The Effects of Police Brutality against African Americans

Analyzing the Effects of Police Brutality against African Americans


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Police brutality is police misconduct on the general population, which involves violence. According to statistics police brutality is spread widely all through the many states of America. The police have always been involved in abusive positions through corrections facilities and the federal penal facilities, which include military penitentiaries. According to the FBI data, 85 law enforcement officers have since been killed between the years, 1980-2018. The officers were killed feloniously and not in the line of duty.

Police brutality is a daily occurrence across the USA, most of it inflicted in the form of a few extra blows, punches, or kicks during arrests (Kirschner, 1997). Police brutality has been a controversial issue that has been a part of this country that was brought to light in 1991 during the Rodney King beating. More African Americans are becoming the victims of police brutality in which law enforcement officers use excessive force when it is not deemed necessary. Black Americans are nearly three times more likely than are white Americans to be killed by police— accounting for more than 40% of victims of all police killings nationwide—and five times more likely than are white Americans to be killed unarmed (Bor, Venkataramani, Williams, & Tsai, 2018).

Quite often the criminal justice systems are failing to hold law enforcement officers accountable for their actions, resulting in heightened emotions and destroyed relations between law enforcement officers and the African American community. Police brutality is a form of police misconduct and unethical behavior that has no place in the criminal justice field. Due to the severity of the issues police brutality against African American causes, there is a strong need for accountability within the criminal justice field. Police brutality in connection with the deadly force is not necessary as is going to be described in this paper. Deadly force, in most jurisdiction, is only justified only under extreme situations and should be used only as of the last resort when the other means cannot reasonably work.

Racism and prejudice have claimed the lives of many individuals in America. It explains the loophole that exists in the system. The excessive use of force is a generalized idea that is covered by the law. Police training strives so hard to mitigate the false action plan before the incidences occur. Every police are trained to write a false report against any form of injustice that might be performed leaving the law twisted and in favor of them. The high incarceration and killings of the blacks have brought about a high number of deaths and therefore brings about the wrong image of the blacks. The attitude that rings across all nations are that blacks are crime-prone!

Methodology and Analytical Procedures

Throughout this research paper, secondary data will be utilized to back up the thesis. I will also use case studies from cases in which law enforcement officials used excessive force when it was not deemed necessary. Data will also be utilized from the National Police Misconduct, bureau of justice statistics (BJS), FBI’s uniform crime reports (UCR) and other Reporting Projects.

The study requires a sufficient mode of gathering information through different sources. The main source/ method to be used in the research will be archival or library research. Other methods include; interviews and journals. These methods of gathering information will help in the completion of the paper prompts diligently. They also go in line with the BJs, UCR reports and other reporting sources such as newspapers.

Interview best expresses the feelings and effects of police brutality onto the people thus making it a tool for the completion of my research. Engaging prisoners, lawyers and advocates, police officers and the affected individuals will help source out the proper information. The interview basically is to put the research into a practical setting and also help identify the motif of the majority. Observation is also one of the methods to be used to connect the reports, the opinions and facts. Different experiences and opinions from the data sources help bring up a solid response to the question on analysis of the effects of police brutality against the African Americans.


The thesis honors the lives lost, discriminated persons, and stereotyped individuals. I also thank in finality for the kind of support and gestures that I received from friends and tutors. I extend my sincerest thanks to all of them.

Most importantly, I want to give it all unto the Almighty Lord for the knowledge and wisdom given unto me through strength and health in totality which has helped me finish this semester research.

I am also humbled by the help I received from my family; for their encouragement and facilitation that drove me to the completion of this paper.

I also thank my school for giving me the convenience of studying and researching all through this paper. I also thank them for the consistent guidance and supervision and the will to provide the necessary equipment regarding the research.

My special gratitude to my tutor for the learning space and also the initiative to help in this paper.

I thank my colleagues and also appreciate people who supported me all through the research out of their abilities.

Table of Contents

Abstract. 2

Methodology and Analytical Procedures. 3

Acknowledgment. 4

Introduction. 7

Purpose of the investigation. 7

Statement problem.. 7

Background (context and significance) of the issue. 8

Policing. 15

Law enforcement (who does it usually apply to). 15

Police brutality (when is it necessary). 18

Police attempt to terminate a high-speed car. 18

Self-defense when an imminent danger is observed. 19

A suspect fleeing with a handgun on his/her hand. 19

A suspect not complying instructions. 20

If the police do not violate the fourth amendment. 20

Law enforcement officers training. 20

Police punishment (for use is excessive force). 23

Discussion. 26

Black lives matter. 26

Killing fields explaining police violence against persons of color. 28

Justice and peace. 30

Organizational factors that contribute to the use of deadly force. 32

Adrenalin control 33

Street justice. 33

Suspect intoxication. 34

Misidentification of suspects. 34

Abuse of authority. 34

Poor training. 35

Perception of the police. 35

Police killing and their spillover effects on mental effects. 37

Racism and police brutality. 38

Stereotypes. 39

Stop frisk. 40

Conclusion. 41

Recommendations. 44

References. 48





            Purpose of the investigation

Police brutality and human rights violation have been on-trend on the recent statistics on American security. Through the acknowledgment of human rights and the social phenomenon, I drive its relationship to the black lives, stereotypes amongst other forms of discrimination. The paper analyzes the effects of police brutality against black Americans.

            Statement problem

Police brutality is starting to become more common in today’s society. With the increase of police brutality, it results in turmoil between members of society and law enforcement officials. Many people feel that the cause of police brutality is due to law enforcement officers not being properly trained, lack of training,  law enforcement officers not being held accountable for their actions, and racism.  Although police brutality is illegal and a violation of the Fourth Amendment, members of society still fall victim to it. Police brutality is an issue that needs to be addressed because it destroys relationships between law enforcement officers and the members of the community in which they patrol and if they do not face liability for their wrongdoings the problem will continue.

The policing in America is somehow limited to black American fears since the various forms of coercion are not justified by the court of law. According to the Tennessee v. Garner case law of 1985, the United States Supreme Court affected the fact that deadly force could only be used under extremities where the police have no other probable course of action. The jury stated “deadly force… may not be used unless necessary to prevent the escape and the officer has probable cause to believe that the suspect poses a significant threat of death or serious bodily harm to the officer or others.” Police brutality has affected the majority of the populations in America. Just as the common law allows the officers to use coercion as a form of implementation, they also consider the extremities that it should be applied. The trend on police brutality has since caused substantial risks leading to several deaths reported and even serious bodily injury or harm.

          Background (context and significance) of the issue.

Police brutality has been an ongoing and controversial topic that continues to pose as an issue in today’s society. The role of the police officer is to protect and serve members of the communities in which they police. Law enforcement officers are charged with upholding standards and having high regards for the laws in which they enforce. Quite often, there are police officers who abuse their power and fail to treat suspects with dignity and respect. In accordance with the constitution of the United States of America, citizens have the right to be free from excessive force and cruel and unusual punishment. All ethnicities should be treated equally when having encounters with law enforcement officers however studies have shown otherwise. According to Bor, Venkataramanie, Williams, & Tsai (2018), Black Americans are nearly three times more likely than are white Americans to be killed by police— accounting for more than 40% of victims of all police killings nationwide—and five times more likely than are white Americans to be killed unarmed. Is there a link between race and police brutality?

Police officers—as the gatekeepers of formal social control—are not only responsible for enforcing laws and protecting the public but also are entrusted to represent order and justice in society (Wolfe &Piquero, 2011). There are different types of police misconduct that occurs in today’s criminal justice system; which include false arrest or wrongful imprisonment, wrongful search and seizure, racial discrimination, sexual harassment, sexual abuse, police brutality, and use of excessive force.  The use of excessive force is said to be the most common form of police brutality. According to Walker (2011), police brutality is defined as “the use of excessive physical force or verbal assault and psychological intimidation” (p. 579). The primary goal of excessive force is for a police officer to use the necessary amount of force to gain compliance or control a situation.

To date, there are a total of three eras of policing. These eras are known as The political Era which covers the years between 1840-1930, The Reform Era which covers the years between 1930-1980, and the Community Era which covers the years of 1980 to present. The origin of the term police brutality dates back to 1872 when the Chicago Tribune reported that police officers beat a civilian at the Harrison Street Police Station when he was under arrest, but it was the Rodney King beating that brought awareness to police brutality. The 1992 Rodney King trial remains one of the most captivating moments in recent legal history (Stuart, 2011). On March 3, 1991, an African American male by the name of Rodney King was stopped by the Los Angeles Police Department for a traffic violation. During the traffic stop, he failed to comply with the law enforcement orders which resulted in the officer violently beating Rodney King. In fact, he was struck over fifty times with nightsticks. An innocent bystander was able to film the incident from his balcony and send footage to local news stations. The officers that were involved in this incident were all tried on charges for use of excessive force; a form of police brutality. It was the beating of King, and the subsequent acquittal of some of the officers involved in his beating, that served as the spark that brought to light police brutality against minorities and served as the catalyst for Los Angeles riots of 1992( police brutality and race).

It is during the Community Era in which police brutality and race appears to be a major concern. The Department of Justice (DOJ) Office of Civil Rights (OCR) has investigated more than a dozen police departments in major cities across the USA on allegations of either racial discrimination or police brutality (Gabbidon& Greene2013). When comparing the encounters of the African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian population, studies showed that African Americans had more negative encounters with police officers. In a 2001 Race, Crime, and Public Opinion survey that consisted of 978 Caucasians and 1,010 African Americans findings revealed that both races had different attitudes towards police officers. For instance, 38 % of Whites and 89 % of Blacks viewed the criminal justice system as biased against Blacks (Tonry, 2011). The survey also revealed that only 8% of African Americans and 56% of Caucasians stated that they have confidence in the law enforcement and criminal justice system.

The perception of the police plays a critical role in how law enforcement officers successfully carrying out their daily operations. Public hostility toward the police can affect the careers of officers, administrators, and even politicians (perception of the police).  Studies have shown that members from different races have certain different views on how they perceive police officers to be. According to the most commonly studies minority has been blacks and the majority of the research indicates that blacks view the police less favorable than whites. (perception). Some researchers have concluded that the reason African Americans view the police negatively is because of mistreatment by police officers during some encounters.

The perception of the police varies by race. African Americans, Caucasians, Hispanics all perceive police officers differently.  The criminal justice system is an American institution that has had an extensive history of conflict with Black citizens. Moreover, Blacks often point to the disparity in American arrest and imprisonment rates between Blacks and Whites as evidence of racial discrimination in the justice system (Steffensmeier& Demuth, 2000). Utilizing numbers from a National Survey conducted by CATO Institute, the results showed that 68% of white Americans have a favorable view of the police; only 40% of African Americans and 59% of Hispanics have a favorable view. Most Americans have had positive experiences with the police but those who have experienced verbal and physical misconduct are disproportionately African American and Hispanic individuals.

Stereotyping normally occurs when an individual is automatically judged without having any knowledge of an individual. The stereotype threat is a result of an inadvertently confirming to an unwanted belief about them due to their race, socioeconomic status, or criminal background. Negative stereotypes have a negative impact on the individual who is stereotyped.  Authorities and white citizens alike may stereotype minorities as dangerous and prone to criminality (Chambliss, 2001; Turk, 1969). In some situations, African Americans may feel as if it is expected of them to behave in a negative manner, so as a result, they do so when having encounters with police officers.

In regards to the criminal justice system unconscious racial bias has been shown to produce adverse race-based behavior. The prevalence of racial stereotypes that link criminality and violence to race activate these unconscious processes (Eberhardt, Goff, Purdie, & Davies, 2004).

Police brutality is improper and unjust. We are never aware of the thoughts, which occur when a police officer is having an encounter with a suspect or potential suspect. There are varieties of reasons why police officers say they used excessive force on an individual, yet their reasoning may not always be truthful. One of the main reasons for police officers using excessive force is due to lack of training. Police officers should have the skills and abilities required to effectively manage situations where the use of force may be required. The lack of development in use of force training can be explained by a lack of knowledge regarding the specific skills and abilities that are required of police officers to effectively manage situations where the use of force may be necessary (Rajakaruna, Henry, Cutler, &Fairman, 2017).

In addition to a lack of training, there are varieties of organizational factors that contribute to the causes of police brutality.

Quite often police officers are caught in the heat of the moment and quickly react during an encounter and use excessive force when the situation doesn’t warrant it. One of the common issues is shooting and or killing unarmed suspects. Studies have shown that African American men are more likely to be shot and killed by police officers when compared to other races. For example, The Washington Post reported that there was a total, of 991 fatal shootings conducted by police officers in the year of 2015. 50% of the victims were Caucasian, 26% were African Americans, and 26% were Hispanics. Although the percentage was higher for the Caucasians. Studies also indicated that African Americans are more likely to be shot and killed by police officers even when they are unarmed. According to Jones (2017) every year, roughly 1,000 people are lethally shot by the police—about 10% of whom are unarmed, and 40–50% of these are racial and ethnic minorities—thus the urgency of this volume.

In order to further highlight police officers killing unarmed African Americans the Michael Brown case will be utilized as an example. Michael Brown was an 18-year-old African American male who was fatally shot and killed by a Caucasian police officer by the name of Darren Wilson. On July 17, 2014, Eric Garner died as a result of the New York City Police Officer putting him in a chokehold. During an autopsy, the medical examiners ruled his death as a result of compression of the neck. During the encounter with the police officer, Eric Garner was not armed, however, he told the police officer that he was tired of being harassed. Mr. Garner, repeatedly informed the police officers that he was not able to breathe, yet they failed to provide him with the medical attention that he needed. According to Chaney & Davis (2015), the fatal shooting of Michael Brown serves as a painful reminder to African-Americans and other marginalized communities of their own mortality as well as the blatant disregard that police have for Black life.

Another case that can be used to highlight the police officers killing unarmed African Americans is the Philando Castile case. In that particular encounter, Philando Castile was stopped during a traffic stop by a police officer by the name of Jeronimo Yanez. Jeronimo Yanez requested for his license and registration. Philando Castile informed the police officer that he had a gun and that he was reaching for his license and registration, yet the officer shot him seven times. The victim had his girlfriend in the car along with their child. After the shooting, the police officer also treated her in a harsh manner and taken into custody for no reason.

In both of the aforementioned cases, the blame was placed on the victims. While not surprising, Dukes and Gaither (2017) find that victims are perceived as more at fault—and shooters less at fault—when victims are described in a negative, Black-stereotypical way. Criminal records of both individuals were broadcasted as an attempt to encourage members of society that law enforcement officers did no wrong. Dukes and Gaither (2017) pointed out that when racial minorities are depicted as victims, they are often dehumanized, demonized, and criminalized. This is known to be a form of victim-blaming. Victim blaming normally occurs when victims are held liable and at fault for any wrongful acts, hardships, and misfortunes. Victim blaming has plagued the criminal justice system and is a moral issue that has no room in the criminal justice system.

Police brutality along with other forms of misconduct will continue to pose as an issue in today’s society if police officers do not get accountable for their actions.

Because police brutality and the use of excessive force is a major issue in today’s society, many suspects are using the media to raise awareness of the situation. Black Americans are nearly three times more likely than are white Americans to be killed by police— accounting for more than 40% of victims of all police killings nationwide—and five times more likely than are white Americans to be killed unarmed (Bor, Venkataramani, Williams, & Tsai, 2018). Majority of these nationwide police brutality cases would often go unknown if it weren’t for the media. As mentioned earlier the Rodney King beating was recorded by an innocent bystander and later on presented to the world to see through the media. In fact, the law enforcement officers using excessive force on Rodney King appeared to be so brutal that the many wondered how the officers involved received a verdict of not guilty. Research has found that minorities are more likely to consume media coverage of police misconduct incidents which result in perceptions of increased police misconduct in their community, increased negative attitudes toward police, and increased support for police reform (Chermak, Mcgarrell, &Gruenewald, 2006).

The brutal murder of Philando Castile was also on social media for the world to see. Social media is a very popular tool that members of society are now using. The average amount of weekly time spent consuming all-media platforms is 26 hours and 49 minutes. 24% of that time (6 hours and 19 minutes) is spent on social media (Jones, 2018). Law enforcement officers have used social media as a strategy to help with community policing. Police departments use social media to actively engage with the communities that they serve and to solve crimes. Unfortunately, social media is used as a platform to shed light on police brutality throughout the world in which we live.

As more and more African Americans as dying at the hands of law enforcement officers, smartphones are being used to record the misconduct and presented to members of society through the use of social media. Several videos of police misconduct are circulating throughout the internet enhancing the already broken relationships between African Americans and law enforcement officers. It also adds on to the negative perceptions that African Americans already have towards law enforcement officers.

The media also plays a major role in law enforcement officers being perceived in a negative manner. Members of society form their attitudes about police use of force and misconduct.  Previous research suggests that much of society learn about crime and criminal justice processes not by personal experience, but rather via media exposure that shapes perceptions of crime and justice issues (Surette, 2007). Despite all the good law enforcement officers do, when acts such as police brutality are displayed on the media it overrides all the good.



Law enforcement (who does it usually apply to)

The individuals that are majorly affected by police brutality in America are the blacks. There are legal boundaries that need to guide law enforcement officers. It is however clear that the police officers have got probable reasons to get away with the mistakes. The police according to research have usually utilized excessive forces on the black Americans. It is probably clear that the majority of the blacks are most likely to be shot by police during violence unlike the whites in the same event. An analysis according to the Bureau of justice statistics shows that the police in the US kill the blacks at a disproportionate rate. It is justified by the statistics, in 2012, where blacks account up to 31% of the police killings. A clear analysis shows that blacks make up 13% of the general population of the United States. However, the percentage of police killings does not account for every individual killed in the process since the majority of these reports are issued voluntarily through police agencies countrywide. Such statistics show the huge disparities in how law enforcement uses force and brutality.

Records have proven that the police in the US apply force on even unarmed suspects according to the 2015 statistics.  The racial minorities in the US account to up to 37.4 percent of the general population. The majority are always unarmed. Recent police shootings show that specific individuals were shot when they had obeyed police orders like pulling over, lying down or while raising their hands high. The kind of police brutality on unarmed individuals shows the highest ignorance of police ethics. It is a notion believed that most of the individuals that obeyed direct orders but ended up shot sum up to the minorities in the country. According to the Washington Post, 2019, around 342 people have since been killed by the police in the year the previous year, 992 more black individuals were shot. The recent killing of a 45-year-old black woman, Pamela Shantay Turner seemed unreasonable. The old woman held a taser on the date May 13, 2019, in Baytown, Tex. Records shows that had no unknown mental illness, had no other weapon, and had no body-cam recording and wasn’t fleeing after all. This scenario clearly shows how ruthless the police are on the wrong people. The woman had obeyed a direct order, not to flee. Nonetheless, she was shot.

The disparities on the police brutality reflect huge and widespread racial inequities across the entire American criminal justice system. Most blacks are most likely to be arrested for drugs than the whites despite them not being the probable drug dealers. The penitentiaries in the United States hold a disproportionate number of blacks and whites. The recent record according to the FBI Uniform crime reports/ US census bureau shows that around 332 whites were arrested last month, April, for illicit drug use. Blacks on the same note were 879 making up a very high record. Some reasons for this disparities are explained through some socioeconomic status such as poverty, unemployment, segregation, and neglect by the law enforcement officers when serious crimes come up. This issues, therefore, leads to a high number of crime rates in the black community than in the white community. The police in the US tend to be present in the black neighborhoods than in the white estates which bring about the likelihood of increasing the police actions in such areas. It therefore clearly shows the reason for high police brutality amongst the blacks than the whites.

The effect of the police brutality in America initially brought about the black power movement in the year 1970. During this period there was a political wave advocating for equality, self-sufficiency and racial pride of the black and the African descent in America. The black power movement culminated into black lives matter. The network is built to intervene onto the latest police shootings that have since been experienced. It involves a collective group of liberators who have similar beliefs of winning the sense of nationalism in the United States. The movement’s aim is to bring the blacks together in unison and fight for the marginalized liberation. They work in areas where black lives have been taken for granted and are usually targeted for demise.

It is clear to the general public that the law enforcement in the United States is biased and it has fueled racial disparities in the country during the past decades. Such disparities have since pushed for the black lives matter movement in the United States. The movement has risen to the national prominence due to unnecessary shootings experienced during the killings of Erick Garner, Brown Ferguson in the New York City, Tamir Rice in Cleveland and Freddie Gray in Baltimore. The high profile killings have strengthened the notion that black lives matter less to the police and it proves generally that the next police shooting victim could just end up being a black American.

Police brutality (when is it necessary)

Police brutality should be the last option since it involves aggravated results and the main purpose required to be fulfilled by the police officers might not be achieved. There are different levels of police brutality and they include punches, kicks, stuns and even use of aerosol sprays such as oleoresin capsicum (OC) pepper spray. The levels outlined above involves soft control level, empty hand level, and intermediate weapon technique control. It is however clear that any continuum force is subjected to control unless the suspect has a sign of being a threat to bodily harm to the officers or any bystander. During these situations, the police officers are first advised to utilize the least amount of pressure to implement the law. Maximized forces are dependent on what the police officer believes in. reasonably every police officer is responsible for other officers that use the excessive force. The form of liability is there to control the various forms of coercion that appears to be dangerous to any suspect.

Policymaking has issued different levels of applying the fatal force technique. Such cases are outlined as follows;

Police attempt to terminate a high-speed car

During a motor vehicle high-speed car chase, the individual is deemed as a threat to the lives of the bystanders. According to Scott V. Harris, a police attempt to terminate a speeding car is allowed to use fatal force to help prevent any more risk of serious bodily harm, injury or death. It is however considered unnecessary to push the police bumper onto the suspect’s rear part of the car.  The case describes it as unnecessary use of fatal force. Making a suspect loose control thereby causing an accident subsequently leads to an unlawful intentional collision. Such incidences can lead to the death of the suspect which should be minimized as much as possible. It means, therefore, the legal officers

Self-defense when an imminent danger is observed

A case scenario on civilian self-defense v police excessive force reflects on the high rates of dying civilians in America. It is not necessarily simple to define self-defense since it is becoming more predominant and socially acceptable by the majority of the groups in the US. A situation when an officer is using excessive force, is the individual allowed to have the right to self-defense? This question is subject to belief and is generic thereby requires clarification. On the same note, a police officer might observe danger from a civilian. According to the Californian penal code of 1992, it is important to identify and esteem the right to self-defense. The penal code, however, does not issue a clear direction on police brutality. A curtail on white mob violence v. black violence has a clear distinction. Police brutality on black violence and responses records the highest death rates. Some of the defense observed to be endangered includes defense of life and fleeing from violent places.

A suspect fleeing with a handgun on his/her hand

After being updated on legal developments, the police can use any form of law implementation to hamper the individual from moving further. The American gunfight policy has since been taken less considerate. It is clear that the policy on handgun has since been violated giving reasons for policing violence. The gun control debate believes they know the content of the amendment. Unfettered gun ownership needs control through strict government policies. It is entirely unnecessary to address a nation to hold arms for themselves. The gunfight analytically, as described, shows the horrendous effect of gun holding. President Barack Obama evoked the killings in Aurora, Sandy Hook, and Colorado. The mission in this was to drive sense into the government to litigate policies that would put limits on gun ownership. Initiatives to reduce gun violence such as criminal background check and strengthening the ban on gun ownership are crucial in ensuring that the law gets the right direction. The sense of holding arms is just a pessimistic ideology that needs checks with keen adherence and compliance of the law.

A suspect not complying instructions.

Different suspects behave differently. An example of such a case is when a car has been asked to pull over yet the driver continues to drive. Another case observed in this case` is when an individual has either been asked to lie down or lift their hands on the air but they fail to comply. Such instances might lead to police rage and end up using the forceful reaction.

If the police do not violate the fourth amendment.

The fourth amendment outlines the rule of law where every individual has the right to remain safe in the houses, papers and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures shall not be violated without a warrant.  All these take effect but limited to a probable cause and is supported by the oath of affirmation.  When the fourth amendment has been taken into consideration, the police officer can take the right course of action in implementing the law.


Law enforcement officers training.

It is vivid that good policies make the best direction for law enforcement. Good decisions are required during critical policing situations. It is, therefore, necessary to understand the significant attributes that the police officers are required to have in order to fit into the professional world. Police officers are given charge to maintain peace and pursue those who break the law and apprehend them. Other duties required of the police officers include enforcing traffic laws, arrest suspected criminals, resolve community issues investigate crimes and also respond to emergencies. During the call of duty, the police officers are required to patrol along a particular route or rather a geographical location where there can be any suspicious criminal activity taking place. The activities aforementioned therefore requires one to undergo rigorous training to cope up with the circumstances involved during the jobs.

Law enforcement in the process is required to undergo rigorous training on some professional aspects in order to be law enforcers in the United States. The training covers the following aspects; officer survival and safety, interviewing and communication, federal and constitutional law, criminal law, arrest techniques, defensive techniques, drug abuse, terrorism, firearms, VIP protection, Physical security, physical fitness, driver training and tactics for flying armed. The police in the United States are trained in the Federal Law Enforcement training center (FLETC) in Georgia and the United States capitol police (USCP) training academy in Cheltenham, Maryland. Every FLETC graduate is required to undergo a thirteen-week specialized training before being released to the general public service. During the training in the USCP training, a physical abilities test (PAT) is done to ensure the police officer is fully equipped. Some of the physical ability training tests include cardiovascular (anaerobic and aerobic) and muscular (endurance and strength) training. The training involved primarily includes calisthenics, resistance, weight and running (sprinting and distance). Every police officer is recommended to participate in all these activities in order to become a fully-fledged police officer. A professional officer needs to undergo and respect the training schedule described above.

Part of the training that is also required of a police officer is to be at least 21 years of age and must pass competitive written exams in order to join the professional world. The police officer also needs to be agile and proactive in order to react to crises. Being in a good shape is an advantage but also mandatory for any police officer. Maintaining the shape, therefore, requires one to participate in sports and other physical education classes. The physical education classes prepare the officers to meet heavyweight qualifications of police officer jobs. Interpersonal skills and rapport building is a must since they frequently have contact with the general public. The preferable characteristics as explained above are significant during adverse instances and cases where critical thinking is required if not body physique. It, therefore, prepares them for events like mass violence, emergencies like flooding, earthquakes and also normal police endeavors such as drug criminal investigations, traffic car police chase, and investigations of other crimes like robbery, arsonist, and burglary.

The general length of stay in the police training camp includes around 960 hours. 960 hours is approximately 6 months of stay. And in order to join the training, you must fit into the educational program requirements. Some of the requirements needed of the school include a high school diploma which is the bare minimum. Other requirements include an associate bachelor degree or a graduate degree which is rarely mandatory to check into the system. The training process requires specialized training as explained above and therefore makes it an extensive and heavy loaded process. The specialized training is basically offered on the local regional or state level. It is, however, advantageous to have an associate degree or a bachelor degree in law enforcement. One, it raises your potential pay and even better your advancement opportunities. The police guide outlines special training benefits which therein gives the dais to achieve one’s goals and dreams.

After the general training, the police is to be sworn in to protect and serve the society in which they live and work. The police need to enforce laws band even obtain warrants, interview and even arrest suspects.\other special duties include, secure crime and accidents scene, testify in a court of Law and write detailed report scripts of crimes, attend to emergencies and operate around the clock. The special training can also help in departments such as the FBI and the SWAT teams. The teams require personnel with the ability to know the procedures and tactics needed to work under dangerous situations.

All other procedures kept constant the legal course of the country has to be followed and it’s a requirement that every professional officer needs to be ethical and respectful of the norms of the region that are in accordance to the law. Majority of the police officer usually go against the law hiding in other forms of the law hence crossing the line of the majority of the individuals in the country. Police brutality is one form of police’ ignorance of human rights and ethics. Assuming the rights makes one unprofessional and it means they are going against their professional training in criminal justice. The black movement in the United States of America stands to be against police brutality which is unprofessional and out of order. It is, therefore, necessary for the police to act as they are trained in the various academies in order to enforce the right law.


Police punishment (for use is excessive force)

Recent topics on whether Law enforcement officers are punished when they use excessive force have been published over articles. Considerably it is a concrete debate topic that is well heated. It is very much controversial and therefore very hard to give it a measure. However the majority of the police officers ever been into these situations, basically few or none are convicted for use of force. Research on police charges and conviction shows that few are convicted giving it a probable reason that few get punished for use of excessive force. According to the national police misconduct reporting project, 2010, 3238 criminal cases that were charged against police officers as from April 2009 to December 2010. 33% of this population was convicted, however, 36% of the convicted population served prison sentences. The percentages herein are just half the normal rate the public members get charged.

Police in the United States is hardly prosecuted for brutality and shootings. The general view of this situation is that they are not only protected by the law but sometimes it is in the line of duty. Most departments require the law enforcers to use force on the victims to help implement the law. In some instance, the forceful mechanism of implementing the law creates animosity and rage onto the public due to the differing conflict of interest. In most cases, an eyewitness may not be trustworthy in the face of the general public leaving the convicted police officer free. Trust and the general public determines how and when a police officer is to be charged or convicted. The law stands to protect the police officers for all their misdemeanor in the profession.

A recent instance of a charged police officer according to the New York Times has since been delayed because there is no probable reason to hold the police officer behind bars. The case involved Erick Garner who was held in the courtroom at a police department. News has it that he was choke held inside the small courtroom till his death by Daniel Pantaleo, July 2014.   During this period, Officer Daniel never faced any criminal charges since the jury declined to indict him. It happens that he instead remained in the force and his income rose by 35% on overtime pay the following year. He was however on a modified police course. Mr. Pantaleo was indicted sometime later after the attorney general, Loretta Lynch, authorized it. The case however delayed due to delay from the F.B.I which picked after Donald Trump took the oath of office. The case has since taken years to be decided giving loopholes on the police department.  Pantaleo’s case shows a visceral image of the police department for not being able to account for the wrong that happens in the department.

It brings to the attention of the general public that the low incarceration and conviction rates have induced critics onto the department. It vindicates a case scenario where police can easily get away with using forceful actions that are brutal and deadly for even situations that don’t call for such instances. Most individuals have tried making the police accountable for their deeds through legal procedures and concerns. However, critics fear to see the aftermath believing that the police officers can easily use force with the most likely that there won’t be any legal consequence for the same even if the course was really bad.

