infection and Immunity paper and bacterial recovery

Summary of Article: infection and Immunity

Summary and Explanation of Figure 1

Figure 1: Bacterial Recovery from Kidney, Spleen, Blood and Liver as Determined by Duration

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Fig. 1, exposes the effects of mutation of IvyEt on bacteria pathogen, specifically, its effect on inducing host mortality, its capacity to disseminate under host tissues, and above all, revealing the biological significance of IvyEt.  This figure exposed contribution of the mutation of IvyEtthat occurred due to the inoculation of turbot was evident in the post-infection days 1 and 2. There were less fish tissue TXicy –infected compared to those that did not undergo mutation and recovered from TX01-infection. Conclusively, time has to be given for the best immunity outcome.

Summary and Explanation of Figure 2

Figure 2: Significance between Rates of Survival of the two Groups (Fish Groups), thus TX01 and TXivy

Fig. 2 above brings out another angle of looking at the importance of IvyEt, thus the contribution of intercellular multiplication and the effects of the same on the survival on host serum. The IvyEt mutation represented by TX01 had a lower survival rate compared to TXivy. This implies the facts that mutation causes the infection of fewer tissues. It is temporary and it is associated with lower survival rates.

Summary and Explanation of Figure 3

Figure 3: Determination of Different Intercellular Bacteria Recovery Determined by Variation in Time

Fig. 3 simply represents the fact that the longer the incubation period Gram-positive bacterium the lower the density of the bacterial cells. This can be practically applied by introducing the immunity elements earlier to stop the appearance of the disease later.

Summary and Explanation of Figure 4

Figure 4: Monitoring of Cell Density with Time

Fig 4 now is the center of the study, this demonstrate the determination of the correct amount of inhibition of lattice effect represented as lysozyme and used against Edwardsiellatarda (E. tarda). It exposes that the dosage is not fixed, but is determined by the addition or subtraction of SEMs.

Summary and Explanation of Figure 5

Figure 5: Number of Surviving Bacteria Cells Determined by Incubation

Fig. 5 further exposes that the number of bacteria to survive is dictated by the magnitude of mutation. Hence, there must be some mutation in any number of bacteria to survive.

Summary and Explanation of Figure 6

Figure 6: Bacteria Recovery in Spleen, Liver, Kidney, and Blood under Various CFUs

In simple understanding, Fig. 6 exposes the particular place or body organ that has the highest significance of developing immunity and fighting infection, followed by kidney, while the liver and blood represented insignificant levels. A casual glance at Fig. 6 exposes that Spleen is the most outstanding contribution in developing immunity to the disease. The next question is “why spleen”, the explanation behind this is that is perhaps due to the favorable environment provided by the spleen for recovery.

Summary and Explanation of Figure 7

Figure 7: Bacteria Recovery from Spleen, Liver, Kidney, and Blood Determined by Postinfection


Finally, Fig. 7 presents the most significant observation in this study. It introduces another angle; the prior-figures figures have been representing the application of TX01, TXivyand others in the pre-infection setting. But, it revealed that for effective or the best possible result of immunity against infections, a combination of agents TX01 + rIvy presents they could be applied in the post-infection period and it can boost bacteria recovery. Significantly this is because they have more factors influencing mutations and recovery of cells.

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