THE ROLE OF PLAY IN EARLY CLASSROOM YEARS IN SAUDI ARABIA
Table of Contents
Recreation/ Relaxation Theory. 8
Pre-exercise/Instinct Theory. 9
Arousal modulation Theory. 11
Meta-communicative Theory. 12
VII. Incorporation of Play in Saudi Arabian Classrooms. 16
VIII. Play in Future Curriculum.. 17
The terms play and sport has long been confused in the development of the early childhood curriculum of education. Sequentially, most educators exclude social play in their curriculums, which in turn limits the access of social play to young children in their early years. Accordingly, various concerns that are still under consideration with regards to the importance of play in the classroom and the motivation of play in the classroom. In Saudi Arabia for example, social play has often been excluded from the early childhood curriculum, which has, in turn, posed a problem for Saudi Arabian children. The role of play in early year’s classroom in Saudi Arabia will be the center of this paper and the paper analyzes the incorporation of play in Saudi Arabian classrooms. Relevantly, the paper also explains the difference between play and sport so as to explain to the readers the importance of play for children.
Keywords: Early Childhood Education, Play, Theories of Play, Types of Play,
Early childhood education and the later forms of education differ from each other in relation to the focus on educative practices and procedures for their students. Early childhood education emphasizes the need for children to learn through play based on the concepts and beliefs of the power of play. The later stages of education, on the other hand, emphasize learning through the use of informative materials such as books. Accordingly, early childhood education links play to learning and researchers in this field explain that play is an important tool for learning in children. Whereas learning may include reading and carrying out activities such as community services and religious practices, play refers to the different social activities that children engage during the learning process. Learning and play often overlap with each other, thus making play an interesting subject for research.
Play has always been considered as an activity carried out by children, rather than, adults. However, it is advisable to appreciate the play as an activity which is enjoyed by all, children and adults alike (Pascal, 62). While play is extremely beneficial to children as it is a sure way by which children learn to utilize their surplus energy, it is also a natural part of child growth and development. Play plays a role in the cognitive and social development of children, hence making it an important factor in early childhood education. Research has also identified that play is particularly instrumental for supporting the development of the students’ communication skills. Sequentially, most educators and education policymakers emphasize the need for the incorporation of play in early childhood education curriculums. Such curriculums will incorporate play as a subject of its own together with other subjects such as mathematics, the arts, and sciences among other subjects. With such a curriculum, teachers and educators are required to allocate a specific time where children are encouraged to engage in various play activities.
The incorporation of play in early childhood curriculums Saudi Arabian classrooms has been a central issue of concern in most academic circles in the region. The country is becoming much more concerned with issues affecting their young children especially during the period of early childhood education. Studies conducted on the issue reveal that classrooms in Saudi Arabia are continually failing to incorporate play as a learning activity, and for that reason, the physical, social, and cognitive development of children in these classes is impaired. Accordingly, policymakers in the field of early education encourage educators and instructors to incorporate play in their curriculum as it assists in the alignment of the educational goals for each developmental stage in children.
This paper presents a critical examination of the role of play in early year’s classroom in Saudi Arabia. In essence, the paper provides an etymological definition of play, illustrating the different theories and types of play. The right to play will also be examined in the paper so as to explain the importance of play in a child’s life. The paper will conclude by scrutinizing the incorporation of play in Saudi classrooms, which will be geared towards encouraging play in future Saudi Arabian curriculums.
III. Definition of Play
According to Cattanach, (95), play refers to any engrossing activity, which involves the fervent participation of young children. On the other hand, Power, et al. (99), defines play as the simpler subsection of the learning process in which the children explore their inhibited talents and learn to connect it with the latent abilities. Researchers also define play as an activity in which the person chooses freely without compulsion or constraint, and is ready to experience the consequences that come with play. For one to be termed as engaging in play, one must enjoy the activity in which they engage in. The player must value it in a positive way and finally, the player must have self or intrinsic motivation. Sutton-Smith (199), argue that, during the formulation and development of play activities, teachers and educator ensure that their play activities incorporate the above characteristics. Accordingly, this is the only way that children will feel motivated.
