Analysis of IHRM practices in Australia paper

International human resource management (IHRM) issues:

Business Report for the Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India (ICICI) Limited Expansion into Australia

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Executive Summary

The purpose of this report is to explore the international human resource management (IHRM) issues that ICICI faces as the firm sets to expand into Australia to provide its products and services through international subsidiaries into the Australian market.  The key IHRM issues identified and that require action to be taken include recruitment and selection, training and development, performance management and appraisal, and compensation.

The recommendations given in the report are as follows:

Recruitment and selection

  1. Recruitment and selection process will apply the ethnocentric approach in this initial phase of international business establishment (Awasthappa, 2006).
  2. ICICI’s selection criteria will be based on cross-culture suitability, technical ability, country and culture requirement, family requirement and MNC requirements as suggested by Dowling (2008).
  3. Recruiting of Australian subsidiary CEO should be internal (Dowling, 2008).

Training and development

  1. Pre-departure training for the ICICI expatriates should include cross-cultural content (Noe, 2002).
  2. ICICI should give pre-departure training to the key personnel at the host nation headquarter (Tayeb, 2005).
  3. The family of the expatriate should be included in the orientation programs in order to enable a better adjustment (Dunbar & Katcher, 1989).

Performance management

  1. ICICI should use performance management model for the Australian subsidiaries performance system (Cadwell 2000).
  2.  ICICI can use the objective and standard appraisals for Australian subsidiary (Bascal, 1999).


  • 85% base salary as a primary component of package of allowances
  • 12% of foreign service stimulant/hardship premium
  • 7% allowances, for example, cost of living, accommodation, etc.
  • 5% benefits such as medical services, pension plans, special leave, social security, and vacation.
  1. ICICI should choose a negotiation approach in the initial set up phase for compensating the expatriates (Briscoe & Schuler, 2004).

Table of Contents

Executive Summary- 2

Table of Contents 4

1.0.Introduction- 5

1.1.      Aim and Scope- 5

1.3. Limitations of the Study- 6

1.4. Assumptions 6

1.5. Company Background- 6

1.6. Why Australia?- 8

1.7. Cultural comparison (Parent and Host Companies’ Nations) 8

2.0. Body- 10

2.1. Recruitment and Selection- 10

2.3. Performance Management 14

2.4.Compensation- 15

3.0.Recommendations 15

Recruitment and Selection- 15

Training and Development 16

Performance Management 17

Compensation- 17

4.0. Conclusion- 18

List of References: 19


1.0.  Introduction

The intention of this report is to identify and investigate the key IHRM issues for ICICI limited, an organization in India, which intends to expand into Australia through the bank’s delivery channels and specialized subsidiaries.  The key purpose is to analyze the implementation of IHRM practices during the setup phase in Australia.

1.1.  Aim and Scope

The purpose of this report is to identify the key IHRM issues for the ICICI organization as it intends to expand into Australia.  The scope of the report is to identify the key issues faced by multinational firms as they expand overseas as they expand overseas during the initial phase of the business set up.  The proper actions to be taken are recommended.  The report seeks to discuss the following key issues:

  • Propose the recruitment and selection criteria, i.e. whether to recruit the Australian CEO internally or externally
  • Propose the training and development strategy, i.e. whether the pre-departure training should be held in India or Australia.
  • Propose performance and management strategy, i.e. whether promotions should be on experience basis, merit basis, individual bargain, education level
  • Propose compensation packages, what kind of compensation packages should ICICI give to their experts in order to achieve set up targets?

1.2. Research Methodology

For the purpose of completing this report and making it comprehensive, secondary data will be used.  Secondary data, in this case, refers to information that is already collected primarily and published to be used for references with other researchers.  The data will be gathered from peer reviewed journals, class textbooks, academic textbooks, company website, other relevant websites, business reports, Swinburne’s online databases, and other relevant sources.

            1.3. Limitations of the Study

The information presented in this report is researched according to the needs of ICICI and its expansion plans to Australia and therefore the findings of the study are only applicable and limited to the situation.

