Learning Theories to Current Education 6 pages

Learning Theories to Current Education

In psychology and education, learning is normally described as a process that brings together cognitive, emotional, and influences of the environment being experienced for obtaining, enhancing, or enacting changes in an individual knowledge, values, skills, and views of the world. Learning as a process put their center of attention on what takes place during learning. Explanations of what takes place forms learning theories. A learning theory is an effort to express how people and animals learn; thus assist us understand the essentially complex learning process. Learning theories have two main values. The first one is in offering us with conceptual and vocabulary framework for interpreting the instance of learning that we survey. The second one is suggesting places to search for answer to practical problems. The theories never provide us with solutions, but they do direct our concentration to those variables that are vital in getting solutions.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Learning Theories to Current Education 6 pages
Just from $9/Page
Order Essay

The original challenge to the behaviorists was present for publication in 1929 by Bode, a gestalt psychologist. He condemns behaviorists for the reason of relying too much on overt behavior to explain learning. Gestalt psychologists recommended looking at the patterns instead of isolated events. Gestalt views of learning have been integrated to become cognitive theories. Two major assumptions bring about this cognitive approach: previous knowledge plays a vital role in learning and that the memory system is an active organized processor of information. Cognitive theories look further than behavior to clarify brain-based learning. Cognitivists regard how human memory operates to promote learning. For example, the physiological processes concerning sorting and encoding events and information into long-term memory and short-term memory are essential to educators working in line with cognitive theory. The main disparity between gestaltists and behaviorists is the locus of being in charge of the activities of learning: the individual learner is major to gestaltists as compared to the environment that behaviorists emphasize.

Once memory theories such as Baddeley’s working memory model and the Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model were formed as a theoretical framework in cognitive psychology, new cognitive frameworks of learning started to come out during the 1970s, 80s, and 90s. Nowadays, researchers are focused on topics like cognitive load and information processing theory. Such theories of learning have a responsibility of influencing instructional design. Feature of cognitivism can be traced in learning how to learn, intelligence, social role acquisition, learning, and memory as correlated to age.

Learning and cognition

The basic assumptions that bring about formal education systems are that students retain skills and knowledge they obtain in school, and they are capable of applying them in situation beyond the classroom. However the question is are these assumptions accurate? From the research we find that, even if students report without applying the knowledge got from school, a substantial part is retained for several years and lasting retention is robustly reliant on the early level of mastery. One study established that university students who learn courses of child development and obtain good grades, if testing is administered after 10 years later, their average retention scores will be nearly 30%, while those who achieved realistic or lower grades indicated an average retention scores of nearly 20%. There is minimal consensus on the vital question about how much knowledge obtained in school is transferred to tasks being met outside formal educational settings, and how these transfer takes place. A section of psychologists argue that evidence of research for this type of far transfer is inadequate while others argue that there is a lot of evidence of far transfer in particular domains. A number of perspectives have been formed within which the theories of learning in use at educational psychology are created and contested. These include cognitivism, social cognitive theory, behaviorism and constructivism. Educational psychology has researched and applied theories within each of these perspectives.

Cognitive perspective

In the current educational psychologists, the cognitive perspective is extensively held as compared to the behavioral perspective, maybe since it admits causally-related mental constructs such as emotions, beliefs, traits, memories and motivation. Cognitive theories argue that memory structures determine how information is perceived, processed, stored, retrieved and forgotten. In the memory structures theorized by cognitive psychologists are separate but linked visual and verbal systems described by Allan Paivio’s dual coding theory. Educational psychologists have applied cognitive load theory and dual coding theory to clarify how people learn from multimedia presentations.

The effect of spaced learning, a cognitive phenomenon robustly backed up by psychological research, has wide applicability within education. For example, students have been realized to do well on a test of knowledge concerning a text passage once a second reading of the passage is belated but not immediate. The research of educational psychology has confirmed the educational applicability of other findings from cognitive psychology, like the advantage of using mnemonics for immediate and belated retention of information.

Problem solving is considered by several cognitive psychologists as basic to learning, it is an essential topic research in educational psychology. A student is considered to interpret a problem by allocating it to a schema got from long-term memory. In any case the problem is allocated to the wrong schema; the attention of student is afterward focused away from features of the problem that are conflicting with the allocated schema. The vital step of getting a mapping between a pre-existing schema and the problem is always cited as behind the centrality of analogical thinking to solving problems.

Developmental perspective

Developmental psychology, and particularly cognitive development psychology, creates an exceptional perspective for educational psychology. This is due to the psychology of cognitive development and educations to join on a number of vital assumptions. First, the cognitive development psychologies describe competence of human cognitive at successive phases of development. Education objective is to assist students’ gains knowledge and develop skills which are well-matched with their understanding and problem-solving potentiality at diverse ages. Consequently, the level of students on a developmental sequence offers information on the type and level of knowledge they can assimilate, which in turn can be used as a frame for organizing the subject matter to be taught at different school grades. This is the cause of why Piaget’s theory of cognitive development became very influential for education, particularly science and mathematics education. In the similar track, the neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development propose that in accumulation to the concerns above, sequencing of skills and concepts in teaching must take into consideration of the working memory and processing capacities that describe successive age levels, Furth, H.G., & Wachs, H. (1975).

Psychology of cognitive development engages understanding how cognitive transform happen and recognize the process and factors. Educations also rely on cognitive change, since the creation of knowledge presupposes effectual teaching methods that would make the student from a lower to graduate to a higher level of understanding. Mechanisms like reflection on definite or mental actions and vis-a-vis option solutions to problems, tagging latest concepts or solutions to symbols that assist individual to recall and mentally influence just a few, given how mechanisms of cognitive development can be used to facilitate learning.

