Information Systems are the systems which are made by the combination of the various hardware and software that people and organizations use to collect, filter, process, create and distribute data. There are various types of information systems, for example, transaction processing systems, decision support systems, knowledge management systems, learning management systems, database management systems, and office information systems. Critical to most information systems are information technologies, which are typically designed to enable humans to perform tasks for which the human brain is not well suited, such as: handling large amounts of information, performing complex calculations, and controlling many simultaneous processes. The domain of study of IS involves the study of theories and practices related to the social and technological phenomena, which determine the development, use, and effects of information systems in organization and society.
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Table Of Contents
Sr.No Contents Page No.
- Investigate Information Needs 4-6
- Range Of Information Systems 7-8
- Management of Information 9-10
Investigate Information Needs
The concept underlying Information Management is that just as a project purposefully and systematically manages its human resources and financial assets, it should do likewise for its information resources and processes. All the classic functions of managing an organizational activity apply to IM as well: defining goals, providing leadership, developing policies, allocating resources, training staff, evaluation and feedback
Defining information needs is the first step in the information process. It is important to first ask what are the information requirements of all project. To develop an information management system, a project must first determine its information needs. A project’s information needs are determined by the types of information it must maintain and the users who require access.
A project’s information needs are dictated by:
- Legal and regulatory requirements imposed by local governments
- Requirements imposed by outside organizations
- Contractual requirements established by donor agencies
- Beneficiary (Public) demands for information
- Internal control operations
Different Areas In Which The People Need Information –
People who need information can be other important project stakeholders include local governments who need the data to feed their own information systems, forexample health information. These could be also regulatory requirements that the project is mandated by local law to collect and report to local or national government agencies.
Country Office Management- Main focus is on project progress, they need to know about project schedules, deliverables, expected outputs, evaluation reviews, changes and deviations in the plans, potential risks and delays to the project.
Communities need information to monitor progress and evaluate how they are doing; the format of how to present this information needs to be carefully defined and takes in consideration literacy levels, cultural, religious and political environment of the community. Communities need to be involved earlier in the project information management planning stage as they will be the main source of project information.
we need to gather and process information from your own investigation of all of the systems identified in the list. For example, you may choose to examine and operate a telephone or mobile phone and a CD player. You could then make observations and describe each step of the information transfer process for these devices. It might be useful to identify the energy transformation processes for each system as the information is required for another syllabus dot point. You may not be able to observe every step of the process, such as what occurs at the central mobile exchange for a mobile phone system.
It may be useful during processing to compile your information in a table so that a comparison of what is common in the transfer–transformation processes used in the devices can be made. Use available evidence to discuss the transfer–transformation process, making sure you correctly use scientific terms and principles.
Current practice suggests that these decisions are partly made based on assumptions and primary scenario definition formed through prior experience, and through the use of data immediately available such as information delivered by rapid assessments reports, media, pre-crisis baseline information, satellite imagery, remote sensing, etc.
Analyze the Information Needs-
A project can implement a variety of processes to ensure thatreported information is complete and accurate. These can be divided into two broad types:
- Procedures for editing, testing and analyzing that are incorporatedinto day-to-day operations.
- Procedures for editing, testing and analyzing that are designed to be used for specific reporting purposes and that are implemented on or near the time the project is required to report the data.
Generally, the more verification that can be incorporated into aproject’s regular data-generating activities, the better data theproject is likely to produce. Project information is accessed by various users on a regular basis for decision-making purposes.
Users should have confidence that a project’s database is as correctand complete as it can be at any time the user needs thedata.
Another reason to incorporate editing and analysis into everyday activities is that it is much easier and more efficient to identify and correct mistakes on a current basis rather than on an historical basis. Furthermore, most projects will find handling large data delivery projects easier if the information is collected and reviewed on a regular basis rather than all at once before the reporting deadline.
Range of information Systems
Information System is the study of complementary networks of hardware and software that the people and organization use to collect, process information. The study of computers science using the various models and algorithmic approach within a computer science.
- CIS- Study of computers and algorithmic processes ,including their principles, their software and hardware designs ,their applications and their impact on the society.
- FIS- It is a business software system its use to input and track financial, and accounting data. They have three modules .The financial accounting module records all accounting and financial and financial statements, management, controlling produces.
3.BIS-A management information systems provides information that organization require to manage themselves.
4.DSS-It is an information system which help to support the decision-making process of business firms.DSS helps in planning process, operational activities and managerial process. It helps in pacingup the whole process and thus helps in reducing wastages and increasing efficiency levels. It is also used in the Expert Systems, Software architecture .
These days, words, music and images are transmitted around the world via cable (copper wire and optical fibre), microwave, radio and satellite-based communications systems.
Information systems in daily use include the following. Some of them use a combination of electric and electromagnetic carriers to achieve their purposes:
The information management system must identify an appropriate source for each type of information required. A project acquires information from both internal and external sources. For all internal sources, the plan should describe how the information will be collected and stored. If there are multiple sources for a particular type of information, then sources must be judged based on efficiency, accuracy and how close the source is to the origination of the data. A direct flow of information is generally the most efficient and most accurate. The project should determine the most efficient source and modify its data collection procedures if a proposed source is more efficient than the existing source. For example, if one program director currently receives project information from another program director who receives the information from the project, it may be more efficient for the project to provide such information directly to all program directors. This direct flow ensures that all directors receive the same information in the same time frame and reduces the potential for information to be miscommunication.
Use information systems to produce management information
Information system in an organization is base on computers, that is, it is computer’s based. It helps in supporting the managerial functions, decision making processes and operational activities. It thus helps in providing support to those who wants to take part in the decision making process. It includes information system of management, information systems that is stragetical, decision making support systems and systems that help in the processing of transactions.
The term data refers to objects, raw figures and facts, events, symbols and so on. Data is used (processed) to get information. Different facts are collected and put together which is called data. Example: records of population (census).
Data is used and processed to get what we call information. It is the data that has some meaning. It is then passed on the receiver. This helps the receiver in the decision making process. It is the process of communicating and receiving of knowledge or we can say intelligence. It helps in reduction of ambiguity and helps in getting some extra options or alternatives. Thus the irregular options are eliminated, that is, the weak options. It has a ceratin degree of impact on the people and helps in the stimulation process and then the people can take decisions (actions). Information has its relevance according to the situation. Example: we have a relative’s address in our address book. When we want to visit those relatives we need that information but otherwise it is just normal data recorded in the address book
The tasks of processing the data have been simplified just because of the availability of the computers with us. The data can be easily converted into information. His is possible only because of the help of computers which have made the task of processing much easier and quicker. The data (raw figures and facts) are entered into the computer system and after this the conversion process takes place. Data is converted into information which is referedot as output. It helps in managerial decision-making processes.
Information should have the following features in order to be called good:
- Level of aggregation.
- Effectiveness in cost reduction.
- Should be timeless.
We can call the information to be reliable if it helps in improving the decision making process. It is futile to use such information if it contributes nothing in the problem solving process. It should also helps in reassuring the decisions taken by the organization at a former date. Example: The price of gold today is only helpful if you want to buy gold today only. Today’s gold price is futile for buying gold after a month or a year and so on.
The term timeless nature means the up to datedness of the data or say information which is offered to all the people who can make use of it. It means that how much is the gap of time since some thing or event has taken place and when it is offered o the people who can make use of it. It means those people who are involved in the decision-making process in case of a scant difference of this time, it refers to system of real time. the effectiveness and truth can only be measured if we take into account the correct time of comparison of information. The degree of truth of information is relvenat to kind of the decision making which is to happen. Information related to payroll should be appropriate. It is not right to just take the approximate data.
A project must decide what types of project information will have limited access. Access may be limited because of legal requirements orinternal requirements. For example, a project may not want anyoneother than management staff to have access to monthly financial reportsuntil the finance unit has reconciled and reviewed the reports,disclosure is not the issue, but the prevention of unnecessary confusionthat could be caused by access to un-reconciled information.
Once a project knows what information should be classified as havinglimited access and what staff must have access to the restricted information, the project can determine what kinds of limitations are appropriatefor the various categories of information. Access can be limitedby the information’s physical location or by some other types of controlled
access measures. For example, classified beneficiary informationmay be stored in locked file cabinets in a room that has limitedaccess or the information may be recorded on a computer that haspassword security.
business information systems by Elizabeth hardcastle ;edition 2008
information system by paulbeynondavies edition; 2012
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