            1.4. Assumptions

  • This project is estimated to cost $ 40 million through a cost-benefit analysis
  • It is assumed that ICICI will establish a subsidiary of the bank and an advisory office in Sydney by, 2011.
  • It is assumed that ICICI will establish at least one branch in 5 states of Australia: New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, and South Australia by 2012.
  • It is assumed that ICICI will establish a total of 12 branches distributed among the cities of Australia, and especially in Sydney, Melbourne, Perth, and Adelaide by 2013.
  • It is assumed that the set up phase of the ICICI project in Australia will require $9 million and $19 million in the second year.
  • It is assumed that ICICI will achieve an even break during the first three years of operation.

            1.5. Company Background

The Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India Limited (ICICI) was founded in 1955 and is India’s second largest bank as well as the largest private sector bank with an over 50 years presence in the financial services and 25479 employees (  ICICI’s assets were worth over U.S $100 billion as of June 30, 2010.  ICICI offers a wide range of banking products and financial services to retail and corporate customers by means of a variety of delivery channels and specialized subsidiaries in the sectors of investment banking, private equity, asset management, and life and non-life insurance.  ICICI has a network of 950 branches and extension counters, a total of 3516 automated teller machines, call centres, and internet banking that provide access to services for its customers.  ICICI has capital adequacy with a ratio of 15.6 percent, and in 2008, the firm made a net profit of over $ 619 million, and the firm has become the envy of competition.  Considering its success, the bank has expanded on overseas markets and among the Indian banks; ICICI has the largest international balance sheet (Dore, 2008).  ICICI owns subsidiaries, branches, and representative offices in 18 worldwide countries including Canada, Russia, Canada, Bahrain, Singapore, Dubai, Belgium, Hong Kong, and Sri Lanka.  As part of targeting a non-resident Indian population, the bank is now ready to expand its operations into Australia.

Business proposals: As part of the set up phase, proposals to recruit personnel will be as follows:

  • The Chief Executive Officer (CEO) will be selected internally (from India), and the successful candidate must possess a 10 to 15-year experience in a director position with the bank, as well as have a strong understanding of the business culture of the host  nation.
  • The Chief Financial Director (CFD) will also be internally recruited (from India) and the successful candidate must possess 5 to 10 year experience in accounting practices that meet international standards.  The candidate must also have prior experience of practise during the set up phase in the overseas country.
  • The marketing manager will be recruited externally (from  Australia) and must have a 10 to 15 years marketing experience in the host country (Australia), an understanding of the Australian banking culture and a prior marketing experience with an MNC at a setup phase.
  • The Human Resource Manager (HRM) will be recruited externally (Australia) and should possess at least a 10 year experience in staff recruitment and training and development program for the banking staff from the host nation. The HR should also possess excellent writing and presentation skills for writing employment contracts and negotiating compensation and benefits with the aim of achieving business goals.

            1.6. Why Australia?

The Australian market has a huge potential for the financial investment and retail sector of the bank.  First of all, several Indian enterprises and corporate are forming mergers with firms in Australia and other European Union countries. This will be the first target market for ICICI as the organization seeks to provide the firms with its financial services in retail and investment.  ICICI is well accredited by clients in India, and the firms will be glad to get the extension of these services in an overseas country. Secondly, Australian’s industrialized economy will offer a ready market for corporate, advisory and investment services to the firms.  ICICI has a diverse of products that meet the increasing needs of the market as far as financial and advisory services are concerned.  ICICI aims to provide lending services to small and middle sized enterprises which are currently on the increase in Australia, as various firms in the world orient towards entrepreneurship in order to obtain growth and competitive advantage.

            1.7. Cultural comparison (Parent and Host Companies’ Nations)

The current globalization era requires the understanding of cultural influences to business in order to succeed.  In this report, the cultural dimensional aspect of Hofstede has been used to aid in the description of cultural differences between India and Australia.

Dimensions India Australia
  • Power distance



  • Individualism/Collectivism




  • Time
  • Masculinity






  • Uncertainty Avoidance
High power distance (Indians accept that power is distributed unequally)

Culture of collectivism (there is a culture is oriented to human and group relations).

Long term orientation

Very high masculinity (There is a big gap between men’s and women’s values, and also stress on equity and performance).

Very high uncertainty avoidance (there are strict laws and rules, low tolerability of deviant behaviour, resistance to change).

Low power distance (The society has low level of inequality).

Culture of individualism

(Paramount individual rights).


Short term orientation

High masculinity

(The culture is assertive, and there exists a competitive business culture as well as stress on equity and competition).

Low uncertainty avoidance (there is tolerability of different opinions, and the society tries to maintain as fewer rules as possible).

Source: Hofstede (1980).


PCN (India) HCN (Australia)
Respect for rules

Face-saving behaviour

Dependence on the group

Weak self-assertion

Bottom up management and teamwork

Poor negotiating skills (respect and save others face)

Concern of harmony

Low regard for rules

Face-enhancing behaviour

Individual work ethic

Strong self-assertion

Top down management

Exceptional negotiating skills


Concern of self-interest

Adapted from source: Shimizu, N. (1995, pp. 50-51).

2.0.  Body

            2.1. Recruitment and Selection

The intention of this section is to analyze the recruitment and selection method to be used in the recruitment of the CEO for the Australian subsidiary venture. The section also identifies whether the CEO for ICICI Australia will be recruited internally or externally.

Recruitment is the process in which the potentiality of the applicants is discovered for actual or anticipated organizational vacancies.  Recruitment links the people with the job and those seeking for the job.  Recruitment involves the searching of prospective employees as well as motivating and encouraging them to apply for the organizational job.  According to Dowling (2008), recruitment and selection are isolated processes and therefore one should not be confused for the other.   Moreover, a proper recruitment and selection process ensures that the organizational processes run effectively.  Four approaches that MNC adopt to manage and staff their subsidiaries include ethnocentric, geocentric, polycentric, and regiocentric.  The ethnocentric approach shows that all the key management positions are held by the parent company national.  Therefore, the subsidiaries are managed by staff from the home country of PCN.  Next, the geocentric approach requires that the best people are made staff for the key jobs across the entire organization, regardless of national background.  Therefore, the HRM is supposed to seek the best person for a given position regardless of the person’s nationality and this articulates with the underlying global corporation philosophy.  Next, in the polycentric approach, personnel from the host country national (HCN) is hired to manage the staff in the subsidiaries but seldom do they get promoted to headquarter positions.  The advantage of the polycentric approach is that problems such as cultural barriers of language, training expenses, and cross-cultural adjustment, or family settlements are reduced.   Last, the regiocentric approach considers the geographic strategy and structure of the MNC, and just like the geocentric approach, the regiocentric approach utilizes the pool of managers in a limited way.  The staff can move outside their origin country to another country but within the same geographic region.  Regional managers in the regiocentric approach do not get promoted to the headquarter position but they do enjoy a great deal of autonomy in decision-making processes.

According to Awasthappa (2006), the ethnocentric approach is appropriate during the early phase of international business establishment. This is because at this stage the firms are concerned with transplanting their part success to a host country.  Companies at this stage are more concerned about transferring their culture, values, beliefs, policies, and procedures and thus require a CEO candidate with strong background knowledge of the core value system of the company.

In terms of selection, Compton (2002) argues that it is useful to specify the desirable and essential requirements of the job when establishing the selection criteria.  For example, ICICI selection process at entry level usually requires candidates with a drive for results, interpersonal effectiveness, and a team player.   These should be emphasized in the selection criteria as opposed to the experience that one possesses in the position.  Dowling (2008) outlines selection criteria suitable for MNC and thus applicable to the case of ICICI.   These are cross-cultural suitability which refers to a person’s adaptability to a new environment or a previous experience that a person has in working cross culturally.  Another criterion is technical ability and this refers to the ability of the person to perform the required task depending with the knowledge, skills, or experience of the person.  Additionally, cross-culture attributes should include aspects of cultural empathy, diplomacy, emotional stability, language ability, positive attitude, and maturity.  Another criterion to consider is family consideration which refers to the family support of the member taking the foreign assignment.  There is also country/cultural requirement that refers to the consideration of the host’s country migration rules, for instance some host countries prefer to visa to the expatriates only rather than their family members and this can result to rejection of the job offer by the candidate.  Language requirement criteria refer to the capability of the expatriate to fluently speak the language of the host, and this contributes to faster adjustment.  Finally, the selection should also consider the MNC requirement which refers to the situational factors that have an influence on the selection decisions, for example the proportion of expatriate to local staff in the selection process as a staffing philosophy.  However, in particular countries, the operations may require more of PCNs and TCNs as opposed to HCNs.

