Structure and Steps in Report Writing

Table of Contents

Structure and Steps in Report Writing. 3

Confirm Exactly What the Client Wants. 3

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Determine What Type of Report Is Required. 3

Conduct the Initial Research. 3

Write the Table of Contents First 3

Sidebar 4

Do Any Additional Research. 4

Create the Skeleton Document 4

Write the Report by Filling in the Blanks. 5

Types of Writing Styles. 5

Difference between oral and written communication. 6

Advantages and disadvantages of written communication. 7

Compare and contrast email, memo and business letters. 9

Short Notes. 12

Memorandum.. 12

Press Release. 13

Business Letter 16

Minutes of Meeting. 19

References. 22


Structure and Steps in Report Writing

Confirm Exactly What the Client Wants

This is a very important initial step. Whether the client is you, or someone else, be sure that everyone is talking about the same thing in terms of final outcome and expectations. When determining this, always think specifically in terms of the final deliverable (usually the final report). What issues must it address? What direction/guidance is it expected to give? What exactly will it contain? What bottom line are they looking for? (Al-Khasawneh & Maher, 2010)

Determine What Type of Report Is Required

This is another very important initial matter to clarify. There are a number of different types of business reports. Although there is usually overlap between the different types, there are also important differences. For example, do they want: a business plan, a business proposal, a strategic plan, a corporate information management plan, a strategic business plan, a marketing plan, a financial plan, or what? Know exactly what type of final report is expected from the outset.

Conduct the Initial Research

Once you know exactly what the client (or you) wants, and the specific type of report they are looking for, you are ready to conduct your initial pre-report research. This stage may be as simple as collecting and reading a few background documents supplied by the client, or it could involve developing questionnaires and conducting detailed interviews with the appropriate people. It will vary with each situation. The Internet of course, can really simplify and shorten the research process, but don’t forget to double and triple check your sources.

Write the Table of Contents First

In my experience, drafting the Table of Contents (TOC), before you start writing the actual report is the single most important key to developing a successful business report. This document can normally be done before, or in parallel with, the first phase of project information gathering. This should be more than just a rough draft TOC. It should be a carefully thought out breakdown of exactly what you imagine the TOC will look like in the final report. Although this takes a certain amount of time and brain power up-front, it really streamlines the rest of the process. What I do is to actually visualize the final report in my mind’s eye and write the contents down. This really works! This TOC then becomes a step-by-step template for the rest of the process.


If you’re writing the report for an external client, it’s a good idea to present the draft Table of Contents to them at this point in the process and get their approval. This will force them to think it through and confirm what they really want at this point. Once they have agreed to a TOC you will have their “buy-in” for the rest of the process, therefore significantly reducing chances of any major changes or reversals at the final report phase (Boone & Kurtz, 2009).

Do Any Additional Research

After thinking through the TOC in detail, you will know if any additional research is required. If yes, do this extra information gathering before you sit down and start to actually write the report. That way, once you begin the writing process you will have all of the information needed at hand and you will not have to interrupt the writing process to conduct any further research.

Create the Skeleton Document

A trick I always use when working with MS-Word is to create a skeleton document first. That is, before you actually write any of the text, enter the entire Table of Contents that you have already developed into MS-Word (see Point4), heading by heading, including sub-headings. At this point, the document is essentially a sequential series of headings and sub-headings with blank space between them. Then, have MS-Word generate an automatic Table of Contents that exactly matches your planned TOC. You’re then ready to start filling in the blank spaces after each heading and sub-heading in the body of the document, with text.

Write the Report by Filling in the Blanks.

That’s right, by filling in the blanks. Once the TOC skeleton framework is in-place as per the previous step, writing the actual report becomes almost like filling in the blanks. Just start at the beginning and work your way sequentially through the headings and sub-headings, one at a time, until you get to the end. Really. At that point, with all of the preparation done, it should be a relatively straightforward process.

