Project Design, Implementation And Evaluation

Project Design, Implementation And Evaluation




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Project Formulation…………………………………………………………6

Project Implementation……………………………………………………..9

Project Evaluation………………………………………………………….14

Presenting Projects Outcomes……………………………………………….18



It is truly said that to attain the perfect knowledge of the task we have to go through it. Similarly, it’s not until to know a perfect knowledge of a language until we undertake a project like this to realize the true power of programming language. As some people has the tendency of firmly accepting suggestions and from any near or dear we thank god for gifting this quality in us without which we would not be able to accept suggestions from my friends and hence this project would not be much better as it is after development.


Developing a project consist of various stages and steps. Initial stage consists of preplanning that can be from different sources. Then it consists of a feasibility study, analysis, design, implementation, post-implementation and maintenance.

The basic purpose is to do the design, implement and evaluate using different life cycles like SDLC. Any project can be developed by using these steps only.

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4.1 Formulate a project

Project formulation is the process of documenting the eligible facility, the eligible work and the

eligible cost for damaged projects. The formulation allows the consolidation of similar work items into projects to expedite approval and funding and to facilitate project management. More than One damage site may be combined in a project. This offers flexibility in organizing and managing the work around the applicant’s needs. The applicant is responsible for identifying all Damages and determining how work projects will be formed.


A Project Worksheet (PW) is the form used to document the scope of work and cost estimate for

a project. This form supplies FEMA with the information necessary to approve the scope of

work and itemized cost estimate prior to funding. Each project is documented on a separate PW.

The approved PW then becomes the basis for funding under the Public Assistance Program.


The formulation consists of various phases:-

Initiation Phase

 The Initiation Phase begins when a business sponsor identifies a need or an opportunity.  The purpose of the Initiation Phase is to:

  • Identify and validate an opportunity to improve the business accomplishments of the organization or a deficiency related to a business need.
  • Identify significant assumptions and constraints on solutions to that need.
  • Recommend the exploration of alternative concepts and methods to satisfy the need including questioning the need for technology, i.e., will a change in the business process offer a solution?
  • Assure executive business and executive technical sponsorship.

 System Concept Development Phase

 The System Concept Development Phase begins after a business need or the Agency/Organization Program Leadership and the Agency/Organization CIO validates the opportunity.  The purpose of the System Concept Development Phase is to:

  • Determine the feasibility and appropriateness of the various alternatives.
  • Identify system interfaces.
  • Identify basic functional and data requirements to satisfy the business need.
  • Establish system boundaries; identify goals, objectives, critical success factors, and performance measures.
  • Evaluate costs and benefits of alternative approaches to satisfy the basic functional requirements
  • Assess project risks
  • Identify and initiate risk mitigation actions, and
  • Develop high-level technical architecture, process models, data models, and a concept of operations


Planning, Requirements Analysis Phase


During this phase, a plan is developed that documents the approach to be used and includes a discussion of methods, tools, tasks, resources, project schedules, and user input.  Personnel assignments, costs, project schedule, and target dates are established.  A Project Management Plan is created with components related to acquisition planning, configuration management planning, quality assurance planning, concept of operations, system security, verification and validation, and systems engineering management planning. The purposes of this phase are to:

  • Further define and refine the functional and data requirements and document them in the Requirements Document,
  • Complete business process reengineering of the functions to be supported (i.e., verify what information drives the business process, what information is generated, who generates it, where does the information go, and who processes it),
  • Develop detailed data and process models (system inputs, outputs, and the process.
  • Develop the test and evaluation requirements that will be used to determine acceptable system performance.

Design Phase


During this phase, the system is designed to satisfy the functional requirements identified in the previous phase.  Since problems in the design phase could be very expensive to solve in the later stage of the software development, a variety of elements are considered in the design to mitigate risk.  These include:

  • Performing a security risk assessment.
  • Developing a conversion plan to migrate current data to the new system.
  • Determining the operating environment.
  • Defining major subsystems and their inputs and outputs.
  • Allocating processes to resources.
  • Preparing detailed logic specifications for each software module.


Development Phase

 Effective completion of the previous stages is a key factor in the success of the Development phase.  The Development phase consists of:

  • Translating the detailed requirements and design into system components.
  • Testing individual elements (units) for usability.
  • Preparing for integration and testing of the IT system.

Integration and Test Phase

 Subsystem integration, system, security, and user acceptance testing is conducted during the integration and test phase.  The user, with those responsible for quality assurance, validates that the functional requirements, as defined in the functional requirements document, are satisfied by the developed or modified system.  OIT Security staff assesses the system security and issue a security certification and accreditation prior to installation/implementation.  Multiple levels of testing are performed, including:

  • Testing at the development facility by the contractor and possibly supported by end-users
  • Testing as a deployed system with end-users working together with contract personnel
  • Operational testing by the end-user alone performing all functions.

4.2 Implement the project within agreed procedures and to specification.

In computer science, an implementation is one of the realization of a technical specification or algorithm as a software component or other computer system through computer programming and deployment. Many implementations may exist for a given specification or standard. For example, web browsers contain implementations of World Wide Web Consortium-recommended specifications, and software development of tools that can contain implementations ofprogramming languages.


Project Implementation Consist Of various steps:-

  • Introduction to Project Implementation
  • Project Activation
  • Project Operation
  • Approaches to Project Implementation
  • Project Implementation Plan


Project implementation is the process in which projects input are converted into the project’s output.

  • May be looked at as:
    • Putting in action the activities of the project.
    • Putting into practice what was proposed in the project document (i.e. transforming the project proposal into the actual project.)
    • Management of the project or executing the project intentions.

Implementation usually done by implementing agency (organization) that prepared the project and received funding for it.Other organizations that participate in the implementation of the project by way of collaboration, say by according good working relationship, extending technical advice or seconding their staff to the project are referred to as co-operating agencies.


Project implementation involves different phases:-

  • Project activation, and
  • Project operation

Project activation

  • This means making arrangements to have the project started. It also involve coordination and allocation of resources to make project operational.

 Project operation

This is practical management of a project. Here, project inputs are transformed into outputs to achieve immediate objectives


Approaches to project implementation:-

Top-down approach

  • Implementation mainly done by agencies from outside the community with limited involvement by the beneficiaries.

Bottom-up approach

  • Beneficiaries implement the project. Outside agencies can provide the financial resources and technical assistance.

Collaborative participatory approach

  • Top-down and bottom-up approaches to project implementation are applied in the process.


Project Implementation plan:-

  1. a) The project implementation schedule

This is concerned with:

  • What activities can produce expected project outputs?
  • What is the sequence of these activities?
  • What is the time frame for these activities?
  • Who will be responsible for carrying out each activity?

The Project Implementation plan includes:-

  • The following methods may be used to answer the above questions:
  • Gantt chart
  • Critical Path Method (CPM) or Network analysis
  • Project Evaluation and Review Techniques (PERT)
  • Simple formats



  • The Gantt chart is also referred to as the progress chart.
  • It is a chart showing the timing of project activities using horizontal bars.
  • It is one of the techniques of project scheduling, which depicts the frequency of activities and determines the period of time for implementation.


Determination and construction of Gantt chart

Determine the parts or implementation phases of the project and the sequence in which the associated activities shall be carried outThen estimate the amount of time required for each activity. List the activities that can be carried out at the same time and identify those to be carried out sequentially Time represented on the horizontal axis, and activities on the vertical axis. Bars are entered to indicate the time period allocated for each activity and the state of progress at any particular point in time.




  • Marketing
  • Threshing
  • Harvesting
  • Weeding
  • Planting
  • Preparing seedbed



Figure 4.2


The Simple Format:-



Project Implementation Plan:-

Time control and remedial action

Time taken to implement project activities is one measure of successfullness of supervision or monitoring of project implementation. Supervisor pays particular attention to time control measures, time scheduling and its supervision, time extension and postponement, damages for non-completion and defect or warranty period.

Supervision of implementation of project schedule

This involves a set of checks and balances to ensure that the schedule is being adhered to. To ensure that the time schedule is being adhered to, the project activity time listing can be of great importance.









4.3 Evaluate the project outcomes:-


Project evaluation is a systematic method for collecting, analyzing, and using information to answer questions about projects, policies and program particularly about their effectiveness and efficiency. In both the public and private sectors, stakeholders often want to know whether the project they are funding, implementing, voting for, receiving or objecting to are producing the intended effect. While project evaluation first focuses around this definition, important considerations often include how much the project costs per participant, how the project could be improved, whether the project is worthwhile, whether there are better alternatives, if there are unintended outcomes, and whether the projects goals are appropriate and useful. Evaluators help to answer these questions, but the best way to answer the questions is for the evaluation to be a joint project between evaluators and stakeholders.


Reliability, validity and sensitivity in Project evaluation

It is important to ensure that the instruments (for example, tests, questionnaires, etc.)  Used in project evaluation are as reliable, valid and sensitive as possible. Only if outcome measures are valid, reliable and appropriately sensitive can impact assessments be regarded as credible.



The reliability of a measurement instrument is the ‘extent to which the measure produces the same results when used repeatedly to measure the same thing. The more reliable a measure is, the greater it statistical power and the more credible its findings. If a measuring instrument is unreliable, it may dilute and obscure the real effects of a project, and the project will ‘appear to be less effective than it actually is. Hence, it is important to ensure the evaluation is as reliable as possible.


The project constructed should be valid in the nature such that it should with the requirements of the user. I f the project build does fit the requirement of the user then its need to reconstruct the project using different approaches to construct the project.


The principal purpose of the project evaluation is to measure whether the project has an effect on the social problem to which it address. Hence, the measurement instrument must be sensitive enough to discern these potential changes. A project would be sensitive enough such that it should meet all the requirements of the user and it should follow some standards and some predesigned models. If the project satisfies such thing then it is considered that it is sensitive enough to satisfy the user needs.

Project outcomes can evaluate by using the testing:-

Testing is done in order to evaluate the various outcomes that have obtained from the project. As we know that the project created is no perfect so we have do the project evaluation with the help of testing.

The various types of testing are:


  • Unit testing: – It is made in the existing and new program.


  • Sequential Testing: – Check the logic of one or more programs in the candidate system, where the output one program will affect the processing done by the other program.


  • System Testing: – It is a program to check the logicchanges made in one or more programs in order to find the errors in it.


  • Positive Testing: – It makes sure that the new programs do in fact progress certain transaction according to specification.


  • Acceptance Testing: – Acceptance testing is running the system with live data by the actual user.


The first test of a system is to see whether it produces the correct outputs. System testing basically checks the outputs and also compares the logics in order to find errors. Another reason for system testing is its utility as user-oriented vehicle before the implementation.


Project evaluation can be done through various tests:-

  1. Online Response:- online system must have a response time that will not cause a hardship of the user. On the way to test this is to input transactions on as many crt screens as would normally be used in the peak hours.


  1. Volumes: – in this test we create as many records as would normally be produced to verify the hardware and software will function correctly.


  1. Stress Testing:- the purpose of the stress testing is to improve that the candidate system does not malfunction under peak loads. Unlike volume testing where time is not the factor we subject the system to a high volume over a short period of time.


  1. Recovery and security:- a forced system failure is induced to test a backup recovery procedure for file integrity. In accurate data are entered to see how the system response in the term of error correction and detection.


  1. Usability documentation and procedure:- the usability test verify the user friendly nature of the system. This consists of normal operating and the error handling too. For example, one aspect of the user friendliness is the accurate and complete documentation. This user is asked to use only the documentation and procedures as a guide to determine whether the system can run more smoothly or not.

The Activity network used in the testing are:-

  • Prepare the plan:-
  • Specify the condition for user acceptance testing.
  • Prepare the data for the program testing.
  • Prepare the test data for transaction path testing.
  • Plan user training.
  • After that compile and assemble the programs that are being used.
  • Prepare the job performance aids.
  • Prepare the operation document.


Quality Assurance:-

The amount of complexity of the software produced today stagger the imagination. Software Made should contain all the modules that are being specified the user. Consequents some control must be developed so that quality of the software can be ensured.

Basically quality insurance defines the objectives of the project and reviews the overall activities so that errors are corrected early in the development process.


Quality factors specification:-


  • Correctness:- the project made should be correct in the nature.
  • Reliability:- The degree to which the system perform its intended function over a time.
  • Efficiency:-The system should much efficient so that it perform all the tasks.
  • Usability:-the efforts required learning and operating the system.
  • Maintainability:-The ease with which the program errors are accepted and corrected.
  • Testability:- the effort required to test a program in order to test a program in order to ensure its correctness.
  • Portability:-The ease of transporting the program from one hardware configuration to another.
  • Accuracy:-The required precision in input editing, computation and its output.


  • Error tolerance:-the error that the projects have should be removed.
  • Expandability:-the project can expand whenever there is to expand the project.
  • Access control and audit:-control to access the system and the extent to which access can be audited.
  • Communicativeness:- How descriptive or useful the inputs and outputs of the system are

The project evaluation is on done on the various factors which are explained above. If the system contains all those factors and system passes the entire test then only the system can be hand over to the user. The developing team sees all the problems than does the analysis according to that only.

If the evaluation of the system is proper than the developer can it presents its various outcomes.
















4.4 Present the project outcomes:-

In the project outcome the outcomes of the project are represented in a proper manner.

Outcomes are all the changes and effects that happen as a result of your work. Whenever an work is done possible outcomes are there. The outcomes can be positive or negative according to work done.


Inputs These are the resources you put into your project to deliver its outputs.Inputs include time, money and premises.


Outputs Output are the services and facilities you deliver. Outputs include training courses, support sessions and publications.


Impact Although we do not use this word, you may have come across it.Whereas an outcome is a change resulting from project outputs, impact refers tobroader, longer-term change and relates to your overall aim. We call this ‘long-termchange’.


It can be difficult to assess long-term change in the lifetime of a short project.


We can show the relationship between these terms like this.

Input > Output > Outcome > Long-term change

The inputs to your project allow you to deliver your outputs. These bring about outcomes, which lead to long-term changes.

Representing it with a diagram:

 Different projects – different outcomes

There are many kinds of outcomes, but we are most likely to fund projects bringing about long-term change for:

  • Individuals;
  • Families;
  • Communities; and
  • Organizations.

But outcomes may also happen elsewhere, for example, in the environment or bringing about a shift in government policy.

 Outcomes in individuals

Many projects we fund work with individuals. We can often see individual outcomes in:

  • Skills or ability;
  • Knowledge;
  • Attitude;
  • Self-confidence;
  • Self-image;
  • Relationships;
  • Behavior;
  • Circumstances; and
  • Health.

These are some examples of individual outcomes:

  • increased knowledge of services available;
  • Greater self-esteem;
  • improved relationships;
  • reduced offending behavior; and
  • being rehoused.


Outcomes can also apply to volunteers, as well as clients.





System, Analysis and Designby  Elias M. Awadh






Baroudi, J., Olson, M..and Ives
































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