Katz, (13), explains that, etymologically that play is defined as the activities that people engage in, to reduce the level of stress, by shifting their attention from class work. Broadhead (191), argues that play is a form of learning activity people carry out to de-stress themselves and get a sense of self worth. Classically, Aristotle defines play as an activity that is carried out for its own sake, but regarded learning. In the modern world, play must be available for all and must run concurrently with play. Learning in the modern world is used as a curriculum. However, the best way is to refer to play as a discretionary time or as defined by Attar, (197), the free time an individual remains with after attending to learning and all the requirements of life. The period of play is considered as the time that one devotes to learning through socialization and the engagement of a variety of physical activities. It is important to note that a child’s play time is intended to be used as the child pleases. Play is, therefore, the activity in which one engage in during his free time to amuse himself, rest, add his knowledge, or take part in voluntary activities for the society or community. For children and young adults, playtime is only important of they engage in play activities after fully discharging his academic obligations. This is because it assists in the learning process through the addition of knowledge that goes beyond the classroom lessons.
IV. Theories of Play
The concept of play in early childhood education has long been the center of focus for educators and researchers in the field throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries (McLachlan 78). Most researchers have battled with the issue of play in a bid to understand why people, especially children, engage in play activities, and the importance of play to the child. Researchers came out to give their opinions and perceptions regarding play and its importance in early childhood development. Most of the work done by early theorist of play included definition and explanations of the concepts of play with special emphasis being placed on the use of play as a tool for learning and development in children. Some of the theorists intent on explaining the concept of play in early childhood education include Sigmund Freud, Jean Piaget, Herbert Spenser, Ivan Pavlov, Moritz Lazarus, J.B Watson, Montessori, Steiner, Erik Erickson, and Lev Vygostky among others. The above-mentioned theorists focused their studies and works to the development of theories of play for better comprehension of the concept of play in early childhood education. Their extensive and exhaustive research studies explain the concepts of play from different perspectives all of which diverge but correlate with each other (Verenikina, 1). These theorists aimed at explaining the importance of play in a child’s education and learning process, which in turn allowed professionals in the field to understand the physical, cognitive, social, emotional, and educative function of play.
Researchers and academicians working in the fields of psychology and early childhood development have, therefore, identified various theories of play. Accordingly, these theories of play can be divided into two broad categories including classical theories of play and contemporary theories of play. Classical theories of play are the theories that were developed between the 19th and early 20th century, whereas the contemporary theories of play include the play theories that were developed after the twentieth century. These theories are further divided into subcategories, which provide a detailed explanation of the concept of play as examined by the particular theorist who developed the theory.
A. Classical Theories of Play
As previously mentioned, the classical theories of play can be predated to the period between the late 19 century and the early 20th century. Most of the theories, which fall under the classical theories of play, have been identified as placing more emphasis on the reasons as to why children engage in play activities. The emphasis placed by these theories is on the physical and intuitive aspects of play for children. Put together, the classical theories contribute to the understanding of play through the placement of the concept of play in the limelight for further investigation (Verenikina, 2). They are the earliest theories of play, which acknowledged the importance of play in early childhood education. These theories, further, laid the foundation for the advancement of the theories of play in the field of education. Five main classical theories of play have been identified including the Surplus energy theory, the recreation or relaxation theory, the recapitulation theory, the pre-exercise or instinct theory, and the compensation theory of play.