Types of Writing Styles

Narrative: Narrative writing is the type of writing that tells a story. Though it’s most commonly used when your child is asked to write a personal essay (along the lines of  What I Did to Celebrate the Holidays), this type of writing can also be used for fictional stories, plays or even plot summarizations of a story your child has read or intends to write. Narrative writing typically uses the first person (“I).

Descriptive: Descriptive writing is used to create a vivid picture of an idea, place or person. It is much like painting with words. It focuses on one subject and uses specific detail to describe that upon which your child is focused. For example, if your child is asked to write about his favorite ride at an amusement park, his writing will not only tell the name of the ride and what it looks like but also describe the sensation of being on it and what that experience reminds him of.

Expository: Expository writing is to-the-point and factual. This category of writing includes definitions, instructions,  directions and other basic comparisons and clarifications. Expository writing is devoid of descriptive detail and opinion.

Persuasive: Persuasive writing is a more sophisticated type of writing to which your child will introduced around fourth grade. It can be thought of as a debate in writing. The idea is to express an opinion or to take a stance about something and then to support that opinion in a way that convinces the reader to see it the same way. Persuasive writing is often in essay form, contains an explanation of the other point of view and uses facts and/or statistics to disprove that view and support your child’s opinion.

Difference between oral and written communication

Words are tools. They provide the power source necessary for human interaction. Every word begins with a thought. A combination of thoughts creates a plan. A plan is then formulated into either oral or written speech. Herein is the birth of effective oral and written communication.
It is a fact that 75% percent or more of our actual exchange of words is found in oral communication. It comes naturally without prompting, as anyone who has been around a demanding baby can attest. There is a continual barrage of words that are communicated on a daily basis. It is estimated that the average two year old already owns a vocabulary of sixty words or more. By the time the child’s age doubles, his vocabulary has grown to 1,500 words. Imagine a child trying to formulate sentences with pen and paper at that age. Effective written communication would be impossible (Fisher & Buglear, 2010).
Oral communication is not concerned with the proper spelling of words. There is no need to deliberate over the use of capital letters. Nor do we bother ourselves with which punctuation mark to use at the end of a sentence. Words just fall from our lips, as quickly as they are formulated with our thoughts, unless we have learned the art of thinking before we speak. Oral communication is more personal and informal, with contractions and slang acceptable.
Written communication, on the other hand, does not come easily. It requires years of training and the development of basic writing skills. Over time and with much practice one can attain confidence in a writing style that is clear and easy to understand. Written communication is a slower process than just speaking what comes to our mind. It is more professional. Psychology has proven that our human tendency is to believe what is written more than the spoken word.
The first steps to learning written communication begin with the first, creative scribbles of a toddler. The deliberate and not so well-formed letters of a kindergartener when he writes his name are often awkward and not so legible. As the child grows his writing skills grow also. Over time, techniques are developed to select a topic, with specific information in mind. A target audience is determined. Keywords are carefully chosen. Sentence structure is evaluated. The first draft can be tested and tried with a trusted loved one or trained instructor to review and edit. Final touches are made to assure the message is successfully conveyed. The written word is then effectively launched.
Different reasons for written communication can be varied. The business world operates on written legal documents, contracts, agreements, procedures, and policies. Today’s varied media devices make written communication more popular than ever before with the use of emails, texting and social media. Regardless of the delivery of the writ, the focus must always be upon clarity and effective delivery. Words are the powerful tools in oral and written communication, used to effectively convey a message. So as the old saying goes, choose your words carefully.

Advantages and disadvantages of written communication

What is written communication? As the name implies, a written communication is a means of communication in which transfer of information from one party to another is done in a written form. There are so many forms of written communications some of these forms include the following: newsletters, memos, books, articles, circulars, reports, posters, notices, etc.

The written communication is one of the most significant means of communication in any organization in the business world. Let us now take a look at some of the advantages of written communication.

Advantages of written communication

One of the biggest advantages of written communication is the fact that it allows for permanent records, which is something other means of communication such as oral communication do not have.

Written communication strengthens and clarifies a verbal message.

Because it allows for permanent records, it is good for making references.

Written communication can be very useful as a defense during legal issues.

Written communication is more reliable than oral communication. A written and signed document carries more weight and validity than spoken words.

Written communication is more precise than other means of communication.

Written communication, because of its form can be stored for analysis to be made in order for one to get a better understanding of the message it contains.

The last but not least advantage of written communication is the fact that it can be easily disseminated to recipients that are in different locations.

Disadvantages of written communication

Below are some of the disadvantages associated with the written communication:

Unlike other forms of communication, written communication can take a considerable amount of time to produce.

Written communication is sometimes limited to people who have sight. Blind people or the visually impaired, for instance cannot receive certain types of written communication. For example, a blind man cannot receive information from a poster or notice.

Written communications are also not flexible. It is a very rigid means of communication.

With written communication feedback is not immediate. Feedback is a very important thing in every organization, which is why a delay in receiving feedback can result in certain unfavorable issues such as slowing down the decision making process.

Poor writing skills can hamper the effectiveness of the written communication. If the writer cannot write effectively then there is a high likelihood that a lot of people are going to misunderstand the message being sent. This can be a very negative thing for any organization and can come with a great deal of severe ramifications.

Another disadvantage of the written communication is that it is time consuming and can be very expensive to produce and to disseminate.

Some illiterates or people who cannot read and write very well will have it pretty difficult getting and understanding the information or message contained within a written means of communication.

Compare and contrast email, memo and business letters

Business letters and e-mail are the two most common types of business communication. There is, however, difference between business letters and business e-mail. From what perspectives do they differ? Application, conservativeness, tone and style, confidentiality, cost, acknowledgment, and environmental impact are the primary features that distinguish the dual modes of correspondence.

Application: In the pre-internet era, business letters were the extensive carriers of business information. Such letters were the standard mode of a company’s internal and external communication. Today, there is a steep decline in the use of letters for business matters, thanks to e-mail as a powerful tool to send and receive messages.

From memos to project discussions to HTML messages, e-mail is a strong conduit to exchange information in the modern world. Business e-mail lets you accomplish the same that you would with business letters. The advent of electronic signature technology makes e-mail the most convenient choice – even from a legal view – for various company-related communications. As laws differ from country-to-country, grey areas remain on whether e-mail contracts are legally binding globally. Such matters are a main exception for the continued use of business letters in the digital world.

Conservativeness: Business letters by default have a rigid outlook. They have to adhere to formalities like letter protocols and styles. You’ve to follow standards, for example, for salutation, address, and the complimentary close. Further, to create a positive company image in the recipient’s mind, you’ve to print business letters on a quality paper and use superior-grade envelopes. E-mail communication is independent of these traits.

Although the above are some of the features that create the difference between business letters and business e-mail, you still have to write the content, in either mode, in a professional way. And, it doesn’t hurt to follow the relevant standards of business letters in business e-mail.

Tone and Style: Business letters follow more or less a formal style and reserved voice. Some exceptions are documents like sales letters. In these, you find content that’s less formal and that uses an interactive tone. What about business communication through e-mail? It typically takes the informal route and uses a less stringent style.

Cost: Business letters cost much money, especially for small enterprises. Here are the cost-components of a business letter: paper, envelope, postage, gum, tape, toner, computer, and printer electricity charges, and the content typing cost. Business e-mail has only the last two elements in the previous list and the modem electricity charges and internet cost. Then, in both types of communication, you’ve got to include the depreciation for the systems.

E-mail is a hands-down winner from the cost angle. You’ll find more depth in the e-mail cost advantage if you bring attachments into the picture. When you send an attachment of several pages with the business letter, your expenses head north. In contrast, e-mail attachments are almost free. The exception is when you attach multimedia files. Such cases dent your budget and internet time. Still, the charges for e-mail will remain lower than for business letters. Further, these can’t beat the convenience and speed of e-mail.

Confidentiality: Business letters, while in transit, maintain the confidentiality of their content better than business e-mail. In the latter case, the scope for someone to snoop on it is larger. Why? It’s because the message travels to its destination via the internet – the public network. With advancements in e-mail security technology like secure protocols and encryption, however, the potential for the wrong eyes to read a business e-mail is lowest.

