Changing Dynamics of Pathology Technicians’ Skills

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic review of the changing dynamics of the skills and competencies of pathology technicians. In order to achieve that aim, the review is based on four specific objectives. The first specific objective is to carry out a review of the factors leading to changes in the demand for the skills and competencies of pathology technicians. The second specific objective is to carry out a review of the current level of skills and competences of pathology technicians. A third of objective is to carry out a review of the required skills and competencies for pathology technicians. Lastly, the paper presents a brief review of the impacts of inadequate skills and competences. The paper follows the structure of the PRISMA model with slight modifications. The findings of the review indicate that recent developments such as increased application of molecular biology in pathology, ICT advancement, increased the need for quality assurance, and the emergence of other important skills are some of the key factors influencing changes in the required skills and competencies for pathology technicians. The required skills and competencies are almost similar in all countries. However, there is a lower level of available skilled and competent pathology technicians than needed. Among other impacts, the issue has contributed to the increased number of errors in pathology laboratories during recent years, and the inability to implement new technology in the laboratories.

Table of Contents

List of Tables. 4

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Changing Dynamics of Pathology Technicians’ Skills
Just from $9/Page
Order Essay

1.0 Background. 5

2.0 Aim/Objectives. 6

3.0 Methods. 6

3.1 Protocol 6

3.2 Inclusion and exclusion Criterion. 7

3.3 Information Sources. 7

3.4 Search Terms. 8

3.5 Study Selection. 9

3.6 Data collection process. 9

3.7 Data Items. 9

3.8 Risk of Bias in Studies. 9

3.9 Planned Analysis Methods. 9

3.10 Risk of Bias across Studies. 9

4.0 Results. 10

4.1 Study Selection. 10

4.2 Study characteristics. 10

5.0 Syntheses of the Results. 14

5.1 Recent changes with an impact on skills and competencies. 14

5.2 The Required Pathology Technician Skills and Competencies. 17

5.3 A review of the current level of pathology technicians’ skills and competences. 18

5.4 The impacts of inadequate skills and competences. 19

6.0 Summary. 20

7.0 Conclusion and Recommendations. 20

8.0 Limitations. 21

9.0 References. 23

10.0 Appendix. 25

 

List of Tables

Table 1.0 Inclusion and exclusion criteria. 7

Table 2.0 Search terms. 8

Table 3.0 Summary of the characteristics of the studies included. 10

1.0 Background

There are various changes that have been taking place in the pathology industry over the last decade that have led to significant changes in the required skills and competencies for the pathology technicians. Also known as pathologist assistant, a pathology technician is a person who works in a pathology laboratory under the supervision and direction of a qualified pathologist. A pathology assistant is qualified to carry out a various autopsy and surgical tasks in a pathology laboratory. One of the major roles of a pathology assistant is to prepare specimen and chemicals needed during pathology testing. Other functions of a pathology assistant include procurement of samples and chemicals, research, training other technicians when needed and to perform other assigned duties such as teaching, supervisory, budgetary and administrative tasks (Rodrigues et al., 2013). Although they are not expected to carry out the diagnosis tests, pathology assistants play a major role in pathology laboratories that influences the quality and quantity of diagnostic tests. As such, they are expected to have adequate skills and competencies in order to carry out their assigned duties effectively.

For more than one and half centuries, there has been constant development in the pathology industry driven by new discoveries, among other factors.  At the same time, there has been a constant rise in the demand for health quality care, which is also influenced by the quality of output of the pathology laboratories. In order to enhance the quality of output of pathology laboratories, agencies within and outside the profession have, for a long time, set standards for eligibility into the profession. However, there have been rapid changes taking place during the 21st century, that have more drastic impacts on the skills and competencies needed in the profession. As a result of the changes, the demand for a higher level of skills and competences among the pathology technicians has increased. The issue has influenced many accreditation agencies to revise the minimum requirements for entry into the job. Despite the intervention, the gap between the skills available and the skills needed has been increasing (Rodrigues et al., 2013). The purpose of this paper is to answer the following question; how have the different aspects of pathology technicians’ skills and competencies changed during the recent years?