· Surplus Energy Theory
Proposed by Spencer (1875), the surplus energy theory of play argues that play arises as a result of the surplus energy that a child has after subjection to long hours of minimal physical activities. He postulated in his surplus energy theory, that people engaged themselves in plays to burn any excess energy that they may have. In most cases, individuals, especially young children are observed as to having high energy levels, which the proposers of this theory state need to be let out (Verenikina, 2). According to this theory, children are motivated to play so as to release the energy they have stored up inside. As theorists explain, an observation of children during recess period is a clear illustration of the application of this theory. Elmer Mitchell, a theorist in support of the surplus energy theory, explains that human beings are dynamic creatures and are always on the lookout for any activity they can do to let out their pent up energy and express themselves (Almnie, 23).
· Recreation/ Relaxation Theory
The recreation or relaxation theory of place is the second theory of play that has been classified under the classical theories of play. This theory was developed by Moritz Lazarus in 1883, and later developed by Patrick 1916, as well as, Dockett and Fleer in 1999 (Verenikina, 2). With this theory, play is considered as a method of dispelling the reticence experienced as a result of fatigue. This theory is founded on the notion that the day-to-day activities in which individuals engage in may cause exhaustion to these individuals. For that reason, engaging in play facilitates the replenishment of energy for children. Put simply, this theory argues that play is used as a tool of relaxation as it helps individuals to unwind after engagement normal activities such as reading and writing. Other researchers such as Perkins (19) contend with Moritz Lazarus, who stated that people engaged in play to preserve energy, thus put the learning theory forth. He argued that a change in activities such as physical exercise preserves energy.
· Recapitulation Theory
Just as the name suggests, the recapitulation theory of play suggests that play is used as a tool for the repetition of various evolutionary changes that children undergo. Developed by Hall in 1906, the theory argues that play is an activity whereby individuals seek to relive their evolutionary past (Verenikina, 2). With this theory, play is not considered as an activity that individuals engage in for the acquisition of future instinctual skills. However, play is used to get rid of the individual’s instinctive nature, which is in most cases carried on as a result of heredity, for proper growth and development. For that reason, the play activities that children engage in are more likely to correspond with the biological and cultural changes that humanity will undergo (Verenikina, 2).
· Pre-exercise/Instinct Theory
Closely linked with the recapitulation theory, the pre-exercise or instinct theory considers play as an instinctive activity rather than an atypical activity for children. This theory was developed by Karl Groos in 1898 and 1901 and is founded on the primary concept that play is indispensable to continued existence for humanity. In his indistinct practice theory Groos states simply that, when people are exhausted they engage in physical practices that sharpen their skills and enable them to survive in the future (Verenikina, 2). This theory considers play as a unique tool for early childhood education development. Additionally, theory argues that play is distinct to childhood years, and for that reason, it cannot be easily identifiable in adulthood. The importance of this theory to early childhood education id identified in the fact that it focuses on the different play types, as opposed to, play as a physical activity. For example, the enactment of adult roles and responsibility during imaginative play by children prepares them for the future adult life. With this theory, educators and instructors are introduced to the intellectual or cognitive benefits of play for children.
· Compensation Theory
The last, but not least, classical theory of play is the compensation theory. The compensation theory of play suggests that individuals engage in play for the sole purpose of the satisfaction of psychic needs. In essence, this theory of play argues that people engage in play for self-satisfaction (Verenikina, 2). This theory is founded on the concept that the repetitive nature of work kills a person’s motivation, and for that reason, people will engage in play so as to satisfy themselves where their respective work does not.
B. Contemporary Theories of Play
Research studies explain that unlike the classical theories of play, contemporary theories are conceptually distinct and broader with relation to explaining the concept of play and its importance in early childhood education. Contemporary theories of play are more focused on finding out how play influences a child’s social and psychological development (Verenikina, 2). For that reason, these theories have taken the center stage in most modern research studies, as well as, early childhood education programs. Specifically, these theories have seen the incorporation of play in early education curriculums for the purpose of nurturing the development of children across the field of education. Just as the classical theories of play, the contemporary theories of play have been divided into sub-theories, all of which seek to examine the concept of play form a modern or contemporary perspective.