Acknowledgement: If you need the proof of receipt of your communication, the business letter route serves you the best. True, today’s many desktop e-mail clients have the Return Receipts feature. If it will deliver an acknowledgement depends on whether your customer uses one of such e-mail software and if he has enabled the feature.

Environmental Impact: When the phrase “global warming” has become a house-hold name, it’s prudent to use business e-mail, as much as possible, to save the earth. The lesser the business letters you use for communication, the lower the number of trees that will go under the axe. Make your business greener with e-mail, e-documents, and digital information.


A memo (or memorandum, meaning “reminder”) is normally used for communicating policies, procedures, or related official business within an organization. It is often written from a one-to-all perspective (like mass communication), broadcasting a message to an audience, rather than a one-on-one, interpersonal communication. It may also be used to update a team on activities for a given project, or to inform a specific group within a company of an event, action, or observance.

A memo’s purpose is often to inform, but it occasionally includes an element of persuasion or a call to action. All organizations have informal and formal communication networks. The unofficial, informal communication network within an organization is often called the grapevine, and it is often characterized by rumor, gossip, and innuendo. On the grapevine, one person may hear that someone else is going to be laid off and start passing the news around. Rumors change and transform as they are passed from person to person, and before you know it, the word is that they are shutting down your entire department.

One effective way to address informal, unofficial speculation is to spell out clearly for all employees what is going on with a particular issue. If budget cuts are a concern, then it may be wise to send a memo explaining the changes that are imminent. If a company wants employees to take action, they may also issue a memorandum. For example, on February 13, 2009, upper management at the Panasonic Corporation issued a declaration that all employees should buy at least $1,600 worth of Panasonic products. The company president noted that if everyone supported the company with purchases, it would benefit all. [1]

While memos do not normally include a call to action that requires personal spending, they often represent the business or organization’s interests. They may also include statements that align business and employee interest, and underscore common ground and benefit. A memo has a header that clearly indicates who sent it and who the intended recipients are. Pay particular attention to the title of the individual(s) in this section. Date and subject lines are also present, followed by a message that contains a declaration, a discussion, and a summary.

In a standard writing format, we might expect to see an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. All these are present in a memo, and each part has a clear purpose. The declaration in the opening uses a declarative sentence to announce the main topic. The discussion elaborates or lists major points associated with the topic, and the conclusion serves as a summary.

Short Notes


A memorandum (abbrev. memo) was from the Latin verbal phrase memorandum est, the gerundive form of the verb memoro, “to mention, call to mind, recount, relate”,[1] which means “It must be remembered (that)”. It is, therefore, a note, document or other communication that helps the memory by recording events or observations on a topic, such as may be used in a business office. The plural form of the Latin noun memorandum so derived is properly memoranda, but if the word is deemed to have become a word of the English language, the plural memorandums, abbreviated to memos, may be used. (Katz, Haras & Blaszczynski, 2010)

A memorandum can have only a certain number of formats; it may have a format specific to an office or institution. In law specifically, a memorandum is a record of the terms of a transaction or contract, such as a policy memo, memorandum of understanding, memorandum of agreement, or memorandum of association. Alternative formats include memos, briefing notes, reports, letters or binders. They could be one page long or many. They may be considered as grey literature. If the user is a cabinet minister or a senior executive, the format might be rigidly defined and limited to one or two pages. If the user is a colleague, the format is usually much more flexible. At its most basic level, a memorandum can be a handwritten note to one’s supervisor. In business, a memo is typically used by firms for internal communication, as opposed to letters which are typically for external communication.[2] Hence, we can consider memoranda as an upward communication process through which any complaint, issues, opinion, views and suggestion are put forward to the authorized level.

Dean Acheson famously quipped that “A memorandum is not written to inform the reader but to protect the writer“. Charles Peters wrote that “bureaucrats write memoranda both because they appear to be busy when they are writing and because the memos, once written, immediately become proof that they were busy

Press Release

Press release, news release, media release, press statement or video release is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something ostensibly newsworthy. Typically, they are mailed, faxed, or e-mailed to assignment editors and journalists at newspapers, magazines, radio stations, online media, television stations or television networks.

Tom Kelleher states in his book, Public Relations Online: Lasting Concepts for Changing Media, that “given that your news-driven publics include bona fide journalists as well as others who read and report news online, the term news release seems to work better online than press release”. Fraser Seitel also refers to press releases as being, “the granddaddy of public relations writing vehicles.”[1]

Websites have changed the way press releases are submitted. Commercial, fee-based press release distribution services, such as news wire services, or free website services co-exist, making news distribution more affordable and leveling the playing field for smaller businesses. Such websites hold a repository of press releases and claim to make a company’s news more prominent on the web and searchable via major search engines.

The use of press releases is common in the field of public relations (PR). Typically, the aim is to attract favorable media attention to the PR professional’s client and/or provide publicity for products or events marketed by those clients. A press release provides reporters with an information subsidy containing the basics needed to develop a news story. Press releases can announce a range of news items, such as scheduled events, personal promotions, awards, new products and services, sales and other financial data, accomplishments, etc. They are often used in generating a feature story or are sent for the purpose of announcing news conferences, upcoming events or a change in corporation. Uncritical use or overuse of press releases by journalists has been dubbed churnalism.

A press statement is information supplied to reporters. This is an official announcement or account of a news story that is specially prepared and issued to newspapers and other news media for them to make known to the public.


The first modern press releases were created by Ivy Lee. Lee’s agency was working with the Pennsylvania Railroad at the time of the 1906 Atlantic City train wreck. Ivy Lee and the company collaborated to issue the first press release directly to journalists, before other versions of the story, or suppositions, could be spread among them and reported. He used a press release, in addition to inviting journalists and photographers to the scene as a means of fostering open communication with the media.

Public relations pioneer Edward Bernays later refined the creation and use of press releases.


Technically, anything deliberately sent to a reporter or media source is considered a press release: it is information released by the act of being sent to the media. However, public relations professionals often follow a standard format that they believe is efficient and increases their odds of getting the publicity they desire. The format is supposed to help journalists separate press releases from other PR communication methods, such as pitch letters or media advisories. Generally, a PR body consists of 4 to 5 paragraphs with word limit ranging from 400 to 500.

Some of these common structural elements include:

Headline – used to grab the attention of journalists and briefly summarize the news.

Dateline – contains the release date and usually the originating city of the press release. If the date listed is after the date that the information was actually sent to the media, then the sender is requesting a news embargo, which journalists are under no obligation to honor.

Introduction – first paragraph in a press release, that generally gives basic answers to the questions of who, what, when, where and why.

Body – further explanation, statistics, background, or other details relevant to the news.

Boilerplate – generally a short “about” section, providing independent background on the issuing company, organization, or individual.

Close – in North America, traditionally the symbol “-30-” appears after the boilerplate or body and before the media contact information, indicating to media that the release has ended. A more modern equivalent has been the “###” symbol. In other countries, other means of indicating the end of the release may be used, such as the text “ends”.

Media contact information – name, phone number, email address, mailing address, or other contact information for the PR or other media relations contact person.

As the Internet has assumed growing prominence in the news cycle, press release writing styles have necessarily evolved. Editors of online newsletters, for instance, often lack the staff to convert traditional press release prose into more readable, print-ready copy. Today’s press releases are therefore often written as finished articles which deliver more than just bare facts. A stylish, journalistic format along with perhaps a provocative story line and quotes from principals can help ensure wider distribution among Internet-only publications looking for suitable material.

Business Letter

While business letters still serve as an important form of professional communication, newer ways of corresponding with clients are available to the business owner. These methods, such as email or video conferencing, illustrate both the advantages and disadvantages of the traditional written letter. A well-rounded business operation takes advantage of every useful communication tool.

Proof of Communication

Written letters provide a physical record of business correspondence; they can be filed, pulled out for reference and kept for years. No matter what kind of technology comes along, printed words on paper is a medium that anyone can understand. This is an advantage over email; although email can be printed out, the receipt of a business letter requires no further steps than to open it, read it and file it. Printing emails as written confirmation must include a working printer plus adequate ink and paper. Even with those essentials covered, paper jams, software glitches and email program crashes can interfere with turning an electronic message into a written one. When a business phone call is made, each person can interpret the result differently, because there is no visual proof of the conversation; a business letter clearly spells out the terms of any professional encounter so both parties understand the business at hand.

Courtesy and Language

Business letters are often more professional in tone than email. Even in today’s evolving business environment, people send emails littered with slang, emoticons and personal details. No one would draw in a smiley face and include a favorite movie quote at the bottom of a sales letter, yet people do it every day with email. Courteous use of titles and greetings are also overlooked when doing business through email. Although this is a learned behavior, it is widespread. Language is more polite and businesslike when typed on official, physical letterhead and mailed or delivered to the recipient, giving it a professional advantage.


As the old saying goes, “Time is money,” and time is the disadvantage of business letters. Sending a letter through the regular mail takes time; a letter can even be lost, damaged or destroyed in transit. Business phone calls, video conferences, and emails are quick, almost instant ways to communicate with a client, and business moves along faster. Waiting for an important business letter can take a few days or weeks, depending on the distance between participants.


letters can be filed away, they also take up a lot of space. The physical nature of the letter ends up being a disadvantage when it comes to storage. Some businesses have entire rooms full of file cabinets containing several decades of communication, space that could be used for new offices or equipment. Since electronic communication requires no paper, several years’ worth of emails easily fit onto an external hard drive or flash drive and can be stored in a desk drawer.

Business letters can be written to employees or managers, as well as clients and prospective customers. The business letter is a formal type of communication that is usually typed on 8 1/2 by 11-inch white stationery paper. Business letters must be targeted to a specific individual or group, have a clear and concise purpose, be convincing and end with a specific objective, like a meeting date.

Sales Efforts

The purpose of a business letter can include introducing customers to new products. In direct mail, a form of advertising, these letters are called sales letters. The sales letter is usually mailed with a brochure and order form. While the color brochure often features a company’s products, the sales letter is designed to highlight the key benefits of the products for the consumer or business customer. All introductory or sales letters must follow the AIDA (attention, interest, desire, action) principle, according to The heading or letter should grab the reader’s attention, interest them enough to read it, increase their desire to own the product, and prompt them to purchase it.

Relationship Building

Purposes of business letters also include apprising or thanking business associates or customers. For example, a cover letter sent with a report can apprise business associates about the contents of the report. These letters are often very short, with bullet points highlighting key topics discussed in the report. Thank you letters can be used by companies to thank customers for a recent order. The objective of the thank you letter is to build rapport with the customer, and remind them of the company’s products or website.

Another purpose of a business letter is to order products. This type of letter usually takes the form of a purchase order. The purchase order is a legal document between the buyer and seller that states the quantity and dollar amount of a specific order.

Selling Incentive Sales

The purposes of business letters can include providing sales incentives for customers. Selling incentive sales letters are used to offer rebates, coupons or special deals to long-term customers. For example, a small printing company may offer a 20 percent discount to customers who have used their services for six months or longer. An alternative would be to offer the discount to customers who spend a certain dollar amount with the printer. Companies typically use selling incentive sales letters to promote existing products.


Sometimes, a business must write a letter to acknowledge a complaint. This complaint could involve a customer service issue, damaged product or even an inaccurate shipment. Consequently, the company must write a letter to the customer that informs them what is being done to correct the error. Complaints can lead to potential legal problems. Therefore, it is important for companies to address customer complaints immediately.


Finally, a company may write a business to a “lost customer” or someone who has not purchased products for a while, according to the Austin Business Journal. Internet, mail order and retail companies that use databases often have the ability to pinpoint these customers. Subsequently, they may write to these customers and offer them a special deal. For example, a small cell phone company may send letters to customers who have cancelled their service introducing a new monthly rate that is lower than their competition.