The police administrative policies nonetheless have got ways of punishing police officers that get involved in brutality during the course of action. The federal states have five charge sheets that can indict a police officer. They include; federal criminal charges, state criminal charges, federal civil charges, state civil charges and departmental charges/ administrative reviews.

Federal charges under Title 18 of the U.S. code section 241 or 242 issues litigation on cri8minal prosecution for fatal brutality by officers. The conspiracy filed can be punished by having life imprisonment or if the plaintiff dies then the officer is charged up to $250,000. For state criminal charges, they are outlined in the state penal codes that the police enforces. Such codes include; battery, manslaughter, and even assault. The police officers involved in these situations and thereby found guilty are usually charged between 11 months to 2 years in jail.

Federal civil charges are outlined under Title 42 of U.S. code section 1983 or 1985 which gives the leeway to sue a police officer for the use of force action. This is the most common charge sheet. However, most departments do pony up the compensatory damages that jury might have awarded to the plaintiff. In most cases however when the police officer is found guilty, he or she is forced to pay the adversary’s attorney fees. Federal civil rights cases are sometimes not easy to understand because the jury might decide to clear the officer and therefore no punishment can be issued to the officer. State civil charges work in similar ways with the federal civil charge. However, state civil charge is held under a different venue. The charges filed herein includes negligence supervision to brutal force through negligence to the allegation that you intentionally injured an individual. The jury, in this case, is made of local citizens who give their verdict depending on what they think and how they perceive the officer.

Administrative reviews of departmental charges are dependent on an individual’s agency works. It also depends on the union protocol and how it works. In such a case, the police officer can be fined, demoted or even suspended. Sometimes these police officers are fired for the actions done on the streets or rather in jail. The code of action in this type of charge involves being accused of breaking a series of rules and regulation or policies and procedures of the agency. The hearing can either be an informal one in the department or a formal trial in the tribunal. In administrative review or departmental charges, the rules of evidence might be vague and obscure unlike that of the judicial review. The problem here is that you can face all the consequences with a single act. On the same note, the individual might be sued both in the federal or state court and tried as criminal in both avenues. Other instances the same individual might face a departmental trial all for the single deed.



Black lives matter.

The numerous killings of the black in the United States of America has revolutionized the black society. The police are involved in killing many unarmed black American Europeans thus bringing up raging individuals to help support the affected in the society. It is weird considering the fact that the police are too much on the minority blacks than the majority of blacks in the United States of America. In solidarity with the affected people the confronted and divisive forum, the civil rights movement was established between the years, 1954- 1965. The civil rights movement had the sole purpose to fight against police brutality thus the fight for the liberation of the blacks. The Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement came in response to the civil rights of the blacks in American.

The race for human equality has proven that the blacks have been dehumanized the roots of the movement culminates to the devaluation of the black lives by the police. The race, therefore, encourages an active resistance against systematic racism. The blacks in the US are seen as potential criminals and their bodies seen as superfluous. The basic action plan anchored by the movement is to fight against systemic oppression and racism. The BLM movement tends to push their agenda through social media and also occupy the public space. The strategies that have since been built since 1960 has been towards ending inequality in America. The oppression in America has engaged heightened violence through physical fights and heated debates. It is however outlined in the movement policies that it shall not engage in violent action but peaceful demonstrate the significance of black lives to the police. The attention sort is to help minimize these shootings based on race and demeanor. The system fights for better prison industrial complex, food and economic systems and better housing market and voting rights. The idea of bringing law and order into reason was to help visualize the inequalities of the criminal justice system and racial inequalities.  \

Hypothetically, the blacks in the US have lived across ages through less favorable media coverage. The media has since lost focus on the blacks and has built the tendency on focusing on the character of the blacks rather than the aspect of representation to the blacks. According to research, the revolt is heightened due to subsequent injustices and use of defamatory images onto the blacks. Basically, the ideology that impedes the structural development for the blacks in the US is the Media which facilitates a staunch resistance through the norm. arguing based on the purpose of the social media, blacks have faced criticism and the movement find it hard to air some of the views that are built up in the process. However, the young activist has utilized the media to help organize and issue notice on the state as is.

The demeanor showcased by the media has distorted the image the blacks have. A black in a hoodie in any environment is termed as a threat or a criminal. The leading reason for the formation of Black lives matter movement was about the confrontation of a black by a white who by any chance wasn’t threatened. The white, George Zimmerman argued that Martin was a threat and later shot him when he tried defense on confrontation. What aches the moment is that George was acquitted of the charges in July 2013.

The BLM movement initiated a move where Petersen-smith, 2015, said, “there will be no end to the cry of black lives matter and the movement shall not take responsibility for the crimes it never committed. The movement requires enthusiasm apart from social media to help push for the civil rights of the black. The vigil and agility of the African young individuals ensured that they engaged no violent passive resistance to help renew American democracy. The black protestors are in unison to fight for the American dream. In togetherness, the blacks need to be proud of their ancient heritage, be disciplined and help witness the slow undoing of the human atrocities ever committed. The determination to help change the world could only be identified by the energetic and enthusiastic young human activist.


Killing fields explaining police violence against persons of color.

The stereotypical explanation issued to delineate the police violence is just as a volume of significant abuse of the law. Police violence has proved dangerous to the life of its citizens and most of the challenges experienced need to be developed and sorted. Violence is directly associated to particular colors which is of the minority. The oppression and illegitimate system of governance has distorted the pilgrimage of the blacks. The overriding challenge of the blacks which are freedom, equity and democracy has always been attached since time immemorial.  The approaches given to “fix” the consequences of the police violence are never reaching the solution to the black stand. Trying to comprehend the essence of police brutality gives an astronomical view of what the government is trying to sort. It is because thousands of humanity killed, in most instances, are unarmed and also poses no necessary threat to the police service. The deaths of the colored men and women are never justified legally but through made-up empirical evidences that lacks the gist of the information. The issue haunts the system and it, therefore, challenges the sense humanity and the view on racism.

The police brutality and use of force is just a continuation of what has been don history. The legacy racist and inhuman beings have since been in charge of the police department. They tend to fight for the injustices rather than the right. It is called policing by color which is poor indeed. The police has since developed a criteria of collecting evidence through empirical science in order to subdue the normal witnessing forum. It is indeed a challenge to the current government system. History has it that the policing system has gained science rather than reality. The unforeseen is rather believed rather than the seen. The law meanders through science and therefore it attributes ton volumes of injustices that can be practically evaded through proper litigation.

The recent police shootings, 2015, of the 94 fatal shootings, 40 % were black and the other percentage were Hispanic and whites. The individuals shot were unarmed giving a dangerous impression of the police administrative system. The policing is right but the law enforcers are doing the opposite of what is required. The percentage vividly shows that the rate of black shootings is higher than that of the other races and it is estimated to be seven times the normal rate. Washington post same year proves that the shootings are based on minority races and are also ethnic based. The phenomenon of poor policing looms on the current wave of police administration. It is a fantasy to believe in a democratic world when the world itself is not practicing equality.

The police involved in the unruly shootings are never charged or indicted. On the same note, the number of black people that were incarcerated in the year 2011 were 3023 which was six times that of the white men. The question that rings all through the facts is that why are there disproportionate killings of the unarmed blacks for a proportional policing strategy? The police actions are not justified by any aspect of the law and its cumulative effects on its victim’s increases disparities. The unconscious racial killings is due to stereotype which links blacks to every common crime. The difference initiated by the police builds up a forum that disputes the cultural and beliefs’ linkage to the American dream. In attempt to control the variable, the police are likely to commit more atrocities than salvaging the situation since their policy is racially biased.