The psycho-analytic theory of play is the most recognized contemporary theory of play that was proposed by Sigmund and Anna Freud in 1959 and 1968 respectively (Verenikina, 2). This theory of play supports the notion that play is a medium where individuals can relieve anxiety and stress. Play is, therefore, considered as a way of allowing children to get rid of any negative emotional problems that they may face during their day to day activities. This, in turn, allows children to gain control over their emotions, as they are allowed to safely express their negative emotions. this theory of play allows children to link their play activities with some of the real events that they experience. Children are allowed to dramatize their past, present and future real life events. Conclusively, this theory also considers play as a form of creative exploration whereby the individuals play to arouse their stimuli and test their environment (Almnie, 22; Delpit, 55).
First proposed by Berlyne 1960, and later developed by Ellis in 1973 the Arousal modulation theory of play suggests that play is essential for the maintenance of an optimal state of arousal for the human body and mind (Verenikina, 3). This theory of play is based on a behaviorist stimulus and response assumption, which emphasizes the need for the stimulation of the senses for children and individuals engaging in play. This theory is founded on the believe that play is not limited to being a physical activity, and is also a mental activity with which children need to engage in fully. With this theory, play is used either for raising or lowering a person’s stimulation. This is however dependent on whether or not the individual is under-stimulated or over-stimulated.
The meta-communicative theory of play proposed by Bateson in 1976 describes play as a platform for communication in children (Verenikina, 3). This theory argues that children engage in play for the purpose of communicating with their peers as well as their supervisors. With this theory, play is used to describe the activities that children engage in so as to promote communication and self-expression. This theory is based on the inherent human characteristics where a person seeks to express himself or herself through communication, and seeks to find out the best possible mode for this communication.
· Cognitive Theory
The cognitive theory of play is one of the most well-known modern theories of play. Proposed by Jean Piaget in 1962, this theory of play argues that play had various cognitive functions and children engaged in play so as to meet their cognitive needs. In the development of the theory, Piaget argued for the role of play in three cognitive stages including the sensorimotor stage, the pre-operational stage, and the concrete operational stage (Verenikina, 3). In the sensorimotor stage, children learn sensations and movement through play. The pre-operational stage, on the other hand, sees the acquisition of motor skills in children through play, whereas the concrete operational stage argues for the use of play for the development of intellectual skills such as problem solving..
· Social-Cultural Theory
In the years 1977 and 1978, Lev Vygotsky developed the social-cultural theory of play, which emphasized the play as a tool for socialization and the improvement of interpersonal skills (Verenikina, 3). This theory is based on the principles of cooperative play, which argue that play involves two or more children. For that reason, play is seen as a tool for social development, which is in turn, linked to the cognitive development of children.
V. Types of Play
In order to understand the importance of play in early childhood development, one must consider the various types of play that children engage in during their free time. Accordingly, two broad classifications of play have been identified including free play and structured play. Brooker, (2002), defines free play as the kind of play that children chose what to do, and how to play. This kind of play involves the intervention of an adult in minimal scale as compared to structured play. Free play allows children to engage in their preferred play activities with minimal intervention for adults with whom they are under supervision. With this kind of play, children organize themselves and make their own rules regarding the play activities in which they engage. Structured play, on the other hand, refers to the kind of play whereby adults engage in the play activity together with the children. This form of play is important because the input of the teachers is instrumental in ensuring that the children are engaged in constructive form of play. The adults initiate that play, controls the materials and the resources that the children have to play with and intervene in the course of the play. Teachers or practitioners are expected to have a better idea about the play and the general or specific objectives of initiating that play in the classroom. This is what influences the kind of intervention that the practitioner implements (Denzin, 460). There are various believes and mixed opinions as the social constructivist believe that free play is easy to isolate, and in not involving children in sharing and contracting meanings. The original work of the social constructivists such as Vygotsky and Bruner, easily envisage that adults will get themselves into the children’s play. However, they also argue that reflection and sharing of information is vital in enriching the child’s experiences and plays a hugely prominent role in the learning process (Carr, 211).
