In recent years mobile telecommunication has developed to a large extent. It has been able to gain a place of importance in society. Encouraged on the basis of these developments the society on the whole is facing a humongous alteration. Now it is possible to access any individual in any part of the world where telecommunication has spread its roots. The latest technologies actually let us now to transfer huge amounts of data at a high speed, and allow us to have a voice conversation and the messaging service too, and it is not very far away when we would probably also be able to communicate through video and also have larger file data transfers. This makes it easier to make use of mobile videophones and also access the Internet through mobiles. Since mid-1980’s the nationwide cellular service has been introduced in the United States and the number of people who made use of the wireless increased tremendously. An estimate states that in the year 2001, nearly 16 million Americans were subscribers. By 2001, now nearly one hundred and ten million individuals are subscribers in the United States and more opportunity for growth is expected. But at the same time there is also the growing concern that these mobile telephones and their antennas are harmful for health. It was stated in the year 2000, that there would be nearly 92 million individuals using cell phones, which meant that the number of users increased by a million nearly every year. (Frumkin; Jacobson; Gansler; Thun; 2001)
Though these technological advances and instruments have their advantage they also pose concern to several individuals. The most important concern is of whether the electromagnetic rays produced from these instruments would cause danger to the people using them. The most common discussion in this field is that technology is changing rapidly and that man cannot adapt to these changes as quickly as the changing technology. There fore it has become very essential to determine whether the human body can suit it self to these changes and to analyze and find out if there is any evidence to support this statement. The media has of lately been focusing the relationship between the mobile phones and brain cancer. Many network programs conducted their own tests and gave their reports stating that some mobile instruments emitted a lot more frequency radio Frequency (RF) in comparison to the level of emition that was permitted by the Federal Communications Commission Administration. (FCC). (http://www.gr.nl/pdf) The FCC has made efforts since then to note that all the mobile phones used in the U.S. stayed within the limit of the RF energy. Again, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) sees to it that these mobile phones do not affect the health of the individuals using them. These agencies also have the right to take action in case they feel if any company is overwriting the rules.
Where most concerns have been raised about electromagnetic waves or the EM and cancer with concentration on microwave (MW) or the radio frequency (RF) emission, there are other views, which states that it is the static magnetic fields that may ultimately cause cancer. Though there is not much theoretical or practical experiments conducted to prove this aspect, the exact truth cannot be really established as to the connection between static fields and human health hazards. The actual level of communication between the electromagnetic source and the biological material basically relies upon the frequency radiated by the source. X rays, the ultraviolet rays, visible light, MW/RF rays, the magnetic fields all have different levels of electromagnetic rays, but are all sources of electromagnetic energy. Their wavelength or frequency level can identify the difference in these sources. Most commonly electromagnetic spectrum is spoken of as waves of energy but this is not entirely correct as they are at times treated as particles, more than waves and this is actually true at a higher frequency. At these high frequency the UV and the X rays, have enough energy to break the chemical bonds. This breaking is called as ionization and it is this part of the electromagnetic spectrum that is called as ionizing.