2.0 Aim/Objectives

The main aim of this paper is to examine the changing dynamics of pathology technicians’ skills and competencies. To achieve this objective, the research is based on the following specific objectives:

  • To carry out a review of the factors leading to changes in the demand for pathology technicians’ skills and competencies
  • To carry out a review of the current level of pathology technicians’ skills and competences
  • To carry out a review of the required pathology technician skills and competencies
  • To carry out a brief review of the impacts of inadequate skills and competences

3.0 Methods

3.1 Protocol

A plan for carrying out the research and the inclusion criteria are outlined in the protocol.

3.2 Inclusion and exclusion Criterion

The following table presents a summary of the criteria that was used to include and exclude studies.

Table 1.0 Inclusion and exclusion criteria

Inclusion Criteria Exclusion Criteria
  • Only studies that were written in English were included
  • Studies published within the last seven years were included
  • Studies that are relevant to the current topic of study were included
  • Studies that did not have significant levels of biases were included
  • Studies written in other languages other than English were excluded
  • Studies that are older than seven years were excluded
  • Studies that are not relevant to the current topic were excluded
  • Studies with significant levels of biases were excluded
  • Studies that involved literature reviews only were excluded

 

3.3 Information Sources

Studies were identified through scanning a reference list related to the research topic in the BibMe database. The references identified were then searched in the Medline (1966–Present) and the PubMed database and the Google search engine. Direct searches were also carried out in the Medline database and the Google search engine. The last search was carried on out 14th July 2014.

3.4 Search Terms

The table below presents the terms that were used to search the relevant sources in the databases and the Google search engine;

Table 2.0 Search terms

Search terms
  • Pathology technician
  • Pathology technicians skills
  • Pathology technicians skills competencies
  • Technician
  • Recent trends in pathology technician skills and competencies
  • Recent changes in pathology technician skills and competencies
  • Recent development in pathology technician skills and competencies
  • Required skills and competencies for pathology technicians
  • Impacts of recent changes in the skills
  • Competencies for pathology technicians
  • Pathology technicians training
  • Recent challenges facing pathology technicians
  • Sources of errors in pathology laboratories

 

3.5 Study Selection

The researchers involved two reviewers to assist in the process of screening and determining the eligible studies for inclusion in the review process. In case of any disagreement, the reviewers engaged in close evaluation of the content of the studies.

3.6 Data collection process

The researchers adopted a theoretical approach in extracting the data required for the study. The first reviewer collected data, and the second reviewer checked it. Any disagreement was solved by a third reviewer.

3.7 Data Items

Information was extracted from each source depending on its relevance to a specific research objective.

3.8 Risk of Bias in Studies

In order to identify biases in the studies, the reviewers worked together in evaluating the suitability research designs used and data collection methods and procedures, and the validity and reliability of the data collection instruments.

3.9 Planned Analysis Methods

The researchers applied content analysis method of the content of the studies in order to extract the useful information related to the study topic.

3.10 Risk of Bias across Studies

The cumulative evidence of the studies reviewed may result in biases resulting from factors such as selective reporting and publication bias.

4.0 Results

4.1 Study Selection

103 studies were identified for inclusion in the review in both the BibMe, PubMed and Medline databases and the Google search engine. Some studies were older than seven years. After removing them, only 69 studies remained. The remaining studies were screened, and 33 were excluded due to lack of adequate information that would contribute significantly to the current study. The details contained in the remaining 36 studies were assessed for eligibility. 16 studies did not meet the inclusion criteria due to the presence of biases. The biases found included design bias, procedural bias, sampling biases and reporting bias. Only 20 studies were included in the systematic review since they contained information that was relevant to the current study, and they did not have common biases. Figure 1.0 in the appendix gives a summary of the study selection process.