Fundamentally, free play and structured play can be further categorized into six main types of play including active play, quiet play, cooperative play, creative play, dramatic play, and manipulative play.
· Active Play
Active play refers to the type of play whereby the child or student is involved in plenty of physical activity (Denzin, 462). Examples of active play include swinging, and other outdoor activities.
· Quiet Play
Quiet play is the complete opposite of active play, as it is the kind of play where children are encouraged to engage in play activities with minimal noise (Denzin, 465). Here, children are encourages to keep quiet and open up their minds so as to critically think and reason during play.
· Cooperative Play
Cooperative play refers to the type of play whereby more than two children are involved in one play activity (Denzin, 466). With this type of play, children can learn from socializing with others, as well as, observing what their peers are doing during play.
· Creative Play
This is a form of play whereby a child is encouraged to use their imagination in the creation of things during play time. A good example of this is the engagement of a child in art activities.
· Imaginative Play
Also referred to as dramatic play, imaginative play refers to the type of play where children are allowed to make up characters and play settings during playtime (Denzin, 467). During the engagement of such a type of play, children make-up the game, as well as, the events that take place during the play activity.
· Manipulative Play
This type of play emphasizes the need for coordination and the development of motor skills in children (Denzin, 468). In such a type of play, children are presented with the opportunity to develop their focus and coordination.
VI. Children’s Right to Play
Cowie, & Carr, (24), argue that just as children have a right to education, they also have a right to engage in play activities without discrimination. Children should not be excluded from playing on the grounds of race, colors, age, or religious beliefs. Discrimination of children from play and play activities is regarded as detrimental to child growth and development, and the discriminated child experiences deterred social and cognitive growth. Healthy play however, implies that the rights of the child or player are upheld, hence promoting positive growth and development in children. All children should be presented with opportunities to participate in their preferred play activity. By so saying, teachers need to create an environment in which children have an equal chance of participating in play without bias or discrimination. Any form of discrimination may decimate the child’s spirit, and may even lead to frustration and depression (Salomon, 22; Broadhead 196). As researchers explain, whenever the right of children in a play is infringed, a child loses their self esteem, which may be carried on to the classroom and the child may not be active in the classroom setting. All children should be treated with the kind of respect they deserve at all times; by giving children an opportunity to play, they become active in class. Play is considered as one of the most valuable social activities to children. For that reason, no individual should be discriminated against in the participation of play (Claxton, & Carr, 22).
VII. Incorporation of Play in Saudi Arabian Classrooms
Saudi Arabia, just like any other country, is the world has rules and regulations that govern the country’s education system. Saudi Arabia has an education system that caters for the needs of both sexes (Al-Ameel 8). Both male and female children have a right to development. Educationists in Saudi Arabia know the importance of play to children and, advocates for enough time for playing. The country has a well-structured education system, in which those who deny their right to education are liable to punishment. The country believes that education is paramount to everybody (Claxton, 42; Delpit, 56). To get a clear picture on how much the government of Saudi Arabia values play in the early year’s classroom, researchers in the field have conducted an analysis of the number of hours children engage in play both inside their schools and outside. These studies have gone to show that even though Saudi Arabian students engage in play activities in school, it is not enough to contribute in the social and cognitive development of children. Most of the children in Saudi Arabia are not actively involved in play both within the school setting and within the home setting. For that reason, there is a need for a complete integration of play in the early year’s school curriculum in Saudi Arabia.
