nonhuman primates and humans can lead to a better understanding of both species has been ongoing for several decades. A variety of academic disciplines including anthropology, psychology, zoology, and biology have spent thousands of hours researching and studying these similarities and drawing conclusions that have added to the vault of human knowledge.
Joining the other disciplines in studying the similarities between nonhuman primates and humans have been scientists in the field of human development. Such scientists have spent considerable time studying neoteny, otherwise referred to as developmental retardation, as an explanation for defining how humans began to develop human-specific features such as brain size and cognitive skills that mark a divergence of humans from nonhuman primates.
Simply stated, neoteny is the process by which the adults of a species retain the traits previously present only in juveniles, that is, the physiological development of the species’ adults are slowed or delayed. In the human species evidence of the affects of neoteny can be seen in the form of flattened and broadened faces, a larger brain cavity, decreased body hair, smaller noses, and smaller teeth, decreased jaw size, shortening of arms and elongation of legs, and, most obviously, an extended period of childhood (Bjorklund, 1997).
Neoteny is offered by many scientists as an explanation for the split between nonhuman primates and the human species. They argue that neoteny was actually an adaptive reaction that occurred as part of the evolutionary process that forced humans to prolong their period of youth in order to allow them survive. Unlike other species such as the nonhuman primates, humans could not rely upon their strength and instincts to survive and had to rely upon their wits. Humans are intellectually more complex and diverse than other species and require a prolonged period of adjustment in order to develop the skills necessary to compete in the world. For many experts in the field neoteny explains why this prolonged period of development occurred. By developing a longer period of adjustment from the primates, that is, a virtual period of retardation, human juveniles were provided the benefit of learning more from their parents over a longer period of time which ultimately resulted in a better prepared adult. Oddly, delaying maturation actually served humans as an evolutionary advantage.
Despite humans and primates having split on the evolutionary path but there remain some remarkable developmental similarities between the two species (Boyd, 2009). These similarities are in what are defined as the foetal and juvenile stages. The foetal stage differs in length between the two species but in both species it is the period of development while the young child or primate remains in utero. The juvenile stage in primates and humans is actually quite different in both length and style. In humans the juvenile stage ends with puberty and is followed by a period of adolescent. In primates the juvenile stage is essentially the same but there is no consequent adolescent. An important evolutionary distinction between primates and humans is that puberty and reproduction may begin in primates before the end of the juvenile stage.
Comparison of the developmental stages experienced by both primates and humans has provided invaluable information regarding the evolution of both species. This information has allowed anthropologists and biologists to understand how humans successfully combined the features brought on by neoteny such as extended childhood, delayed reproduction capability, short duration breastfeeding, and adolescent growth spurt to contribute toward their survival.
One of the most obvious similarities between primates and humans is their development of a period of juvenile growth and behavior between infancy and adulthood. Although this period is greatly extended in humans, primates, like most other highly social mammals, such as wolves, dogs, and elephants postpone puberty and insert this juvenile period. Such period provides offspring with additional time to learn life skills from their parents and thereby be better prepared for life as an adult. During this period in both primates and humans, the juveniles are capable of limited self sufficiency but remain dependent on their parents for protection and, on occasion, feeding. In the juvenile period both primates and humans enjoy an acceleration in soft tissue growth. This growth contributes to both species becoming stronger during this period and increasing their agility. One of the divergences that distinguish the two species also occurs at this point as humans also enjoy rapid bone growth while the primate bone growth is much less significant. Primates and humans also demonstrate a pattern of brain growth both before and after birth but after the brain growth continues in humans while it slows down considerably among primates.
Even before birth there a number of similarities between primates and humans. These similarities include the formation of forelimbs from buds, gill slits, and other anatomical features. It is not until the very latest stages of fetal development that primates and humans begin to demonstrate any significant differences. This is consistent with the general theory that the more similar a species is to each other the longer differences begin to manifest themselves in the fetal stage. Until shortly before birth there is little difference between the development of the primates and humans which is a strong indication of their evolutionary connection.
The nuances of human development can be quite confusing. To the practical mind it does not make sense that humans actually gained on the survival scale by not developing certain abilities but the process of neoteny demonstrates that this is precisely what occurred. While the primates were shortening their own period of maturation among their offspring humans were extending it. The result was that humans became adaptive to the more complex society that they were developing while the primates became stalled in their development.
Bjorklund, D.F. (1997). The Role of Immaturity in Human Development. Psychological Bulletin, 153-169.
Boyd, R. (2009). How Humans Evolved. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?
- Plagiarism free papers
- Timely delivery
- Any deadline
- Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
- Subject-relevant academic writer
- Adherence to paper instructions
- Ability to tackle bulk assignments
- Reasonable prices
- 24/7 Customer Support
- Get superb grades consistently
Online Academic Help With Different Subjects
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!