4.2 Study characteristics

The table below summarizes the characteristics of the studies selected

Table 3.0 Summary of the characteristics of the studies included

Author Study type Purpose The relevant information present
Adyanthaya and Jose (2013) Qualitative analysis To evaluate quality management system guiding the quality of output of pathology laboratories in the US and UK Factors leading to changes in the demand for pathology technicians’ skills and competencies

 

Alaamern (2012) Qualitative To explore the level of training of staff involved radiography in Saudi Arabia The training level for the laboratory staff including technicians
Alkhenizan and

Shaw(2011)

Systematic review A systematic review of the impacts of accreditation of laboratory staff on quality of output The impact of accreditation of laboratory technicians on quality
Bahaadinbeigy, Yogesan and Wootton (2010) Quantitative Investigating the level of application and effectiveness of telemedicine in Australia Advancement in the use of telemedicine technology in pathology
Buesa (2010) Quantitative and qualitative study Productivity quality in histopathology laboratories is lower than expected The current level of pathology technicians’ skills and competences
Colebourn, Davies and Becher (2010) Analysis of case study Investigating the gap in training for clinical laboratory workers and suggesting ways of bridging the gap The current level of pathology technicians’ skills and competences
Daniel et al. (2011) Qualitative Analysis Investigating the applicability of standard digital equipments that produce digital images in pathology laboratories Factors leading to changes in the demand for pathology technicians’ skills and competencies
El-Mahalli, El-Khafif and Al-Qahtani (2012) Quantitative Investigating challenges and successes in the application and implementation of telemedicine in Saudi Arabia The laboratory technician training challenges affecting the implementation and application of telemedicine
Ezziane et al. (2012) Content review Evaluating ways of enhancing the performance and effectiveness of healthcare workers Factors leading to changes in the demand for pathology technicians’ skills and competencies
Flynn et al. (2014) Quantitative The extent to which laboratory staff receive training in the use of molecular biology in diagnosis Lack of adequate training of pathology technicians in the use of molecular biology in their work
Hammerling (2012) Qualitative review Reviewing the errors occurring in the clinical laboratories and their causes The impacts of inadequate skills and competences
Hawash (2014) Quantitative Evaluation of an Algorithm based on immunoassay for identification and screening of Cryptosporidium and Giardia antigens in faecal specimens Increased application of molecular biology technology in pathology profession
Lippi, Plebani and Šimundić (2010) Qualitative review Investigating the extent to which theory on quality enhancement is applied in laboratory diagnostics Factors leading to changes in the demand for pathology technicians’ skills and competencies
Morelli et al. (2013) Qualitative analysis Investigating the root causes of errors in histology laboratories The role of lack of adequate training of pathology technicians in increasing number of errors
Nichols (2011) Qualitative Review Reviewing the effectiveness of the quality control approaches applied in order to reduce risk for low-quality results in clinical laboratories in Saudi

Arabia

 
Rodrigues et al. (2013) Content review Examining the application of molecular biology in diagnosis of prostate cancer Factors leading to changes in the demand for pathology technicians’ skills and competencies, and the impacts of inadequate skills and competences
Saikia, Gupta and Saikia (2008) Qualitative review Evaluating trends in the modern histopathology

 

Factors leading to changes in the demand for pathology technicians’ skills and competencies
Salari (2009) Qualitative review Investigating disparities between the required and the available skills and competences for medical professionals dealing with personalized care The current level of pathology technicians’ skills and competences
Walz (2013) Qualitative review To examine the required training and education for medical laboratory professionals in the US The required pathology technician skills and competencies
Zima (2010) Qualitative review To examine the accreditation standards for pathology laboratory staff in different countries The required pathology technician skills and competencies

5.0 Syntheses of the Results

5.1 Recent changes with an impact on skills and competencies

The studies examined have pointed out various changes that have occurred in the pathology profession over the last decade.  According to Rodrigues et al. (2013), pathology technicians are increasingly faced by work challenges that were not faced by the previous generations. Some of the challenges have a direct impact on the needed skills and competencies in the pathology technician profession. One of the major changes examined by the studies is the increased application of molecular science in diagnosis. According to Hawash (2014), pathology has changed from its initial focus on autopsy only, to an increased focus on molecular biology. A good example is the application of molecular science in the immunotherapy for cancers and the classification of traditional histology (Rodrigues et al., 2013; Hawash, 2014)). According to Flynn et al. (2014), pathology professionals seem to be exploring areas that earlier generations could not have imagined. With the increased application of molecular biology and biotechnology in diagnosis increases, all individuals working in the pathology laboratories are expected to be versed with its application, on top of the traditional pathology testing techniques. Although pathology technicians are not required to have the ability to conduct the complex tests, they are required to be versed with the new methods of preparing samples and instruments used in the molecular tests.