Currently researchers have encouraged the Saudi Arabian government to regulate the number of hours that children play. Studies carried out to investigate the incorporation of play in Saudi Arabian classrooms have unearthed a lot of disparity about the general knowledge on the importance of play. play in developing children in the early years. The teachers most from both public and private schools agree that the early year’s programs in Saudi Arabian schools are the foundation stage in the childhood education. This is the same argument that Al-Shahee, (195) provides. These programs are vital as they focus on pre-reception, reception for children in the age group of two years to 5 years. Evidently, most educators are familiar with the importance of play for children and they allocate large track of land for play. These Saudi Arabian schools are also brightly decorated in the interior of their classroom buildings to encourage the involvement of children in play activities. Additionally, most of the classrooms in Saudi Arabia are themed play room which helps in reflecting what the children have learnt. However, even with the allocation of playing facilities for children. Saudi Arabian teachers and educators have failed in the proper inclusion of play in their early year’s curriculum (Al-Ameel 28). For that reason, these facilities lay to waste, as teachers and educators fail to implement the policies regarding playtime for children.
VIII. Play in Future Curriculum
As previously mentioned, the ministry of education in Saudi Arabia plays an active role in the formulation of policies with regards to early childhood education. Because they have long provided direction for the implementation of learning, they should also encourage the full integration of play into the early childhood curriculum. As a recommendation for complete inclusion of play in Saudi Arabian classrooms, the role of the teacher needs to be emphasized for the assurance of the incorporation of play in future curriculums. All teachers and educators need to familiarize themselves with the theories and types of play, as well as, the policies regarding the children’s rights to play. More specific recommendations for the inclusion of play in the future curriculums may include a proper examination of the games and toys made available to children for play. Teachers and educators need to ensure that the toys they provide for play are related to the unit or subject being taught. For example, in the weekly classroom curriculum, educators may incorporate different toys for different units/subjects such as the water unit, family unit and food unit. In such a case the toys presented to students should directly correspond to the subject taught. Proper planning is also prerequisite for play in future classrooms as it assures that the games chosen for playtime are suitable to meet the needs and requirements of the children. Teachers and educators also need to sort out the role of their students during play activities, and the rules of the game to be played, so as to, determine whether or not the child understands the instructions given. Where possible, Saudi Arabian educators also need to provide assistance for these children during play activities so as to ensure that the full effect of the play activity is felt by the student. An evaluation of the effectiveness of play in the early year’s curriculum will also be necessary in the future curriculums so as to monitor the changes and trends in child development.
Understanding the overall, underlying concept in play, and learning is crucial for early childhood educators and instructors. Play is an age old activity in which anybody can freely engage in disregard of their ages, race, color, gender and religion. The history of play in early childhood education is extraordinarily broad and needs to be covered completely for the comprehension of the concept of play. The most valuable thing to note is the fact that play in learning should be done not only for the sheer enjoyment but of the perceived importance of the growth and development of children. Play is very important in the early year’s classroom, and for that reason, there is a need for the formulation of policies geared at integrating play in the curriculum. The government of Saudi Arabia, as well as, the ministry of education has worked tirelessly to ensure that children have enough time to play during their early childhood education. However, most schools and professionals charged with educating young children do not consider play as important. For that reason, they have exempted play from their early year’s curriculum. This is attributable to the fact that there has not been enough research on the importance of play in Saudi Arabia. Play in the early year’s classroom in Saudi Arabia should, therefore, be included in the future curriculums, as it is instrumental in learning.
X. Works Cited
Al-Ameel, H. The Effects of Different Types of Pre-school Curricula on Some Aspects of
Children’s Experience and Development in Saudi Arabia. Riyadh: King Saud University, 2004. Print. pp. 6-35.
Al-shahee, L The experience of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in the development of early
childhood programmes. Riyadh: University of King Abdul Aziz, 2004. Print.
Attar, Mohammed Mahmoud: Our Children and Play in Early Childhood. Journal of Childhood
and Development, the Arab Council for Childhood and Development, Saudi Arabia, 2003. Print. 187.
Barnett, L.A. The adaptive powers of being playful. M.C.Duncan, G. Chick, & A. Aucock (Eds.)
Play and Culture Studies, 1 (1998): 97-119.
Beckoff, M., Spinka, M., & Newberry, R.C.., (2001). Mammalian play: Training for the
unexpected. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 76.2(2001) 312-320.