The non-ionization of molecules has been always associated with the biological affects of X-rays. When the frequency is lower, such as that of visible light, the RF and the MW is very low to be able to disorder chemical bonds. This electromagnetic spectrum is called as non-ionizing. Since these non-ionizing electromagnetic energy cannot break chemical bonds there is no relation between these and the non-ionizing electromagnetic rays. But it is true that this non-ionizing electromagnetic energy can cause certain biological effects and the biological effects of these soft UV, visible and IR frequencies all rely on the photon energy that is emitted. But most of these consist of electronic excitation rather than ionization and most of these also do not occur at a frequency less than 3*10^11 Hz in terms of IR. These RF and MW radiations can cause heating in tissues in which they are in direct contact. It is the frequency of the source that determines the amount and the direction of the object being heated. The AM radio uses a frequency which is much below, 10^6 Hz, here the energy level is very low, and hence cannot cause any sort of damage to the human body or to animals. (Moulder and Foster, 1995)
Most studies relating to cancer and power lines deal with individuals who live near power lines or who work in electrical occupations. Some of these studies do show a very insignificant connection between their exposure to the power frequency magnetic fields and the actual cause for cancer. Many studies that were conducted recently go to prove that there is very irrelevant connection between the power lines and cancer. When scientists of the U.S. National Academy of Science conducted a review in 1996, they stated that ‘there is no proof to state that there is any connection between the two aspects’. The review conducted by the U.S. National Institute of Health reached the conclusion that, ‘there is no scientific evidence that suggest that there is any connection between these electromagnetic rays causing cancer’. Another review by the U.K National Radiation Protection Board, stated that ‘ by conducting experiments in laboratories we are not going to be successful in evaluating how these studies affect the human life and also there are evidences by human epidemiological studies conducted that the power lines do not in any way cause cancer’
The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection after conducting a review stated that ‘ since there is no proof of any occurrence of the disease from the studies conducted on both animals and human beings, it can be said that there is no relation between the chronic diseases and the power frequency fields’. The study conducted on childhood leukemia in 1997-2000 goes to prove that there is no relationship between power lines and childhood leukemia. Contradicting this study a number of studies in 2000 stated that, that if these power lines were properly measured than there is a distinct relation between the children suffering from leukemia and the actual influence that power lines has caused. At the same time, another series of studies proved that even if animals were kept in a high power frequency atmosphere even for their entire lifetime, it did not lead to cancer. Therefore, many scientists feel that there is no connection between the power lines and its contribution to cancer. (http://www.mcw.edu/gcrc/cop/powerlines-cancer)
The frequency for various wireless communication systems is different. In the United States as such, there are two main frequency ranges, the 850 Mhz which most old mobile instruments used, and the 1900 Mhz the one sued by most new personal communication systems. Most European mobile phones use the GSM technology, which is different from the mobiles used in the U.S., and operate at a frequency of 900 Mhz and 1800 Mhz. Most other instruments also generate the same amount of frequency. The energy generated from these instruments is called non-ionizing because they are said to have photon energy to remove atoms from living tissues, which may cause a lot of serious biological problems. The main reason these biological effects transmit RF energy is because they get heated up soon. The instruments are always sent under a check and the in the United States and other Western countries there are standards as to the level of RF energy that can be emitted. As of now, these only lead to tissue heating and are of not much concern and if mobiles with low power are used should not pose to be a threat. To identify the exact reason for cancer and the level of exposure to an individual is very difficult to identify, as there is no single diagnosis for the disease.
It is very important that we learn to discriminate between the biological and physiological and health effects. The mobile phone base station are mostly countered to low power, multi-channel two way radios, which actually means that when we are talking on a mobile connection we talk to a base station that is in turn sent to a landline system. As the conversation has to pass two ways the mobile phones and the base stations produce radio frequencies or RF radiation. Since the base station and the mobile units are both only short-range useable, the RF rays emitted from them are also pretty low. Most scientists both in the U.S. And in other nations agree that the radiations emitted form the mobile phones are too low to cause any sort of damage. When an experiment is being conducted as to the effect of the electromagnetic rays on the biological system, this does not mean that this will affect the health of the organism on the whole. To find out exactly it is essential that we measure the frequency levels by analyzing using sensitive measurements methods, using which even the most smallest change in reaction can be deducted. This helps us to realize that the human body on the whole has the competence to deal with external forces and also defy them if the need be, with the help of immune systems and also be able to acclimatize itself if the circumstances call for it. (http://www.gr.nl.pdf)
The main problem behind not being able to identify the exact cause for cancer is that most of the time there are different causes for the disease. But it is true that even if mobile phones were not actually responsible for cancer, looking at the number of people using it, and not to forget the actual rates of brain cancer prevalent in the U.S. which is said to affect six out of 100-000 people in a year, it is believed by many that several people will be affected by the disease. In order to actual diagnose this disease it becomes important that very vigilant studies be conducted. While investigating carcinogens, most health agencies base it on two different types of studies- the epidemiological studies and the standardized tests. The epidemiological studies are basically the statistics of existing studies and standardized are those that are conducted on animals. But none of the evidence even remotely related mobile phones and cancer.