According to Saikia et al. (2008), advancement in information communication technology (ICT) has also had major impacts on the work of the pathology technicians. Telemedicine is one of the main applications of ICT in pathology, a concept that was rare a few years back. Telemedicine involves the exchange of information about patient care from one point to another through electronic gadgets in order to improve patient care. One of the key sub-disciplines of telemedicine is telepathology, which involves “capturing, transmitting, and viewing histological and pathological images through telecommunication channels such as telephone, dedicated satellite or internet, as opposed to the traditional methods of microscopy” (Saikia et al., 2008). According to Daniel et al. (2011), advancement in technology has led to the emergence of telepathology systems that enable pathologists to accurately exchange such information, and hence deliver a quick and accurate diagnosis. Daniel et al. (2011) explain that the emergence of virtual slides has led to the increased significance of telepathology in the pathology laboratories. A virtual slide refers to a digitalized image that emerges after scanning a specimen at a very high resolution. According to Saikia et al (2008), the virtual slide enables pathologists to derive an image at all magnifications or fields of view that a microscope has. The images derived from the different views are stitched together into a single image that multiple pathologists can view at the same time. A good example is the ultra-rapid virtual slide processor (Saikia et al., 2008).

Further, the studies reviewed have shown that increased demand for quality assurance during recent years has led to significant changes in the skills and competencies needed for pathology technicians. Today, legislation has become strict, and the wrong diagnosis may invite punitive punishment on pathology laboratory professionals. There are national agencies that constantly inspect the quality of pathology laboratory output. In the UK, inspection is carried out by Care Quality Commission, among other programs. In the US, the quality is regulated by agencies such as the College of American Pathologists and the National Accrediting Agency for Clinical Laboratory Sciences (Adyanthaya & Jose, 2013). At the international level, the quality is regulated by organizations such as World Health Organization and the National Standard and Regulatory Agencies (Adyanthaya & Jose, 2013). In Saudi Arabia, quality in pathology laboratories is inspected by the Central Board for Accreditation of Health Institutions (Alkhenizan & Shaw, 2011).  Lippi et al (2010) note that additional pressure is exerted by the general public, as people are increasingly demanding for quality healthcare services. As such, there has been an increase in pressure on persons working in pathology laboratories to be accountable for the quality of their work. As part of the pathology laboratory workers, pathology technicians are also accountable for their actions.

According to Ezziane et al. (2012), organizations, including pathology laboratories, have become aware of the fact that they are increasingly operating in constantly changing internal and external environments. In some cases, the changes are unpredictable and may have huge effects on the performance and quality of output. In some cases, the changes may involve uncertainties that may have unfavorable effects to an organization. A good example is a recent shortage in the number of available skilled pathology technicians in countries such as the UK and the US. The problem has contributed to the work overload experienced by many pathology technicians in the two countries during recent years (Ezziane et al., 2012). In order to counter the unfavorable effects, it has become imperative for pathology laboratory managers to come up with proactive strategies to enhance the quality and speed of the reaction to both the predictable and unpredictable changes. Examples of the strategies proposed for organizations to improve their results are teamwork and strategic decision-making. As such, skills that would enhance such strategies in organizations have become very important, although they are not directly related to the basic skills needed in the profession. Examples of the skills that have become important include team working, communication, decision-making and critical-thinking skills (Ezziane et al., 2012).

With the changes observed by various scholars in the pathology industry, it has become important for the accreditation of all individuals working in pathology laboratories, including the laboratory technicians, to be reviewed upwards.  In addition, re-accreditation of all the individuals working in the laboratory has become very important (Ezziane et al., 2012).