Bennett, J. Curriculum Issues in National Policy-Making. European Early Childhood
Education Research Journal, 13.2(2005): 5-23.
Broadhead, Paul. Developing an Understanding of Young Children’s Learning Through Play:
The Place of Observation, Interaction and Reflection. British Educational Research Journal, 32.2 (2006): 191-207.
Brooker, L. Starting School: Young children learning about cultures, Buckingham and
Philadelphia, Open University Press. (2002)
Bruner, J. (1996) The Process of Education. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press.
Cattanach, A. Play Therapy: Where does the sky meet the Underworld? London; Jessica
Carr, M. Assessment in Early Childhood Settings: Learning stories. London, Paul Chapman,
Claxton, G. and Carr, M., ‘A framework for teaching learning: the dynamics of disposition’, Early Years, 24(I), pp.87–97.)
Cowie, B. and Carr, M. ‘The consequences of socio-cultural assessment’ in Anning, A., Cullen,
- and Fleer. M. (eds) Early Childhood Education: Society and culture, London, Sage Publications. (2004)
Delpit, L. Other People’s Children: Cultural conflict in the classroom, New York., The New Press. (1995)
Denzin, Norman. K. Play, Games and Interaction: The Contexts of Childhood Socialization. The
Sociological Quarterly, 16.4 (1995): 458-478.
Dweck, C. S. Self-theories: Their role in motivation, personality and development, Philadelphia, PA, Psychology Press. (1999)
Goodenow, C. ‘Strengthening the links between educational psychology and the study of social contexts’, Educational Psychologist, 27(2), pp.177–96. (1992)
Graue, M. E. and Walsh, D. J. ‘Children in context: interpreting the here and now of children’s lives’ in Hatch, J. A. (ed.) Qualitative Research in Early Childhood Settings, Westport, CT, Praeger. (1995)
Hajji Ibrahim: play, education, knowledge, and the Ministry of Education, “the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the number 8. (1990), p. (16)
Katz, L. G. Dispositions: Definitions and implications for early childhood practices, Perspectives from ERIC/ECCE: a monograph series, Urbana, IL, ERIC Clearinghouse on ECCE. (1993)
McLachlan, C. Early Childhood Curriculum: Planning, Assessment, and
Implementation. London, Cambridge: University Press, 2010. Print.
Mohammed Almnie: Play and developmental dimensions. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, dammam,
Pascal, C. ‘Effective early learning: an act of practical theory’. Paper presented at EECERA
Conference, Cyprus, August. (2002)
Perkins, D. N. ‘Person-plus: a distributed view of thinking and learning’ in Salomon, G. (ed.) Distributed Cognition: Psychological and educational considerations, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. (1993)
Pellegrini, A. D. and Smith Peter K. Physical Activity Play: The Nature and Function of a
Neglected Aspect of Play. Child Development, 69.3(1998): 577-598.
Rubin, K. H. Early play theories revisited: Contributions to contemporary research and
theory. Contributions to Human Development, 6.3(1992): 4-14.
Salomon, G. (ed.) Distributed Cognition: Psychological and educational considerations, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. (1993)
Sutton-Smith, B. The ambiguity of play. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press,
Verenikina, I et al. Child’s Play: Computer Games, Theories of Play and Children’s
Development. 2 July 2003. Web. 14 December 2011.
<< http://crpit.com/confpapers/CRPITV34Verenikina.pdf >>
Whalen, Marilyn R. Working toward Play: Complexity in Children’s Fantasy Activities.
Language in Society, 24.3 (1995): 315-348.
Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?
- Plagiarism free papers
- Timely delivery
- Any deadline
- Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
- Subject-relevant academic writer
- Adherence to paper instructions
- Ability to tackle bulk assignments
- Reasonable prices
- 24/7 Customer Support
- Get superb grades consistently
Online Academic Help With Different Subjects
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!