There are some studies that suggest that RF radiation from hand-held mobile phones might cause subtle biochemical, physiological or behavioral changes. However, none of the studies provides substantial evidence that mobile phone base stations might pose a health hazard. Most of the reports are of “effects” that do not imply the existence of hazards. Most of the studies use RF radiation of intensity far above those associated with mobile phone base stations. Many of these reports have not been independently confirmed, and there are grounds for being skeptical about most of them. A few examples of these studies are Preece et al. reported that exposure of human volunteers to mobile phone RF radiation might decrease reaction times. (Preece; Iwi, 1999) The press coverage was extensive; but the actual study has no obvious implications for human health since the effect was seen for just one of many tests and it appears to be far too small to have any real functional significance. D’Andrea reviewed reports of the behavioral effects of RF radiation and concluded that: “Recent studies have suggested that microwave effects on specific cognitive aspects of behavior such as attention, learning, memory, discrimination, and time perception may occur at SAR levels far below the SARs needed to cause work stoppage.” (D’Andrea, 1999) Freude et al. exposed human volunteers to RF radiation from a GSM phone and found small changes in EEG that “did not indicate any influence on human performance, well-being and health.” (Freude, 2000)
There are quite a few studies that indicate that the RF rays from mobile phones may cause biochemical, physiological or behavioral damage. But none of these even goes close to mentioning that more than the mobile phones their base station probably would cause more harm. None of these studies even stated any damage by these stations. Most of these studies are still not fully accepted and are most controversial. A study by Preece et al. stated that when certain individuals were exposed to these RF rays then it decreased their reaction time. (Preece; Iwi, 1999) though the coverage done by the press was massive it did not have any proper basis to be based on. D’Andrea analyzed these reports and came to a decision that ‘ The studies just go to prove that the effect microwave effect on the human behaviour, attention, learning, memory occur at SAR level and in order to stop work the SAR levels would have to be very low. (D’Andrea, 1999). Freude et all, conducted a study in which he kept some volunteers in an atmosphere where there were radiations from a GSM mobile phone. The RF rays from the phone, ‘did not in any way affect the human performance or his health.’ (Freude, Ullsperger 2000)
When Rothman et al. conducted a study in 1996, to find out the health of nearly 250,000 mobile phone users they realized that that there was no difference between users of the hand held mobile phones which had their antennas attached close to the head and the other phones, the car phones, which had their antennae attached to the car. (Rothman; Loughlin, 1996) This same group conducted a study in 1999 where they analyzed the health of nearly 300,000 mobile phone users. This analysis proved that there was no difference in the health of individuals in regard to cancer, leukemia or brain cancer rates, while comparing individuals using the hand phones or the mobile phones. Even other studies have showed that there is no truth in the concept of mobile phones causing cancer or any epidemic disease. (Dreyer; Loughlin; Rothman, 1999) Four groups evaluated brain cancer in people using mobile phones in 1999-2001, the groups being, Hardell et al., Muscat et al.,(Muscat; Malkin, 2000), Inskip et al. (Inskip, 2001) and Johansen et al. (Johansen; Boice, 2001). These studies proved that there was relation between the mobile usage of these individuals and brain cancer
Lennart Hardell and a few of his colleagues from the Orebro Medical Centre in Orebro, Sweden, conducted a study on 209 patients who were suffering from brain tumor, in contrast to 425 other individuals who were healthy. This study was provided funding by the Swedish Medical Research council. (www.spectrum.ieee.org) The media did not do justice to this subject and they focused on the aspect that some of the individuals with brain tumor stated that they had the tumor on the side of the head that they used to talk on the phone. But this was could be really blamed to be the reason behind the whole problem as it was possible that those individuals could have been having a ‘recall bias’, a factor that states that individuals who are suffering with a diseases connect it to anything they feel could be viable. Most individuals who were suffering with brain cancer in Hardell’s analysis all had prior opinions on about their mobile usage. It is known fact that Brain cancer usually takes years or probably even ten years to actually develop. Another pullback in the study was the fact that the study did not emphasize on the future hazards. Usually to be able to diagnose cancer is not a simple task. In order to be able to diagnose the smallest increase in the danger faced by the individual it is essential that we conduct large studies that are both difficult to organize and also give us various elucidations that are tedious and confusing to comprehend. In order to have a proper study it would also be essential that a person’s usage of his mobile phone be observed for over a span of ten years that is both impossible and ridiculous along with the frequent technological changes. (Hardell; N. sman, 1999)
The only risks from these cell phones that can be stated as of now is the fact that these instruments have lead to a lot of accidents in the past few years when they have been used while driving. Mostly animals have been used to analyze the causes and reasons related to cancer, and even they have not proven any connection. When rats were left in an atmosphere where 837 Mhz RF energy was released, the level that is given out by most mobile phones, it was realized that this did not in any way instigate brain cancer. Motorola conducted this study, in order to get to the bottom of the truth. W.R Ross Adey in 1999 published this in the University of California at Riverside. Adey also conducted the same experiments for continuous wave RF that is used in some analog cellular phones. These were further supported by Bernard Zook of the George Washington University in Washington D.C. In a meeting in 1999. This also has lead to a conclusion by many individuals that cell phones are not to be blamed for any health problems as to date.
The biological affect that mobile phones have cannot be really found out, since they are very recent inventions. But the fact that these are non-ionizating radiators and that they transmit very low energy levels, the fact that these cell phones can be actual cause for cancer is very indistinct. And also the various studies conducted for the purpose also go to state that there is no real connection between the usage of cell phones and the cause for cancer. Though there is also no proof that can state that the usage of these instruments can be absolutely safe as the time span to actual analyze the entire process and its effects is too long to perform. This leads to believe the fact that the arguments and discussions as to the positive and negative aspects of these instruments shall continue. Various electronic devices like the police radar sets, computer display terminals and power lines have been of constant worry to the public and very soon the cell phone shall join the line of devices. It is very difficult to come to a decision and also consume a lot of precious time. In order to be true to society it is essential that we identify any problems that may be caused by a device in order to warn the general public. But the question that poses us in such a situation is that how can this be done while avoiding any unnecessary disagreements is not purely a matter of scientific importance but also which deep social bearings.
Frumkin, Howard; Jacobson, Anne; Gansler, Ted; Thun, Michael J. (2001) Environmental Carcinogens – Cellular Phones and Risk of Brain Tumors, CA Cancer J. Clin; 51: 137-141
Rothman, KJ; Loughlin et al., JE (1996) Overall mortality of cellular telephone customers. Epidemiology 7:303-305.
Dreyer, NA; Loughlin, JE; Rothman; KJ (1999) Cause-specific mortality in cellular telephone users. JAMA 282:1814-1816
Hardell, L; N. sman et al., A: (1999) Use of cellular telephones and the risk of brain tumors: a case-control study. Int. J. Oncol. 15:113-116.
Muscat, JE; Malkin et al., MG: (2000). Handheld cellular telephone use and risk of brain cancer. JAMA 284:3001-3007,
Inskip, PD; Tarone et al.; RE: (2001) Cellular-telephone use and brain tumors. NEJM 344:79-86,
Johansen, C; Boice et al.; JD: (2001). Cellular telephones and cancer — a nationwide cohort study in Denmark. J Natl Cancer Inst 93:203-207,
Moulder, JE; and Foster, KR: (1995) Biological effects of power-frequency fields as they relate to carcinogenesis. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 209:309-324,
D’Andrea, JA: (1999) Behavioral evaluation of microwave irradiation. Bioelectromag 20:64-74,
Preece, AW; Iwi et al., G: (1999) Effect of a 915-MHz simulated mobile phone signal on cognitive function in man. Int J. Radiat Biol 75:447-456,
Freude, G; Ullsperger et al., P. (2000): Microwaves emitted by cellular telephones affect human slow brain potentials. Eur J. Appl Physiol 81:18-27,
Foster, Kenneth R. & Moulder, John E. Medical College of Wisconsin Are mobile phones safe? Research intensifies as the public grows wary of one of its favorite communications tools, retrieved at http://www.spectrum.ieee.org/publicfeature/aug00/prad.html. On 08/02/2003
Moulder, John.E. Power Lines and Cancer FAQs, retrieved at http://www.mcw.edu/gcrc/cop/powerlines-cancer-FAQ/toc.html#1on 08/02/2003
Mobile telephones: An evaluation of health effects, Gezondheidsraad, Health Council of the Netherlands, The Hague, 2002 retrieved from (http://www.gr.nl/pdf.php?ID=377)on 08/02/2003
Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?
- Plagiarism free papers
- Timely delivery
- Any deadline
- Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
- Subject-relevant academic writer
- Adherence to paper instructions
- Ability to tackle bulk assignments
- Reasonable prices
- 24/7 Customer Support
- Get superb grades consistently
Online Academic Help With Different Subjects
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!