5.2 The Required Pathology Technician Skills and Competencies

The results of the recent studies have shown that the increased need to achieve quality results and to incorporate higher-complexity testing in pathology laboratories has raised the demand for pathology technicians with higher levels of skills and competencies. As a result of the changes, the skills and competencies needed for pathology technicians in many countries have been reviewed upwards. As noted in the studies reviewed, the required skills in the profession in the UK, US, Canada, Saudi Arabia, Australia, and other countries are almost similar (Walz, 2013; Nichols, 2011). One of the most important basic skills noted in the studies is ability to carry out biological and chemical tests. Secondly, pathology technicians are expected to have the ability to apply safety, mathematical and mechanical knowledge in their work (Zima, 2010). Other important skills mentioned in the studies are active listening, writing, speaking problem solving, critical thinking, reading comprehension, quality control, decision-making, monitoring, operation and control, time management, equipment, and systems maintenance, coordination, service orientation, systems evaluation, and interactional skills. With increased application of computer technology in the pathology profession, the technicians are also required to have computer skills (Walz, 2013). Among the most important competencies examined in the studies include attention to detail, cooperation with fellow workers, dependability, integrity, stress tolerance, self-control, independence, achievement, and persistence.

5.3 A review of the current level of pathology technicians’ skills and competences

Despite the fact that the level of skills and competence needed for pathology technicians has increased, recent studies indicate that the demand has not been met. In fact, all the studies examined showed that there is a dire shortage of skilled and competent pathology technicians in many countries (Buesa, 2010). There are several causes of the shortage of well trained and competent pathology technicians cited in the studies. To start with, all the studies reviewed indicate that lack of adequate payment as compared to other jobs has led the pathology technician profession to become less attractive. The studies have shown that salaries for pathology technicians are even significantly lower than the salaries of other pathology laboratory staff.  According to the studies, the main cause of the lower salary rate is that the eligibility for entry into the profession is lower than in other laboratory disciplines. The second factor cited in the previous studies is lack of adequate awareness for pathology technician profession among the public. According to Salari (2009), there are also places where the problem has been caused by lack of enough funding to support schools and programs offering pathology technician training. In some cases, individuals lack the required funding to continue with education and acquire the knowledge and training level needed in the new standards. The problem of shortage has been compounded by the fact that the discipline has a high level of the aging workforce, leading to a steady exit. At the same time, the studies indicate that there is a lack of coordinated efforts to provide adequate training to new technicians for replacement. In addition, Salari (2009) noted that the available training programs for pathology technicians do not give adequate focus on the emerging skills in the profession, such as problem-solving, decision-making, communication, critical thinking, and teamwork skills.

Another problem noted by Colebourn et al. (2010) is that many pathology technicians do not seek, or have no access to additional training after entering the profession in order to enable them cope with the changing working environment. According to Salari Colebourn et al. (2010), there is tendency to assume that pathology technicians will learn by themselves any emerging discoveries, and then comprehend and implement them in their work. As a result, only a few histology technicians have ability to execute complex testing. Due to the problem of shortage, there are cases where people who are enrolled into the field do not have defined practical training, or even coordinated theory education. Some of the pathology technicians go for nine-month training to acquire a qualification certificate. As such, the compressed time-frame limits the ability to acquire proper practical training. A study conducted by Alaamer (2012) in Saudi Arabia found that pathology technicians lack adequate knowledge and training in radiography.

5.4 The impacts of inadequate skills and competences

The studies reviewed have shown that the lack of adequate skills and competencies has a major impact in the pathology technician profession. To start with, the problem has contributed to the increased number of errors occurring in the pathology laboratories recently. In fact, the studies have cited the problem as the major cause of pre-analytic, analytic and post-analytic errors occurring in the pathology laboratories (Hammerling, 2012; Morelli et al. 2013). Secondly, the problem has contributed to the inability for pathology laboratories to implement new technologies. For instance, many pathology laboratories have experienced difficulties in implementing molecular biology and automation programs due to lack of adequate knowledge and skills among the staff.  A study conducted by El-Mahalli et al. (2012) found a lack of adequate training of technicians and other pathology laboratory staff as a hindrance to successful implementation of telemedicine. Bahaadinbeigy (2010) also found similar results in Australia.

6.0 Summary

In summary, the studies reviewed studies identified various recent developments that have had an impact on pathology technician’s skills and competencies. The developments identified are increased application of molecular biology in pathology, ICT advancement, increased need for quality assurance, and emergence of other important skills. The studies have also identified various skills and competencies needed in the pathology technician job today. Despite the rise in the entry requirements into the field, there is a lower level of available skilled and competent pathology technicians. The problem has contributed to the increased number of errors in pathology laboratories, and the inability to implement new technology in the laboratories.

