Personality traits and adult learning

Grouping of personality traits

More revelation from the literature review was the grouping of personality traits into six temperaments. The idea of six temperaments can be used to help older individuals when it comes to learning and adopting better lifestyle strategies. According to Buddha, understanding these temperaments enables one to understand the feelings of oneself and others. It may thus be possible to understand how to motivate older individuals into learning.
The ides of six temperaments has its origin in the Eastern world. Several ideas that continue to impact human life have their origin in the Eastern world by the Great Thinkers. One of the notable scholars from the Eastern world is Lord Buddha. This great personality has produced words and great wisdom that continue to inspire the world. He came up with the idea of Buddhist personality traits and called “Six Temperaments”. The scholar categorized humans into 6 groups; each of the categories had different tastes, personalities, weaknesses, and advantages.
According to Dr.Anusorn Chantaphun and Dr.Boonchai Khosolthanakul, who wrote the book named Six Temperaments, the concept of Buddhist personality groups is an ancient science originating from “Visutimuck” scripture. The six temperaments are considered Buddha’s wisdom that classifies humans into six categories based on their mind. According to the authors, there is a possibility of humans having more than one character; however, one has to be outstanding. It is also possible to observe these behaviors in daily life. The ides of Buddha was that the ability to understand an individual’s temperament is essential in understating one’s inner being. The six temperaments are Lustful, Unintelligent, Hateful, Discursive, Devout, and Intellectual.


The first temperament is known as lustful. Individuals under this category are addicted to flavors, appearances, sound, touch, and odors. They have a sophisticated mind and are good at recognizing sensational happiness. This category of people is interested in their features and is likely to be keen on the dressing. They love luxury and do not mind having delicious meals and items. They tend to avoid vulgar language. Lustful people are big dreamers with wide imaginations.

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The Hateful

The Hateful refers to a category of people remain in anger. They firmly believe in principles and are very straightforward. They are likely to follow rules more than any temperament group. They expect the world to be the same as they are buy keeping time. These categories have a fault-finding tendency and are often angry when others break rules. They may hold a grudge and would rarely smile. These people speak with a loud and fast voice and may use violent words.

The Unintelligent

This group of people remains drowsy and inactive; they may fall asleep when they read a book in class. This category of people does not want to do anything. In most cases, they look down on themselves. They are sentimental and may not like to come to contact with hateful. They normally use soft tone in speech and are hardly angry. They are considered gentle and polite. They do not want to be prominent and are thus likely to avoid socialization.

. The Discursive
This is the fourth group. According to Buddha, this group of people remains in worry, they are talkative and have scattered brain. They are likely to compare themselves with others, ask questions, and like showing their ideas. They try to find others’ faults and think in negative ways. They are pessimists and believe that others may take advantage of them or cause harm. They are not sincere and have a difficult time trusting others. These people are unhappy because of the negative thoughts and lack of trust in others. Are moody and use violent words.
The Devout

People in this group remain in belief and want to be good because they are fond of good. They want to change society for better making them typical idealist. However, Lord Buddha argued that individuals with strong believe in something are less intelligent for believing without consideration and may have difficulty changing their minds.
The Intellectual

This is the last group; they are characterized by wisdom and knowledge. They are likely to view things based on fact and have the idea that everything is based on reason. They are objective when considering situations. They have open minds making them humble thus able to consider other people’s opinions. They may change their mind when they think other ideas are better than what they know. These people have a clear goal in life and are likely to adapt to circumstances much easily.

Individuals differ in the accuracy and speed which they learn. One of the major influences of learning ability as suggested by scholars is personality because it affects aspects such as attention and encounter rates for environmental cues. A person’s cognitive strategy occurs along a fast-slow-fast behavioral gradient. Some of the characteristics associated with fast types are being bold, active, and neolithic because of their ability to rapidly sample the environment and still on a superficial level will enable learning to take place at a much greater speed with accuracy. On the other hand, the slow types have the opposite suite type of personality that makes them more accurate and flexible, learners. The fact that older individuals have slow cognitive abilities compared to younger individuals leads to the conclusion that older individuals are generally slow learners and requires special assistance to acquire life-improving skills in their daily lives.

From the literature review, it is evident that age is associated with a drop in cognitive functions that are essential in maintaining functional independence including learning new skills. It was also evident that the elderly learning style is different from younger ones. The increase in age is directly related to a drop in cognitive abilities with much older individuals having difficulty in learning. Notable is that other forms of motor learning are well preserved with age, on the other hand, learning task tends to be negatively affected. Other features that were identified in older individuals were lower accuracy and slower reaction time.

Different authors gave different classifications or categories of learning style among the elderly. Despite the differences, there was a general observation that learning ability decreases with age and that older individual was slower when it comes to grasping concepts. One of the articles divided learning styles into; diverger, assimilator, and coverage style. The results were that older individuals were evenly distributed in the first three learning styles with very few falling in the converge category (involves thinking and doing while learning). The author identified no significant difference in learning styles among the elderly based on the level of education, gender, and age.

According to Clark et al (2015), certain types of learning are relatively preserved with normal aging, however, there are some that show a dramatic decline. The authors argue that the critical features that affect to what extent an individual’s learning capacity is affected by aging have not been discovered. The authors classified learning styles into the associative binding, sequence learning, and configural response learning. The authors argued that while several forms of learning involving simple deterministic regularities and motor skills are preserved with aging, there is enough evidence to show that probabilistic learning and associative learning decline with age.

Young and older adults demonstrate the same ability to learn deterministic sequences in the SRTT to an extent that every event or the previous two events may predict the subsequent event. The age invariance is not surprising when it comes to certain aspects considering the existing evidence that several aspects of simple deterministic motor learning are well preserved in older adults. More evidence also suggests that older adults can learn both first and second deterministic perceptual sequences when it comes to tasks that have minimal motor requirements. On the other hand, when the sequence includes a probabilistic component in a situation where probabilistically
predicts subsequent events, young adults tend to perform much better than older adults. Such phenomena can be explained by the greater demands in probabilistic learning by associative binding.

Findings from experimental paradigms support the proposal that young adults are much better than older adults when it comes to encoding and the utilization of covariance to create associations. Scholars have examined associative binding by presenting pairs of stimuli simultaneously and then carrying out a test to determine the ability to remember a precise pair of stimulus comparing either recombination or Individual items. Most of the findings suggest that older adults’ individuals are disproportionately worse when it comes to aspects such as associative binding between items and items in relation to their temporal context. Older adults also have problems forming inter-item connections in both incidental and intentional encoding. Such findings are consistent with ADH (associative deficit hypothesis) as suggested by Naveh-Benjamin, which gives a description of age-linked deficit in the associative binding of mental codes as compared to relatively good performance on recognition and recall of single items.

Configure response learning is a type where multiple responses are simultaneously arranged to come up with one unified response. It requires both the configuration of movement and execution of individual movements in relation to each other. This involves both associative binding and motor learning. This particular type of learning is involved in several aspects of healthy aging including learning new activities like sport, dance, or adapting to a new car. Surprisingly, not much is known whether there exists age differences are this style of learning. There is convincing evidence that individuals created connections between elements of a specific configurable response such as a piano chord instead of strengthening the capacity to map individual stimuli to responses. It is also clear that learning appears to be implicit for reasons that the performance benefits could be observed when subjects do not explicitly encode the stimuli that are likely to occur.

There is a likelihood that the number of elderly individuals is likely to rise in the next decades across the globe. It is thus essential that these individuals are equipped with various skills that enable them to improve their living conditions. This group of people should also be encouraged to recognize the importance of their health; they should be able to plan their finances much earlier. Also, they should be able to participate in both learning and social activities. The advancement in technology means that many elderly people are likely to leave out considering the fact that the younger generations are the major users of these types of technology thus setting market trends. These make it necessary to equip them with relevant skills so they may actively face the aging process. Such a step can be achieved by identifying the various learning styles of this older individual and how they are related to their personality types. The results from the literature review when it comes to the classification of personality types considering the fact that different authors had different criteria. However, they all agree that cognitive abilities decline with age and older individuals are likely to have difficulties when it comes to learning. Several authors also agreed that active learners generally live better lives, better health conditions, good planners, and had good social skills compared to slow learners. There it is the responsibility of adult educators to identify an individual’s learning style, personality, and then develop proper strategies to help these individuals.

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