Minutes of Meeting

Minutes, also known as protocols or, informally, notes, are the instant written record of a meeting or hearing. They typically describe the events of the meeting, starting with a list of attendees, a statement of the issues considered by the participants, and related responses or decisions for the issues.

Minutes may be created during the meeting by a typist or court reporter, who may use shorthand notation and then prepare the minutes and issue them to the participants afterward. Alternatively, the meeting can be audio recorded, video recorded, or a group’s appointed or informally assigned Secretary may take notes, with minutes prepared later. Many government agencies use minutes recording software to record and prepare all minutes in real-time.

For private organizations, it is usually important for the minutes to be terse and only include a summary of discussion and decisions. A verbatim report is typically not useful. The minutes of certain groups, such as a corporate board of directors, must be kept on file and are important legal documents (Langan & Winstanley 2005).

Generally, minutes begin with the name of the body holding the meeting (e.g., a committee), place, date, list of people present, and the time that the chair called the meeting to order. Attendees are sometimes assigned initials (e.g., JD for Jane Doe) and referred to by these initials in the main body of the minutes. The minutes then record what was actually said at the meeting, either in the order that it was actually said or in a more coherent order, regardless of whether the meeting follows any written agenda. Another format, which is not used as much, records the events in the order they occur on the written agenda, regardless of the actual chronology.

Meeting minutes can also be recorded in customized templates that represent the standards established by that organization.

Since the primary function of minutes is to record the decisions made, all official decisions must be included. If a formal motion is proposed, seconded, passed, or not, then this is recorded. The voting tally may also be included. The part of the minutes dealing with a routine motion might note merely that a particular motion was “moved by Ann and passed unanimously“. It is not strictly necessary to include the name of the person who seconds a motion. Where a tally is included, it is sufficient to record the number of people voting for and against a motion (or abstaining), but requests by participants to note their votes by name may be allowed. If a decision is made by roll call vote, then all of the individual votes are often recorded by name. If it is made by general consent without a formal vote, then this fact may be recorded. Tallies may be omitted in some cases (e.g., a minute might read “After voting, the Committee agreed to…”). Minutes typically include whether a report was presented, a legal issue was discussed (such as a potential conflict of interest), if a particular aspect of an issue was considered, or that a person arrived late (or left early) at a particular time. The minutes may end with a note of the time that the meeting was adjourned.

Minutes are sometimes submitted by the person who is responsible for them (often the Secretary – not the typist) at a subsequent meeting for review. The traditional closing phrase is “Respectfully submitted” (although this is no longer common), followed by the officer’s signature, his or her typed (or printed) name, and his or her title.

If the members of the committee or group then agree that the written minutes reflect what happened at the meeting, then they are approved, and the fact of their approval is recorded in the minutes of the current meeting. If there are significant errors or omissions then the minutes will be redrafted and submitted again at a later date. Minor changes may be made immediately, and the amended minutes may be approved “as amended”. It is normally appropriate to send a draft copy of the minutes to all the members in advance of the meeting so that the meeting is not delayed by a reading of the draft.

Minutes also record if a task has been assigned (“an action”) and to the specific person responsible for completion. The deadline for the task can also be included in the minutes. Reviewing past actions is typically an important part of meeting agendas.


Al-Khasawneh, F. M. S., & Maher, S. (2010). Writing for academic purposes: Problems faced by Arab postgraduate students of the College of Business, UUM. ESP World, 9(28), 1-23.

Boone, L. E., & Kurtz, D. L. (2009). Contemporary business 2010 update. John Wiley & Sons.

Fisher, C., & Buglear, J. (2010). Researching and writing a dissertation: an essential guide for business students. Pearson Education.

Katz, I. R., Haras, C., & Blaszczynski, C. (2010). Does business writing require information literacy?. Business Communication Quarterly, 73(2), 135-149.

Langan, J., & Winstanley, S. (2005). College writing skills with readings (p. 23). McGraw-Hill.



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  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

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