7.0 Conclusion and Recommendations

In conclusion, there is an increase in the need for skilled and competent pathology technicians, but the demand has not been met. There is need for intensive training of new and existing pathology technicians in order to bridge the gap. The benefit can only be achieved if issues such as low level of salaries for pathology technicians, lack of funding for the training programs and lack of incentives to provide additional training to existing pathology technicians are addressed.

8.0 Limitations

The major limitation face by the reviewers is differences in the quality of the studies examined. Secondly, publication and reporting biases may affect the original findings of the studies, and hence the outcome of the review.

9.0 References

Adyanthaya, S. & Jose, M. (2013). Quality and safety aspects in histopathology laboratory. J

Oral Maxillofac Pathol, 17(3), 402-407

Alaamer, A. S. (2012). Radiography Education and Training in Saudi Arabia. Open Journal of

Radiology, 2, 134-140

Alkhenizan, A. & Shaw, C. (2011). Impact of Accreditation on the Quality of Healthcare

Services: a Systematic Review of the Literature. Ann Saudi Med, 31(4), 407–416

Bahaadinbeigy, K., Yogesan, K. & Wootton, R. (2010). A Survey of the State of Telemedicine in

Western Australia. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare 16, no. 4, 176–80

Buesa, R. J. (2010). Productivity standards for histology laboratories. Annals of Diagnostic

Pathology, 14, 107–124

Colebourn, C. L., Davies, I. K. G. & Becher, H. (2010). Bridging the gap: training critical care

clinician-echocardiographers through a collaborative curriculum. JICS, 11(1), 13-16=

Daniel, C., Rojo, M. G., Klossa, J., Mea, V. D., Booker, D., Beckwith, B. A., Schrader, T.

(2011). Standardizing the use of whole slide images in digital pathology. Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics 35 (7-8), 496–505

El-Mahalli, A. A., El-Khafif S. H. & Al-Qahtani, M. F.  (2012). Successes and Challenges in the

Implementation and Application of Telemedicine in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Perspect Health Inf Manag, 9, 1-27

Ezziane, Z., Maruthappu, M., Gawn, L., Thompson, E.  A., Athanasiou, T. & Warren, O. J.

(2012). Building effective clinical teams in healthcare. Journal of Health Organization and Management, 26 (4), 428 – 436

Flynn, C. et al. (2014). Integrating molecular diagnostics into histopathology training: the Belfast

model. J Clin Pathol, 67, 632-636

Hammerling, J. A. (2012). A Review of Medical Errors in Laboratory Diagnostics and Where

We Are Today. LabMedicine, 43, 41-44.

Hawash, Y. (2014). Evaluation of an Immunoassay-Based Algorithm for Screening and

Identification of Giardia and Cryptosporidium Antigens in Human Faecal Specimens from Saudi Arabia. Journal of Parasitology Research. 01/2014, ID 213745, DOI: 10.1155/2014/213745

Lippi, G., Plebani, M. & Šimundić, A. M. (2010). Quality in laboratory diagnostics: From

theory to practice. Biochem Med, 20, 126–130

Morelli, P. et al. (2013). Analysis of errors in histology by root cause analysis: a pilot study. J

Prev Med Hyg, 54(2), 90-6.

Nichols, J. H. (2011). Laboratory Quality Control Based on Risk Management. Ann Saudi Med,

31(3), 223–228

Rodrigues, D. N., Butler, L. M., Estelles,, D. L. & de Bono, J. S. (2013). Molecular pathology

and prostate cancer therapeutics: from biology to bedside. The Journal of Pathology, 232 (2), 178-184

Saikia, B., Gupta, K. & Saikia, U. N. (2008). The modern histopathologist: in the changing face

of time. Diagnostic Pathology, 3, 25

Salari, K. (2009). The dawning era of personalized medicine exposes a gap in medical education.

PLoS Med, 6(8), e1000138

Walz, S. E. (2013). Education and training in laboratory medicine in the United States. JIFCC, 24(1), 1-3.

Zima, T. (2010). Accreditation in clinical laboratories. Biochemia Medica, 20  (2), 215–220

10.0 Appendix

Figure 1.0: A summary of the study selection process

 

 

 


Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently
 

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects

Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.

Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!

Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.

Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.

Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.

Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.

Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!

Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.

Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper