The New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA)

 

Executive Summary

The New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA) is one of theNorth American’s largest public housing authorities. The authority was chartered in 1934with an aim of provision of decent and affordable housing for the moderate and low-income earners in New York to facilitate access to community and social services. The pursuant of NYCHA status and charter as a federal Public Housing Agency (PHA) enabled it to acts as the home to a significant number of New York residences who embrace it as the sole acclamation for their wellbeing.  NYCHA provides employment to many people and professions based on their success in particular fields which are essential to the city. Approximately four hundred thousand residents have been allocated in the three hundred and twenty-eight public housing developments with more than two thousand apartments and three thousand residential buildings with its five boroughs. The alumni of NYCHA include the former CEO of Starbucks, Howard Schultz, Whoopi Goldberg, the CEO Lloyd Blankfein, and Goldman Sachs Chair, and former New York City Health Commissioner, Dr. Mary Bassett. The operation of NYCHA has been on attempted termination by Governor George Pataki since 1998, leading to a decline in the state and federal funding for both capital and operations projects. However, the current state of NYCHA has experienced crucial issues due to the failure to meet the operating budget. The disinvestment from the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the mismanagement of funds by NYCHA has resulted in the deterioration of local buildings that have subjected the government to massive expenditure to repair.

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Introduction

New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA),  had), had gained a reputation for as being a breeding ground for crime, infrastructure issue, overall being a place where nothing good happens. Nevertheless, the establishment and purpose of public housing were to give eligible low-income families, the elderly, and the disabled, the chance to live in suitable and sheltered housing at an affordable rate, based on their income. Though NYCHA is supposed to follow through with the public housing mission, it has failed to countless times. Notably, there was a short-term mechanism which was proposed to solve issues related to housing; for instance, a recommendation was made to the authority to sell NYCHA-owned land to fund these major repairs. Indeed, NYCHA managed to accomplish major goals without interfering with the stipulated federal laws and judicial requirements.

NYCHA’s Current State

NYCHA has some of these issues because its operating budget is not being covered entirely by the revenue due to the mismanagement of funds by NYCHA and the disinvestment from the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). At its current state, NYCHA’s operating budget is $33.3 million in deficiency as its revenue continues to fluctuate as funding plans from city and federal governments constantly change but never provide enough to create permanent fixes to all its issues(Obanor, 2016). However, the conditions of most of the buildings there still need to improve for public housing, especially in NYC where 20% of NYC residents are earning less than $24,300 with a family of four, which is considered living below the poverty line, and nearly 1 in every 121 New Yorkers is currently homeless. One must recognize the needs NYCHA tries to provide beyond providing just housing to New Yorkers. NYCHA is known for providing its residents with resident programming, which involves job training, financial literacy workshops, violence prevention initiatives, etc. Lastly, it provides the foundation for NYC to stay as a diverse city as it provides much of the housing for the blacks, Latinos, and immigrant groups while providing the community with various social services, such as daycares, senior centers, health clinics, and educational programs.
Effects on Older Adults Living in NYCHA

The issues in these buildings not only affect all residents within these buildings but also prove to be more harmful to older adults living there. NYCHA housing has a population of 77,000 older adults who are 62 years old and older accounting for 20% of NYCHA’s overall population. Therefore, NYCHA has a duty to create an environment that helps to support the health and well-being of this population, especially as 40% of the head of households are reported to be 62 years old or older. If NYCHA hopes to be the primary source of housing for the ever-growing older adult population that is expected to double to 78 million by 2035, it needs to create age-friendly spaces.  The World Health Organization(2017) defines age-friendly as,

“An age-friendly world enables people of all ages to actively participate in community activities and treats everyone with respect, regardless of their age. It is a place that makes it easy for older people to stay connected to people that are important to them. And it helps people stay healthy and active even at the oldest ages and provides appropriate support to those who can no longer look after themselves”