Finally, the cognitive development psychologies worry together with peoples differences in the organization of cognitive processes and abilities, in their rate of change, and in their mechanisms of change in their rate. The belief underlying intra- and inter-different individual can be useful educationally, because knowing how students differ in regard to the various dimensions of cognitive development, such as processing and representational capacity, self-regulation and self-understanding, and the a variety of domains of understanding, such as scientific mathematical, or verbal abilities, would allow the teacher to take care of the need of the diverse students so that no one is left lagging.

Social cognitive perspective

Social cognitive theory is a vastly influential fusion of cognitive, behavioral, and social elements that was originally established by educational psychologist Albert Bandura. In its prior, neo-behavioral incarnation called social learning theory, Bandura put more emphasis on the process of learning observation in which behavior a learner changes due to observing others behavior and its penalty. The theory recognized a number of factors that indicate if observing a model will affect behavioral or cognitive change or behavioral. These factors consist of the development of status of the learners, the supposed competence and prestige of the model, the outcome received by the model, the relevance of the behavior of the model and result to the goals of the learner, and the learner’s self-efficacy. The model of self-efficacy which played an essential function in present developments of the theory referred the belief of the learner in his or her ability to perform the modeled behavior.

From the experiment done by Schunk and Hanson, indicated that grade 2 students who had formerly faced difficulty in learning subtraction, shows the type of research motivated by social learning theory. One group of students used what they observed from the teacher about subtraction after demonstration by a teacher to participate in an instructional program on subtraction. A second group used what they observed from other grade 2 students performance of the similar subtraction procedures to take part in the same instructional program. The students who experienced peer models perform best on a subtraction post-test, as well reported greater confidence in their subtraction ability. The outcome were interpreted as backing up the hypothesis that supposed correspondence of the model to the learner raise in self-efficacy, resulting to more efficient learning of modeled behaviors. It is believed that peer modeling is specifically effective for students who posses low self-efficacy.

Over the decade that has passed, a lot of research activity in educational psychology has concentrated on developing self-regulated learning (SRL) and metacognition theories. These theories operates from the central premise that effectual learners are active agents who create knowledge by setting goals, analyzing duty, planning strategies and keeping eye on their understanding. Research has showed that learners who are good at setting the goals and self-monitoring tend to posses superior intrinsic duty interest and self-efficacy and that teaching learning strategies can raises academic attainment, Cameron, J., Pierce, W.D., Banko, K.M., & Gear, A. (2005).

The Cognitive Learning Theories

Educational psychologists have influenced the cognitive approach by believing that children actively create knowledge in a social context. Lev Vygotsky suggest that every learning to take place in the “zone of proximal development” (SPD). From the Vygotsky analysis SPD is the diversity between what a child is capable of doing alone and what he/she can do when being assisted. By building on experience of the child and offering moderately challenging tasks, teachers can offer the intellectual scaffolding to assist children learn and advance through the different stages of development. As per their description, the SPD is the distance linking the actual developmental level as determined by self-governing problem solving and the degree of potential development as determined via problem solving under the guidance of adult or in association with more capable peers “(Vygotsky, 1978, p. 86). The Cognitive approach stress the ability of students to give solution to real-life, practical problems. Students are required to work in groups but not individually, and they are suppose to give their center of attention on projects that needs a solutions to problems but not on instructional sequences that needs learning of a given content skills. The work of the teacher in constructivist models is to organize for needed resources and perform as a steer to students while they set their own objective and teach themselves. Theories of cognitive learning put their center of attention on the learner, thus explaining learning on the basis of cognitive processes, representations and structures that are believed to function within the learner. Based on cognitive theory, learning theory has been influenced in most important ways: learning is a process of linking new information to previously learned information; learning is an active, constructive process; knowledge is organized; people be in charge of and organize their own learning; a major worry is revealed for analyzing learning duty and performance in terms of the cognitive processes that are involved.

Cognitive Educational Instructional Design Models

Cooperative/Collaborative Learning: It where students operate in teams to master academic materials; teams consist of high, average, and low achievers, and are mixed racially and sexually; reward systems are group-oriented Conway, Judith (1997). Cognitive apprenticeship: learning with the help of guided-experience which assist teaching the processes that experts use to solve complex tasks. Students observe experts demonstrating a task that they are required to accomplish as based on their observations. While observing, students obtain hints, remainders feedback. Being under pressure to do exploration, students are forced into a mode of problem-solving on their own. Exploration/Discovery learning: Because students are more probably to memorize concepts they discover by themselves, they are needed to network with their environment by exploring and manipulating objects or by performing experiments. This method of learning is most victorious if students have precondition knowledge and undergo some structured experiences.


Learning theories to the current education under cognitive helps the learner to use the knowledge acquired presently to find a solution to a given problem and can memorize the knowledge got before and apply it in solving a given problem Since learners work in groups and act from what they had observed, they build confidence while solving problem and this makes their retention power to be high. Teachers are advisable to organize their materials well for their teaching activities. Learners who are good at setting the goals and self-monitoring will always posses superior intrinsic duty interest and self-efficacy therefore teaching learning strategies can raise academic attainment.


Cameron, J., Pierce, W.D., Banko, K.M., & Gear, A. (2005). Achievement-based rewards and intrinsic motivation: A test of cognitive mediators. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97, 641 — 655.

Cognitivism Theories: http://web.syr.edu/~walker/COGNITIVISMTHEORIES.htm

Conway, Judith (1997).Educational Technology’s Effect on Models of Instruction. http://copland.udel.edu/~jconway/EDST666.htm#cogapp

Furth, H.G., & Wachs, H. (1975). Thinking goes to school: Piaget’s theory in practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Journey to Excellence: Cognitivism: http://www.journeytoexcellence.org/practice/instruction/theories/moretheories/cognitivism.phtml

Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind and society: The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper