The Nicotine’s Effect on daphnia paper

Background

Daphnia is a remarkably tiny organism under the planktonic crustacean classification and also called water fleas. They have a length between 0.2 to 0.5 mm. They have a hard transparent skeleton, which resembles a shell. They are a common aquatic organism because they have the capacity to adapt different aquatic environments ranging from freshwaters to acidic swamps, lakes, seas, rivers, wells, and ponds. If one studies the effect of nicotine on Daphnia, the ultimate results are fatal (Fitzgerald 12). They are significant sources of food to the different organism such as fish and frogs among others. Daphnia is common in laboratory experiments and have been used for years especially in drug tests among others. The most common test done using this organism is the Daphnia Heart Rate Test. Daphnia is ideal in Heart Rate Test because they are ectotherms, thus their body changes with changes in the environment. Following the fact that chemical reactions rate’s increases with an increase in temperature, it would of great use in establishing the temperature changes if Daphnias’ metabolism rate would be increased.

Introduction

This experiment aims at designing a hypothesis about the effect of nicotine on living organisms. The heart of Daphnia is clearly seen with the help of a low power microscope. In reference with research, which states the heart of a Daphnia beats 300 beats per minute, we can have a chance to monitor the change of the heartbeat, with change in different physiological aspects such as chemical concentration, temperature, or changing the type of chemical or even the reaction when Daphnia are in pure water. It is necessary to note that the change in Daphnia heartbeat rate does note practically represent the human’s case. However, the examination will give us learners a chance to evaluate the effects of nicotine on metabolic processes. This experiment is under the courtesy of British Pharmacology Society (Corotto, Ceballos and Vinson, 177).

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
The Nicotine’s Effect on daphnia paper
Just from $9/Page
Order Essay

Hypothesis

In this experiment, Daphnia magna, which is a transparent crustacean is used to establish the effect of nicotine on heart rate. There are different results expected from the experiment based on the concentrations of the nicotine. However, because nicotine is a stimulant, thus increase metabolic rates, there are high possibilities that the heart rate will increase with the increase in the concentration of nicotine. Ultimately, the Daphnia may die because of high heart rates, as this is a fatal condition (Fitzgerald 15).

Problem: what effect will nicotine have on Daphnia?

Ethical issues

Students should be very careful because they are expected to handle these animals in a way that illustrates good ethical attitude towards experimental animals. High is regardless of the fact that they are animals with fewer capabilities thus may not suffer as much as higher animals; overall they deserve respect. All animals should be returned to their habitats after the experiment. This will support ethical approaches put in place by different biology organizations.

Equipment

  1. Tobacco solution
  2. 2 depression slides
  3. 2 cover slips (22x60mm)
  4. Kleenex
  5. Water from Daphnia culture of different temperature
  6. Piece of cotton wool
  7. Microscope – low power resolution
  8. Daphnia Magna –culture of water flea
  9. Daphnia anatomy chart- for source
  10. 3 droppers

Preparation of Tobacco solution

This solution can be made from cigarettes; approximately 20 of them can make an ideal solution. After the extract is emptied in a cup of water, place it covered for about 12 hours. Sieve the solution into another container; solutions of differing concentration should then be made where the different shall be determined by the ratio between water and the solution. The study will begin using solution with lower concentration and later use those with higher concentration in references with the guidelines by Washington Association for Biomedical Research.

It is significant to note that the level of nicotine varies from cigarettes to cigarette. The cigarettes that have the highest level of nicotine are those 1.7 mg/cigarettes while those with the lowest have a concentration of 0.3 mg/cigarette. With this knowledge, one may know which brands to use when they are targeting high concentrated nicotine and what to use when targeting low concentration nicotine (Corotto, Ceballos and Vinson, 173).

Procedure

  • Label all the containers as follows: nicotine solution, Daphnia water, rinse water. Also, mark all the droppers. Always return the droppers to their containers or place them next to their containers to avoid contaminating different solutions.
  • Use the Daphnia dropper the get hold of the Daphnia and place it on the slide; remember to have some Daphnia water around. Keenly observe the organism under the microscope on a low light. This will help in familiarizing oneself with the position of the heart as well as the whole body of the organism. To enhance tracing its position, turn off the light when you are directly observing the Daphnia. This will also prevent warming the Daphnia and one may alter with the metabolism of the organism with increase in temperature. You should not proceed with the experiment until the animal get used to the life on the slide; his may take two to three minutes. After the organism has fully settled on the slide, gently cover the slide with the cover slip as this will hold the Daphnia in a fixed position.
  • Record all the observations specifically the nature of the heart bit as well as other important information.
  • Suck some nicotine into the dropper.
  • After the Daphnia has settled, gentle remove the cover slip and sponge the fluids around the Daphnia using the cotton wool; be careful not to touch the Daphnia. To enhance this, place the Daphnia in a Kleenex liquid, and clean the other section.
  • Get ready to place some nicotine in the depression slide, having in mind that the Daphnia cannot survive with absence of the liquid.
  • Wait for one to two minutes after applying the nicotine solution before recording the observation. If the heart is still beating after making observations, remove the animal and deep it is a small dish containing the original aquarium.
  • Repeat the same procedure using solutions of different concentrations with different Daphnia. One should perform a minimum of threeexperiments; this will ensure that the resultant results are correct.

NB: observations can be made without covering the Daphnia with a slip as this will give an opportunity to make varying observations; the daphnia will be having a free space to make small movements. Important information such as how long it takes before it stop making movements should be recorded in every set of the experiment.

Results

It was observed that the average heartbeat rate of a Daphnia is 354 beats in a minute. With varying levels of concentration of nicotine, the heartbeat varied from 91 beats to 521 beats in a minute. It was also noted that the varying rates of the heart was not attributed by the size of the specimen (Corotto, Ceballos and Vinson, 174).

 

Table of BMP- BEATS PER MINUTE

  Nicotine Heart beat
Percentage of initial Concentration of nicotine BMP
First trial 0.0 mMNicotine 357
Second trial 0.5 mM Nicotine 458
Forth trial 50 mM Nicotine 234

 

Graph Heartbeat against Concentration of Nicotine

Discussion

On average, a Daphnia has an average heartbeat of 354 beats per minute. However, there is some minimal variations in the rate of heart beat with the size of the animal. The bigger Daphnias have a lower rate than the smaller one. It is, therefore, crucial to use animals of the same size to have reliable results. The linear graph above shows that an increase in the concentration increases the rate of the heartbeat. However, higher concentrations are fatal and may kill the organism as they raise the rate of metabolism to a level where Daphnias cannot withstand; this thereby reduces the rate of the heartbeat because the animal is growing weaker and weaker. This is also evident from the observations that Daphnia makes more movements with little concentrations, but when nicotine of higher concentrations is introduced, movements increases and then drops suddenly. This shows that the specimen is more active in low concentrations and less active at higher concentrations.

In reference with the observations made when the specimen was returned to its habitat, it is evident that one can reverse the metabolic reactions to the initial. This is following the fact that even after exposure to higher concentrations of nicotine, live Daphnia would still survive if returned before its heart stopped. However, concentrations of over 1 mM are irreversible. The specimen died when it was returned to its initial habitat. This is because there were some internal damages when it was exposed in the 50 mM concentration of nicotine.

Recommendations and Conclusions

Nicotine is a suitable reagent for the examination of the heartbeat rate of Daphnia. 5% to 10% are the recommended concentration, which cannot cause fatal effects to the organism. The concentration will, however, increase metabolic reaction, but will not lead to death. However, any further increase in concentration will kill the specimen. This information is highly significant for teaching laboratories, as they can know means in which to design their experiments when evaluating the effects of nicotine on heartbeat rate. We can confidently conclude that nicotine has a fatal effect on Daphnia. This is because it increases the metabolic reactions to undesirable levels (Corotto, Ceballos and Vinson, 174).

Works cited

Fitzgerald, K.F., “Alcohol and Tobacco: Will It Affect Your Heart?” California State Science Fair Abstract. Retrieved on 28th November 2012. Available at: http://www.usc.edu/CSSF/History/2003/Projects/J1408.pdf.

Corotto, F., Ceballos, D. and Vinson, L. I N Q U I R Y &I N V E S T I G AT I O N: Making the Most of the Daphnia Heart Rate Lab: Optimizing the Use of Ethanol, Nicotine & Caffeine, 2010. 72, 3: 173-179. Available at: http://web.as.uky.edu/Biology/faculty/cooper/ABLE/Daphnia_Concentration_Paper.pdf


Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently
 

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects

Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.

Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!

Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.

Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.

Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.

Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.

Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!

Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.

Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper