K. (2007) Project Management: Achieving Competitive Advantage. Pearson/ Prentice Hall

PM4DEV, (2008) PROJECT MANAGEMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS: A methodology to manage development projects for international humanitarian assistance and relief organizations –management for development series

Project Management Institute- PMI (2013, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge: (PMBOK’s Guide), 5th edition, PMI,

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