In its current state, NYCHA, by face value, does not seem to be age-friendly, especially with the major maintenance issues (e.g. broken elevator, no heat, no water, etc.) that, when not properly functioning, affects the abilities of older adults to stay healthy and navigate with ease, maximize the use of social services, and participate in the community. This paper will examine the status of age-friendly NYCHA housing using a participatory action research study by older residents living in the Stanley Isaac Houses
Literature Review
History of NYCHAs Issues
The New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA) is among the most significant public housing residential housing in America since it serves roughly one out of every ten New Yorkers. Moreover, it is a system established to ensure the vulnerable people, specifically the low- and middle-class-income earners, reside in safe, healthy, and comfortable houses. Additionally, the NYCHA has been in service since 1935 and to provide residential services to the New York population to date. Unfortunately, the NYCHA has suffered from disinvestments from the federal government. The Disinvestment started in 1973 from the Nixion Administration, halting all new subsided housing construction, and then later in 1982 the Regan Administration, cutting HUD’s budget by more than 50%(Bailey, 2018). By 1992, The HOPE VI program was established by HUD to demolish non-functional public housing and provide mixed-use public housing with the aid of private companies. In 1996, the HOPE VI program was a failure in New York as Prospect plaza was torn down, but promised public housing was never rebuilt on the property further displacing families who depended on these units. With the various housing policies that lead to the disinvestment of NYCHA, the organization had to figure out how to operate on an unsustainable model, as its funding sources became lower than its operating budget making it run on a deficit. In addition, NYCHA also suffered from aging building stock, as most of the buildings NYCHA has in its portfolio were built from 1945-1970, when the federal built and operated public housing. The HOPE VI program further affecting the amount of housing stock under NYCHA. While this aging building stock would need necessary funds to keep its interiors and infrastructure from deteriorating. Nonetheless, to solve the disinvestment issues and limited housing stock that affected NYCHA, the leadership of the authority must implement strategies with limited capital.

NYCHA has been known to be affected by bulk water leakages in its various buildings. The issues of water leakage degraded the building envelope, disrupted the livelihoods of the residents, and contaminated indoor air quality, as well as led to pest manifestation. NYCHA has tried to come up with solutions, but unfortunately, these objectives and visions were not established because of NYCHA’s difficulties meeting the capital needs a budget, rising housing costs, and the established increase in repair lists. According to the Capital/Physical Needs Assessment (PNA), which is conducted every half a decade, as of 2011, NYCHA required 16.6 billion dollars, with an additional 13.3 billion dollars for improving the building interiors and exteriors, electrical, mechanical, and plumbing systems at these sites.

An NYCHA report indicated that New York housing or apartments lose heat during the winter seasons. It is known that these buildings also have leaks, mold, and lead paint. These issues are very much a health hazard for many residents. Due to a lack of funding, the health conditions in these apartments have worsened, leading to a takeover by the federal government. With the history of Federal management over the housing sector in New York, the federal government has faced political opposition from Mayor Bill de Blasio, who is searching for various means of saving the housing authority. Additionally, de Blasio and Carson are negotiating ways to recover from NYCHAS mismanagement and address the housing stock need of roughly thirty billion dollars for repairs.

The New York public houses first faced a state of disrepair in recent years. This disrepair was due to dwindling federal funding, deferred maintenance, delayed capital projects, and the increase in backlog repairs. Additionally, investigation reports conducted in 2016 and sanctioned by the U.S. attorney revealed a high level of authority mismanagement for many years. Moreover, in 2016, an 80-page civil complaint was filed by the federal prosecutors accusing the agency of exposing the residents to health and safety hazards(Bailey, 2018). Unfortunately, rather than facing the law, NYCHA covered up its crimes by establishing a negotiation by investing roughly 2 billion dollars in the authority’s weak buildings. Indeed, in November 2016, Judge William H. P. disallowed the NYCHA settlement since it did not cover enforcement mechanisms (Obanor, 2016). In other words, the esteemed judge preferred that the federal government take over the entire agency. This decision was a significant negative impact on NYCHA’s reputation as an authority that could properly manage public housing with any kind of funding.
Mismanagement of NYCHA

According to Smith, there were several irregularities within the management of the authority; for example, the Damning Federal Report indicated that NYCHA and the New York City Health Department purposely and continuously lied to the public. The report, released on 12 June 2016, stated that there were high levels of lead poisoning in children who lived in the NYCHA public housing apartments. Moreover, rather than establish an intervention plan to combat the health issue, a false statement was released claiming that the lead poisoning was because of lead-based paint and none of the inspection reports was released. Also, the city health sector seconded the NYCHA’s claims by supporting the prevention and reduction efforts of the authority even after the health department knew that there were no lead paint inspections in the area. The administration continued to mislead the public after the incident of a little girl’s health condition that reflected high blood-lead levels. In response, the NYCHA and DOH provided a letter to the tenants stating that the development under the authority complies with the federal, state, and city regulations concerning lead(Source)?

Moreover, the management of the authority drafted a presentation supporting the elements of lead paint used to re-paint the infrastructure. Furthermore, the levels of mismanagement at the administration are scared of the involvement of the media in covering their illegal activities. According to He (2016), NYCHA is often scared when the press gets involved in covering repeated tenants’ complaints (He, 2016). In other terms, in 2016, NYCHA falsified reports to HUD and the public on the backlog on the maintenance obligations. In simple terms, the federal government found out that NYCHA falsified its books and manipulated the statistics on workload. Issues after issues piled on as time passed with limited solutions to resolve them.

Current Solutions to NYCHA’s Dilemma
There have been various considerations for solving the issues revolving Public Housing in New York City. First, there was a short-term mechanism proposed to solve the housing issue; for example, it was recommended that the authority needed to sell NYCHA-owned land to fund major repairs of the existing properties (Bailey, 2018). Additionally, such an idea was opposed by different levels of NYCHA management, opposition in part was due to the potential for the loss of actual units of low-income housing and public space (recreational and parking), and gentrification of neighborhoods. Next, there were proposals by various political leaders, such as Mayor de Blasio, who preferred the involvement of the private sector to assist with the provision of a resolution. The main reason for involving the private sector was due to broadening the pool of resources in the cost of renovating and maintaining the public housing stock.  To permanently solve the issue, NYCHA created the Next-Generation Program 2.0 to comprehensively plan, fix, and preserve the public housing projects. The program was established to address the 31.8-billion-dollar of unmet capital needs of the aging housing infrastructure in New York City; therefore, it would make them safe, decent, and affordable.

One of NYCHA 2.0’s goals is to preserve public residences; moreover, its primary purpose is to ensure that New York City’s population is exposed to top-to-bottom renovation. Additionally, the program hopes to ensure its fund’s aid in significant capital repairs across the authority’s portfolio. Lastly, the program’s objective is to launch a useful new repair model to solve issues of lead paint, bacteria, heat, vermin, elevators, and in-house air quality. Due to its strategic platform, NYCHA 2.0 has expanded; specifically, the Section 8 conversions plan for 62,000 houses was launched with the aim of building, transferring, and fixing to preserve. Also, in November 2018, the city announced it hoped to make a profit of 12.8 billion dollars to address repair needs under the conversion plan. This is to be initiated by a public-private partnership that included the services of the Rental Assistance Demonstration Agency (RAD).

Under RAD, NYCHA hopes to convert 62,000 apartments in the next 10 years placed under Section 8 funding rather than continued funding under Section 9, federal funding. Section 8 housing has been proven to be more stable and permits non-governmental personnel or figures to invest into housing; however, section 8 does create different rules and regulations in exchange to subsidizing residents rent to 30% of their income. For example, any adult child added to the household will not have succession rights, they must allow inspection of the apartment every few years to make sure it is meeting the HUD quality standards, and if any kind of lease agreement is broken there is the possibility of being evicted without any special protection.
Indeed, the NYCHA program also made sure that it constructs to preserve. In other words, the NYCHA and the city will utilize new approaches on the under-used, public-owned land to establish ideal means of repairing the buildings and apartments. Under this part of the program, NYCHA will create limited-term leases, which avoids selling land to private contractors as they build new infrastructure that will use any revenue gains to repair nearby NYCHA properties this part of the process is often referred to as the infill project (Powell, 2016). The repairs for the nearby NYCHA buildings will take place simultaneously while new infrastructure is built. Moreover, new infrastructure will have to comply with the Mandatory Inclusionary Housing, a sectionalizing tool created by the Department of Urban Planning and also the Department of Housing Preservation and Development, which enforces developers to incorporate affordable housing in an area that is rezoned to permit for additional development. NYCHA creating new buildings under the Mandatory Inclusionary Housing tool will increase its housing stock while still keeping true to its promise of providing affordable housing units. NYCHA is aiming to create $2B in capital needs for 10,000 of its NYCHA apartments from this part of the program.
Next, the ideal meaning of transfer will preserve and enhance the authority’s ability to implement and enforce its extensive unimplemented development rights such as air rights. The process will only be successful if the power transfers roughly 80 million square feet of air rights, thus making it able to generate approximately 1 billion insignificant repairs NYCHA 2.0 aims at promoting the ongoing improvements as a means of maintaining authority. Authority of which many residents continue to question as NYCHA 2.0 projects rollout. Though NYCHA hopes to change how residents and community members perceive its authority and actions by including the voices of residents. The resident’s voices and feedback will be heard through various meetings held by NYCHA throughout the RAD conversion process.

The integration of resident’s voices into the process of this project is similarly to Community Based Participatory Action Research (CBPAR) when including community voices into figuring out its needs. The principles of CBPAR are,

“Recognizes community as a unity of Identify, Builds on strengths and resources within community, Facilities collaborative, partnerships in all phases of the research, Integrates knowledge and action for mutual benefit of all partners, promotes a co-learning and empowering process that attends to social inequalities, involves a cyclical and incremental process, addresses health from both positive and ecological perspectives, and disseminates findings and knowledge gained to all partners” (Israel, Schulz, Parker, & Becker, 1998; Israel, Schulz, Parker, Becker, Allen, Guzman, 2003).

The goals of these principles are to make sure people in the community become the lead researchers of their community and focus on telling their story through their own voices. This kind of research gives a direct perspective of a community’s issues and possible solutions from within to the public. It is important to do this kind of research because it would help the public understand more about NYCHA, especially the housing research and advocacy community (Thompson,). When the public understands more about NYCHA they might be more willing to provide support to NYCHA residents.
Older Adults Experience with NYCHA through a CBPAR at NYCHA Stanley Isaac Development
             One the main goals when starting a CBPAR at an NYCHA development was to make sure that the public would get to know not only how NYCHA issues were affecting residents, but to further investigate specifically a population who voices are not typically acknowledged in our society. The study was conducted by older adult residents from the Stanley Isaac NYCHA development, with assistance from Silberman Aging interns. The role of the older adults was to be the researchers that investigated how older adults at this development experience NYCHAmanagement in accordance with maintenance issues, accessibility, and safety. In addition to these three variables, further questions focused on the usage of the senior center at this development by this population.
The importance of these questions tries to address what is needed in a community that includes aging people. Perles (2016), communities that have older adults promotes and preserves community social relationships by focusing on providing adequate healthcare and community living supports these two services together help older adults function and maximize their abilities in communities to be active members (Bosak) (Perles, 2016). According to the Centra Wellness Network(2019) Community living supports can be described as, “Assisting, reminding, observing, guiding and/or training in the following activities: meal preparation; laundry; routine, seasonal, and heavy household care and maintenance; activities of daily living (e.g., bathing, eating, dressing, personal hygiene);shopping for food and other necessities of daily living”. Overall the goal of a community in regard to aging people should promote services that help older adults continue to keep living autonomous, independent, community inclusive, and participatory lives. Whether or not NYCHA promotes an age-friendly environment for their older adults residents at their  Stanley Isaac development would be determined through the results of this study.
From the 30 surveys received by the group from residents who live at this development Some of the findings shown that older adults residents were following NYCHAs repair protocols, but were not receiving adequate repairs to address the vast number of maintenance issues reported from their apartments (e.g. bed, bugs, mold, cracks in walls, chipped paint). Older adults reported mixed results on feeling safe at this development. Some mentioned that they felt unsafe walking at night or that they were being followed by strangers in the halls or other parts of the property. Therefore, these participants reported they would like to see more lights installed and security guards. Older adults in regard to accessibility felt they could navigate easily around the building, but they would like to see more handicap ramps installed and door that opened automatically. Lastly, it was reported through a separate section of the survey that older adults use and depend on the social services provided by the senior center at this development (e.g. meals on wheels, case management, field trips, health services, and various social clubs). The results of this study suggest that this NYCHA development is not truly age-friendly as is fails in supporting an environment where older adult’s community living supports are truly met across the board.
Furthermore, as this study was conducted the negative experiences residents had with NYCHA and its private contractor, Fetner properties, as they develop an infill project at this location were seen through Community Board 8 meetings. Residents at the CB8 meeting felt their voices were not being heard about not wanting the proposed 50 story building, that will have 50% market rate and 50% affordable units, being built between two of its 25 story buildings. They stated that for countless years since the first mention of the proposed building in 2015 that they were opposed to such an infill project to generate funds repairs for the nearby buildings it will stand near. Especially as the project will only provide $25 million in repairs revenue at the moment when $35 million is needed to address all needed repairs.  People felt that NYCHA was leasing the land for too low of a price while residents would be the ones to suffer throughout its construction process. Concerns from residents further grew when the private contractor, Fetner properties, mentioned it hired a non-profit in creating the community services portion of the project a non-profit company that has hardly provided any direct community support to this development. Residents continued to show outrage for this project; however, NYCHA continued to promote that it would continue would mention plans summer 2019. The community engagement where input would be included from residents during NYCHA Next Gen. 2.0 initiatives seems to have already been thrown out the window at this development. The importance of this proposed project is that it will be the first infill project done for NYCHA. Therefore, how they treat and respond to residents during this initial process might be representative of NYCHA might address the resident’s input at other NYCHA development as more of NYCHA 2.0 is rolled out.
Discussion
The goal of NYCHA 2.0 is to preserve public residences as well as ensure that the population of New York City is exposed to top-to-bottom renovation. The rationale was to cover all aspects of life with a target on the older adults who reside in the repaired houses. In most cases, the approach has exposed them to tremendous fear of losing their areas of residences especially if there is no concrete support from the federal government.  Under the NYCHA 2.0Senior housing, the older adults are usually subjected to relocations based on their ages. However, NYCHA 2.0 model program ensures that the constructions are made to preserve the life of the aging to adopt other alternatives which are essential in improving the state of housing. In Public housing, NYCHA should utilize the Vienna model in all the new approaches on the public-owned land to maintain an ideal means of repairing the apartments and buildings to serve the older adults. Similarly, the models create a limited-term lease to lower the rates of relocation, especially if repairs are to be done. Overall, the repairs for the nearby NYCHA buildings, the 2.0 model should ensure that the process takes place simultaneously with the relocation of the adult to minimize complications.


Conclusion
                   The New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA) is the largest housing authorities in America.   The population which is allowed in it depends on the number of Public houses which are available for accommodation. Among the older adults, NYCHA provides a good environment for their living as opposed to issues which are common in other building. NYCHA has programs and models which defines its efficiency in providing housing to low-income earners in the community. However, due to mismanagement issues, some of its operations have rendered passive. Overall, the presence of CBPAR at an NYCHA development ensures the public vast knowledge about how NYCHA has handled issues affecting residents as well as further investigation on the population whose voices are not typically acknowledged in our society.

References

Bailey, M. (2018). Inch by Inch: Expanding the Community Garden Programs in New York City.

He, B. (2016). Privatization of NYCHA Public Housing(Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University).

Obanor, D. E. (2016).Dismantling Discrimination in the Stairways and Halls of NYCHA Using Local, State, and National Civil Rights Statutes. Colum. J. Race & L.6, 169.

Perles, M. (2016). The Production of Just Space: Climate Change and the Future of the New York City Housing Authority (Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University).

Powell, J. T. T. (2016). The Children of NYCHA Crisis. Available at SSRN 3230034.


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