There is a higher rate of black suspect mentality than a white suspect mentality in the US. The fear of legitimate defense calls for a particular behavior of the police. The police base their criminal shootings even in areas with no record of racial differences.  Some of the probable reasons that height6ens the situations includes shooting a police officer that’s not in uniform and standing on your ground laws (self-defense). The attitude is just generalized and it brings hate and peace is just vanity when all this comes into continuous action. The attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs gives the reason for the high rates black shootings.

Justice and peace

The department of justice in the United States is on the vigil to check on incidences related to civil rights and other issues on humanity. The investigation checks for the various forms of usage of force in the line of duty and also existence of discrimination in the police department. It is, however, undiscerned since the jury itself is never ready charge the police force of its debauchery. The kind of behavior of the jury has since pushed for various forms of chronicles that dissipates turmoil across the streets of the United States. The trouble that exist in the streets like the 1992 loss Angeles riot was caused by the acquittal of the four police officers that were charged of assault. The officers used excessive force using deadly weapons on their victims. In at this time in the streets, 53 lives were claimed and over 2000 individuals killed in the process. An accumulative loss of about $3.8 billion in taxable sales and $125 million direct sales revenue losses. Peace was restored only after the military was called and interposed.

Race and color continues to be the discriminatory factor that plays a central role in the courtrooms. The acquittals of the guilty represents a deadly rage that hovers along the streets of the affected. In cities where the minority have allegedly experienced violation of human rights, the police brutality to the whites is insignificant or rather disproportionately noted. The police have got the sense of protection by the law giving them the leeway of escape. Apparently the mistreatment and the harassment in these regions indices extreme violence. Heinous acts of the police including harassment, false allegations and humiliation trivets the hostility experienced in the nation. The incidences experienced by the Africans and Hispanics in America reinforces a general feeling that they are subjected to unreceptive treatment which is racial bias.

Since the year 1960, several incidence based on police brutality have amplified the level of civil unrest which leads to costly damages and even lead to hostile ancestry lines. The distrust that develops between the police force and the affected minority has got a bedrock in the records of the national advisory commission on civil disorders (Kerner Commission). The thirty-year-old, Kerner commission, still finds its relevance to the date today. Most coincidentally,  the invariable cases of disorder arises due to the police misconduct on the police force. The wave and feeling of the distrusted force bridges the sense of police brutality and corruption to the wedge of justices and its protection. The cynicism and hostility reinforced by the police perception gives the lead to civil unrest.

The virtual tension that sparks the streets of loss Angele’s looks deadly and costly indeed. According to the 1992 civil unrest, the Rodney king’s case lead the death of fifty-four casualties, 221 critically injured individuals, 2383 generally injured and 13,212 arrested. The disturbance was a spectacular view of the forms of injustices that were observed then. The tension developed due to the acquittal of the police officers involved in the violation of Rodney’s rights. A mass form of abusive power was seen and often the penalties were never issued to the charged individuals leading to tension and lack of peace.


Organizational factors that contribute to use of deadly force

The hypothetical analysis of the civil and municipal liability showcases the curtailed administrative policies that controls the organizational breakdown and police misconduct. Research shows that managerial failure might spur more unrest and civil liability. Civil liability is driven by poorly supervised police officers with inadequate training, accountability and communication networks. Excessive force is aligned to command breakdown, hierarchical communication, division of workforce and accountability specs.

Various law cases such as the Tennessee V. Garner, 1985 and Graham v. Connor, 1985 has advocated for the use of non-deadly police force. They, however, justify some instances when deadly forces can be applied that is when an individual engages the police officer in a high-speed street car chase. It is deemed that the suspect is fleeing arrest and might be a potential harm to the general public. The leading case on municipal liability, Monell v. New York Department of social services section 1983, has outlined the police customs and practices that can lead to any form of case filling.

Some of the organizational liability as outlined by Tennessee V. Garner, 1985, includes street arrest of a paranoid patient, killing a suspect who failed to follow police orders, killing non-dangerous drivers passing by police officers, killing a victim 90 seconds after police contact, killing a  citizen that refuses to open their door and injuring of an unarmed individual. These cases have been subclassified into different liability mechanisms as follows;

Adrenalin control

The police can be made liable for not controlling their adrenaline during a hot pursuit situation. Killing a suspect that lain on the ground was a clear vindication of insufficiency in the training department. The scene, in this case, was very brutal living Randal with 11 gunshots. Clear enough the shoot was like a shoot to kill order rather than shoot to eliminate threat. The trajectory of the gunshots proves that the victim was lying down the ground. The police officers involved in the murder were seen as individuals with low training features since they couldn’t control the threat that they were exposed to. A good training for shoot and do not shoot should be given to the full comprehension of the police officer to help minimize the police brutality.

Street justice.

Graham v. Sauk Prairie, 1993, shows off an individual shot by an officer that suffered chronic paranoid schizophrenic. John Graham was a suspect that followed the police orders and meant no threat according to witnesses. He was however shot twice with a service revolver on the head. The police, Mueller was then suffering from chronic paranoid schizophrenic at the time of incidence. He, however, died on the event the lawsuit was filled. The case found Mueller guilty as charged and the Mueller estate was obliged to compensate for the loss of life, damages, lost society and companionship. The court did not consider compensation for pain and suffering.

Suspect intoxication

The Bing v. city of Whitehall, 2005, case of a suspect killed in a 24% blood alcohol level condition. Bing’s level of intoxication proved some sense of danger. It is however clear that Richard his friend said that in most cases he could stand huge amount of alcohol without passing out. Bing died after being shot on the spine and in total he sustained 22 shots. Records shows that they were not sure of any potential threat by Bing. The SWAT team and the Whitehall training center was accused of inefficient training. They failed to learn the behavioral aspect of the suspect.


Misidentification of suspects

The use of a deadly force on misidentified suspects according to the small v. city of Philadelphia, 2007, shows a gross aspect of police recklessness. The shooting from the plaintiff, Antoine small by his fellow officer Robert Redanauer showed the breach of the fourth amendment. The search of Benjamin Hunter was futile and the end result was the death of the plaintiff. The situation occurred due to the miscommunication that was there between the plaintiffs, the squad and the detectives.


Abuse of authority

The palva v. city of Reno, 1996, indicates an argument of an individual who was killed by a police officer for not opening their door. According to Vaughn &Coomes, 1995, the use of excessive force as applied in this case scenario shows the insufficiency of occupational role in policing. Applying physical abuse on its citizen because of authority indicates a lack of stability based on professional grounds. Bringing in a private life to an occupational role results in bad outcomes. An off duty police officer needs to limit physical violence and even count out confrontation using a deadly force. Police- civilian interaction should be based on law implementation and not breakage.

Not acting under color of law is an aspect of breaking the power vested in the police force. According to the Turk v. McCarthy case law, deadly force needs to be approved only on instances when it is necessary. The case argues about an off duty police officer that shot a security guard that asked him to live since he was in violation of the pack’s codes of conduct. The police misconduct proved a sense of ignorance and abuse of authority.

Poor training

Inadequate training on gun handling or rather crime handling has since been observed through many incidences. A scenario like the city of Canton v. Harris 1989, outlines the irresponsibility of the police officer. It vividly shows inadequate police training which in turn violates the citizen’s federal rights. The dynamics involved in police pursuit need to be outlined by realizing the police officer into the field. Proper training centers define the dangerous nature and the high-speed limits required for high-speed pursuits. The training should help control the psychological and physical arousal during pursuits. (Montgomery, 2005)

Perception of the police

The race effect counts as a variable on the police brutality. Justice statistics indicate that the police varies their perceptions on crimes based on demography amongst other variables. Racial contact with the police influences their mode of behavior during the implementation of the law. The minority black is less favored during policy implementation. The Hispanics nonetheless face less of the blacks but more of the white’s harsh treatment. According to Jacob, 1971, the police perception of the blacks is way more than ambiguous disgust. The blacks on the same note tend to believe they are more unjust, unfair, corrupt, less friendly, more harsh, tougher, less intelligent and lazier. The response received from the whites during the same period was very much contrary.

Research shows that an increase in blacks in the neighborhood will pull down the peace in the US streets. The level of unrest will increase due to the fact that the police believe in black as criminals. The general perception of the administrative sector of law enforcement believes that the white has general negative attitudes the blacks. The police would there easily raise their sentimental brows and practice more excessive force on the individuals.

The image built by the police is because of the negative comments issued about the police by the blacks. The negative impact increase if more blacks interact with more negative police officers. The belief the blacks have might result in hostile interchanges. An informal case study on the black environment shows that most of them leave in a deteriorated lifestyle and in most cases they are faced with poverty, poor housing, and unemployment issues. These factors change the attitudes the police have on them. It is however clear that resources reach them under adverse measures since it is racially based. These variables are built based on the context of racial confidence. The blacks do not feel the significance of the police administration in their hood.

The stereotyped nature of the police developed on blacks based on racial grounds proves the minority depression. Politically, the situation that emanates around this environment t includes the majority and minority political parties. Findings have it that the unfavorable conditions in the black neighborhood source itself from the slow police response to their issues and emergencies. Their environment in most cases is described by poor communication networks and poor cooperation between the Hispanics blacks and the police. These issues in most cases bring about civil unrest thus the introduction of police brutality.


Police killing and their spillover effects on mental effects

According to the National Institutes of Health, 2018, the police shootings of unarmed individuals have affected the mental health of the affected individuals. A recent report shows that the police kill more than 300 black Americans yearly and 25 % of the population is unarmed. The strength of the BJS reports proves that mentally affected individuals are proportionate to the number of the killing incidences. Majority of the blacks, unlike the whites, are affected through mental health due to the frequent cases of the shooting of the unarmed individuals. Interviews based on the killings prove that the heavy mental effects are observed 1-2 months later. The exposure to these menaces develops a heavy impact on the general public. Its adversities are a source of awareness to the national institutes of health. The adversities need to be contemplated on by the police officer and forge to reduce the police brutality on the African American.

The ratio police killings on the black Americans to white is generally 3:1. The likelihood of a victim being a white is sarcastically minimal. The ration of black American killings accounts to more than 40 percent of all police shootings nationwide. Mental health does not necessarily affect the close individuals of these victims but also far and far wide associates. The police killing suggestively connects to other individuals making it a racial trauma. The perceptions developed by the affected individuals heightens the systematic way of behavior. Compromising the mental health of an individual is a breach of the rights and freedom of an individual. It is therefore regarded as civic oppression and loss to social status.  Racism is related to unfairness, discri8mination,  and self-regard. Racism is an example of civic oppression that leads to the victimization of the minority. The aftermath related to this kind of unfairness is increased opposition, riots, angry reactions, activation of pre-traumas and diminished trust in the police force.

Socio-economic conditions of the Black Americans fight to express the structurally diminished opportunities. The majority are exposed to better lifestyle leading to oppression of the minority. Equitable systems have no meaning amongst the blacks thus reinforcing the discriminatory beliefs. The shootings, the status, the missed opportunities and the structure of the neighborhood makes up the worst nightmare to the blacks in the United States.


Racism and police brutality

Racism is the primary connection to police brutality. According to the national police misconduct statistics and reporting project, racism has made the police force to take a wrong course. The implementation of the law has been a scrawny issue due to the effect of racism in the department. The police perception by the public is negative and most comments come from the Black Americans. Law enforcement is seen as an agent of police brutality. Different ground data reveals that the law is not respected and it can be meddled with easily by its enforcers.

The beating of King Rodney has left a very tremendous effect on the general public. The influence has led to the exposure of the bad cops over the past two decades. The rat of police brutality is heightened by the implication of public policy perception.  According to Marger 2012, racism is a belief criterion or ideology that is designed to rationalize and justify ethnic inequality. Discrimination is the act of denying a particular ethnic group the access to societal opportunities. Africans have been victims of racism and discrimination since the trans-Atlantic trade. The effect of racial discrimination has been substantiated by law enforcers. The trending effect diminishes the peace and increases the hostility of the Africans.

The police department views blacks as deserving brutal treatments in the criminal justice systems.  (Peffley and Hurwitz 2013). The perception might be absurd and cynical. Extensive research by Blair et al. 2004, shows that black males with more of the African nature may receive longer jail terms than those with lesser features (Eberhardt et al. 2006). According to the NYPD data, police brutality has since decreased due to racial diversity. However, blacks still remain to be the main people to be affected by police brutality.

Kane and white, 2009, suggest that blacks have got the highest likelihood to make complaints than the whites. Police brutality seems therefore improper and unjust. Historical legacy allows the police to practice malice under the law giving it different motif on the general relation between the Blacks and the police.  Law enforcement is much dependent on favoritism rather than equitable services.

The media often exposes the blacks as individuals less sanguine. The mass media is instrumental in characterizing blacks based on their race and nature. It shows that they are characterized as prototype criminal suspects, unlike the whites. The caricature of the police services is designed to act aggressively unto a particular race more often. The blacks are the lead reported falsified criminals (Jefferis et al. 2011.)




Police brutality is unanswered police misconduct across ages. The minorities in the United States are disproportionately targeted by the police excessive force. The exaggerated opinion on blacks has found its routes to the American ancestry. Major police behavior shows a kind of demeanor likely to suggest they are dealing with circumstances with opinionated angles. The criminal justice system also has a similar attitude while solving cases involving blacks.

The police reaction to the minority blacks is a sign of stereotype system. Scholarly research proves different realities on the police brutality. According to Bittner, 1970, the legitimate course of action is not circumscribed along with democratic principles. The system is not fit with accountability and just processes. An insight into the problem is that police brutality is a prominent hierarchical system that is profoundly covered under civic duties and law procedures. Stereotyped races such as the Hispanics and the Black Americans are regarded as a criminal society. Different theory try to justify this course of action but none fits through.

A criminal society is an overrated hypothetical statement that gives a reason for police brutality in these regions. No particular theory relates police brutality to the racial background or rather an ethical background. According to Chambliss 2001, the coercion is meant to maintain the social structure from the most powerful to the less powerful. The perception is vivid enough and it gives the reason for higher rates of police brutality amongst the Black Americans and the Hispanics in the U.S. civic rights have got a special interest in making everybody equal. The law needs to cut across and police brutality needs not to be the control mechanism to criminal cases.


Stop frisk

The stop frisk mechanism is a good mechanism used to control crime rates in the United States. It is however misused by the police force. Unwarranted searches and stops should be limited. The blacks are most likely to experience the stop frisk implementation plan. In these stops majority of the black Americans are usually harassed and even killed in the process. Basically, if there are no police racial; discrimination then there would be no black lives matter movement. Black civilians are likely to face lethal force stopovers. Statistics shows that there have been 61000 stopovers and 1000 most probably would experience police brutality in the process.

The state’s legal procedures allows subjective coercion, however, it does not outline which race is supposed to be coerced. According to the reports in the New York City between 2003 and 2009, there has been frequent racial minorities stop frisks which is basically disproportionate. Gelman et al. 2007 suggest that the blacks face more stop frisks, probably 2.5 times more than the blacks. Racial inequality is professed by this mode of actions by the police force. The accusations of racial bias continues to be a story of the past and a focal point to the future civil unrest.

The stop frisk mechanism was a legalized efficacy to prevent crimes and find weapons. Different communities, however, detects more lethal violence rather than the former action plan. The public interest is not in favor of the unwarranted stop frisks since it is regarded as a mild police brutality. The NYPD (2012) is in the run to protect the civilians and so it is in the process of employing different proactive mechanism to help the same situation. It is, however, relieving when the NYPD trains its officers to stop more civil unrests without confrontations and racial disparities.



Police brutality has since been heightened by a range of battery from harassment, use of excessive force, death and assault. It is generally understood in two forms that is; physical brutality (assault) and non-physical brutality which includes verbal engagement. The public is losing trust from the general public. It is because of the trending abuse of power and criminal behavior that has since been noted. In countries such as South Africa, cases of brutality has been part of its history since the apartheid regime. The regime comprised of riots, killings amongst other forms of police brutality. The United States on the same note has almost depicted a form of anarchy in the region despite its superpower title. The police enforcement department has had it tough dealing with the individuals in the united states due to various forms of police misconduct. On the record, the series of events have attracted the media attention.

Clear to the nature of the media, majority of the police brutality have been covered either on the papers or on live coverage or the recorded pieces. The media explains a lot of extrajudicial killings in the United States. In this case, it levels up the level of abhorrence in the country. The hate on color and origin has affected the general population of America. This effects have been observed from the police force.  The punishment experience in the streets exceeds the normal level of punishment making the extrajudicial killing a common menace to the general public. Media headlines shows that the police are never held for long before they are released. The cases attached to these officers are never followed to the latter hence enhancing the pain on the affected. The police officers are acquitted after a particular period of time. The evidence is always modified scientifically in favor of the police officer and therefore giving room for more atrocities behind the scene.

It is so clear that the general police force believes that the public needs to be dealt with excessive force in order to prevent further crime rates. However, crime rates keep increasing because of the belief. The police brutality also continues as usual because of the belief that blacks commits more crimes and should be under strict surveillance. There has been victims of these shootings who are also police officers. The victims are shot basically because they were not in uniform. The police torture is racial. Minority of the US population are not safe because of their race. Research shows that police enforcement in the U.S is strong. However, the force has deep loopholes that leads to an unsettled nation. The loopholes is based on discrimination which brings about hate thus disunion.

Police brutality is deemed as a negative incidence by the majority, some, however, think it’s good for ending the crimes in the hood. Clear research shows that 70 percent of the crimes committed in the U.S. are usually never reported meaning no actions are taken for the activities. The number of unreported actions makes the duty of maintaining law and order as difficult as possible. In some cases like when the police on duty have been robbed of their tools, they tend to apply police brutality as the next option to implement peace. It is, however, undefined on what to do in such an instance. Therefore the police should practice just as they were trained.

In regions like Iran, laws on gun handling have not been clearly defined thus giving room for more fights and hostility. The hostility develops due to police violence and excessive use of force. It is common to torture an individual in Iran since it is normal and does not necessarily bring the peace that is required of the police. It is a common ordeal experiencing law enforcement through unnecessary arrest or rather excessive force of action on a suspect in Iran.

Majority of human rights activists and even the political activist that oppose police brutality end up being targets to this kind of menace. They are sought as crime lords and sometimes they end up being arrested innocently and even detained and harassed or even testified falsely by the police. The police brutality in the administrative quarters takes place due to insufficient investigation techniques or poor record keep keeping on evidence.

Police brutality is a dreadful police wave that affects all and sundry. It affects the government, the public, different organization and the police force in itself. The study design of this paper fits the content analysis and the study is aimed at preventing any future occurrence of the events explained herein. The study helps the police force as a whole to comprehend the effect of police brutality and the consequences involved in it. Definitely police brutality that has been heated up can lead to consequences such as ruining your future career or even losing your own life in the process. Critically, the organization will realize the importance of avoiding police brutality and focus on building safer ways of dealing with similar situations. The brutal nature of the police can be changed by ensuring the members of the police force are properly trained. Proper training helps the police force to be fully equipped and be able to tailor the public in a modest way through peaceful means. The research will help future researchers understand the states if police brutality and the effects that come through.



In recognition of the fourth amendment, the police officers are required to follow strictly if the code of conduct outlined by the amendment speculated. Having unreasonable searches, warrants, seizures, and an arrest does not equate to the requirements of the fourth amendment. The law protects its citizens through equity and responsibility. According to history on police brutality, the kind of misconducts that violate human rights should be limited if not stopped. The misconducts include; false arrest, police perjury, witness tampering, unwarranted surveillance, searches and seizures, spoliation of evidence, intimidation and even false imprisonment.

To help protect both the civilians and the police force, body cameras should be worn as part of the uniform to help in the investigation of onsite crimes. It is however common to the police force that these cameras might help victimize the police himself thus not finding it fit for the course of duty. It induces fear. Nonetheless, it controls the police conduct all through the entire service. Reducing police brutality only requires a strict surveillance which is the body camera. The United States had initially brought in ‘the modern police’ equipment into the police force in the year 2005.  The overall cost used on the ‘modern police’ equipment was estimated to be $24 million. It was however not fully implemented. In order to strengthen the aspect of using it as police wear, it is to be litigated and followed as a rule. Not putting it on is an example of police misconduct that should be punished by the court of law.

Ensuring civil rights are maintained is another aspect of reducing police brutality in the states. Civil rights, briefly entails people’s mental and physical integrity, life and safety, protection from discrimination on the basis of disability, color, origin, sexual orientation and gender, age, ethnicity, political affiliation, and religion. Exercising the rights in the protection of the general public is equivalent to protecting the freedom and rights of an individual. Understanding the civic rights allows the police force to give room for fair trial, equitable and fair distribution of government services, right to education and the right to access to public facilities. Freedom of expression culminates the general view of civic responsibility.

Campaigning for zero police brutality tolerance should be put to task and individuals should come in togetherness to protect their people. The unity should help reduce the discrimination on any form and also reduce the number of deaths ever experienced. The police should be human not to attack individuals that have followed the police orders and further disarm them if may. On the same note, it should be a crime to shoot an individual that is disarmed. Legal procedures should follow suit if such an instance takes place.  It is a crime to shoot an individual 90 seconds after contact. In case of any reported death that is in violation of an individual’s right, the law should not meander to favor the general public. The police need to be respectful of the right to live in the same process. The campaign should also involve the stop frisk in authorized areas and not random searches. Random searches breach the peace of an individual thus affecting their personal space.

The police training apart from outlining the ways and procedures of escaping the wrath of the law, they should be trained on how to minimize the use of deadly force. If possible they need to gauge less harsh methods of implementation or executing the law. Similarly, there is need for the police to spell out the legal procedures to an individual before acting. In this manner, the police will act with patience and proper surveillance as per the training and pursue the suspect with the utmost respect to their life. The severity of the police brutality should bring into account the level of ignorance of the police force. The criminal justice system need to come into action and make every police indulged into the crime responsible and accountable.

Investigative training techniques should level up in order to avoid wrongful deaths. There is the necessity to enable the police officer to be well equipped with adverse situations such as resistance, verbal abuse, and disrespect from the public. Forceful arrest or treatment can be as a result of unresponsive citizens (Terrill, 2001). Poor training is an organizational factor that damages the reputation of the police force. The training needs to be fastened to accommodate any form of mistake in the future. The coercion that comes as a result of uncontrolled police emotions can lead to victimization of the police training as described in the sub-topic on organizational factors for police brutality.

Unifying the country based on civic responsibilities and proper understanding of the need to be together is needful and useful. Making the disparities close to being negligent is far much important. Such disparities include poverty, education, unemployment and color disgrace, and distortion. Making them negligent is a sure deal to maximizing the required police force. The effect otherwise can be so brutal and uneasy to bear by the affected.

Helping realize the American dream needs to be the number one priority of the police department. Living by the American gives the general population the right to have an equal opportunity at any instance and further allow any aspiration to be easily achieved. Outlining the freedom of prosperity and upward social and economic mobility for the American society to the police department. In that case, the police can live by the standards of ensuring every individual has got limited barriers to achieve the dream through working hard.





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