An advantage of using an internal CEO for the Australian subsidiary as argued by Dowling (2008) is that a better control and coordination of the subsidiaries will be obtained because of the familiarity with the home’s office goals, policies, and practices.  On the other hand, Aswathappa (2006) argues that the key disadvantage of internal candidate use is the excessive cost of selecting, training and retaining the expatriate manager.

2.2. Training and Development

The intention of this section is to explore and identify the type of pre-departure training that the key ICICI personnel should be given and whether this should be done in the home nation or host nation as ICICI strategy of entering the Australian market.

Noe (2002) states that there are three phases of training programmes for foreign assignments and these are pre-departure phase, on-site phase, and repatriation phase.  The pre-departure training phase entails training on language and an orientation to the culture and customs of the host country.  The family of the soon to be expatriate manager should be included in the orientation program as well.  Training in this case is required to enable the expatriate manager fill the cultural gap between home and host countries. For example, the culture of bargaining for goods and services is common in India but less common in Australia in which it may be considered abrasive or rude.  Therefore, the expatriate manager will be aided to have an understanding of this culture to enable an easier adjustment into Australia.

MNCs, as Tayeb (2005) argues should give pre-departure training to the key personnel in the host nation because the interaction with the host country employees will assist the expatriates to understand the local customs, cultural insights, and social aspects that lead to gaining of intercultural communication skills and business performance.  Mentorship by a person with previous expatriate experience should also be given to the current expatriate and the two should stay in contact because there is an understand ding of challenges that occur with relocation to foreign places (Burgi, 1999).  Moreover, training should be a continuous process in the host country (Noe, 2002) as onsite training to enable the expatriate uncover all the unfamiliarity and therefore adjust well with the host’s culture.  According to Caligiuri, et al. (2001) the key advantage of pre-departure training is that it is an intervention designed to increase the knowledge and skills of expatriates to assist them to operate effectively in the host nation.  On the other hand, Scullian (2006) argues that the key disadvantage of pre-departure training is that is seems to be a short duration to have a long term impact.  ICICI should provide pre-departure training to the expatriate in line with Australia’s political, legal, social, and business culture.  The content should include cross-culture training, language training, and practical training.

2.3. Performance Management

            The intention of this paragraph is to analyze ICICI’s performance management system for its expatriates.

According to Briscoe & Schuler (2004), the performance management system used in the international arena relates to many responsibilities of the IHRM such as evaluation of the international assignee and the foreign manager for pay increase. Briscoe & Schuler (2004) argue further that the IPM system should be of significant role in giving performance feedback, individual job assignments, planning for development, and the identification of training needs.  The performance evaluation system should take into account the both the international and local culture of the standards of the host company because the performance evaluation criteria in the parent company may not be the same as the one in the foreign country.   The performance management criterion that ICICI can use for its Australian subsidiaries include performance planning, performance monitoring, performance analysis, performance improvement, and performance maintenance (Cadwell, 2000).  There are three major approaches for evaluating performance (Bascal, 1999).  These are the rating system, ranking system, and appraisal by objective and standards system.  The rating system is very common and is best described as the ‘workplace report cards.’ The rating system consists of two major sections; a list of features, or behaviours to be assessed and a scale that indicates the level of performance.  The ranking system involves peer comparison and determining whether an employee is better than, same as or worse than a colleague.  Appraisal by objective and standards involves setting targets for each of the employees as individual targets are better off in indicating the performance of the individual (Basal, 1999).  Reward systems vary from one culture to the other Hodgetts & Luthans (2006).  For example, the Australian culture is marked by individualism and therefore a rewarding system that ICICI can use should consider individual targets and performance.  Therefore, the appraisal by objectives and standards seems more remarkable for ICICI’s Australian subsidiary in which individuals should get promoted based on their individual performance.


The intention of this section is to analyze and determine the kind of compensation packages and benefits that ICICI’s key personnel should be given in order to achieve the set up targets during the initial operation phases of the business in Australia.  The compensation package should be designed in a way that it will stimulate the foreign assignees for their roles by putting in consideration their career prospective and family (Aswathappa, 2006).   If the expectations are not met during the foreign assignment, then a decrease in motivation will certainly occur. The compensation package can be effective it is designed in such a way that it stimulating enough for the assignee to leave home country to the overseas assignment; enables the foreign assignee to maintain a given standard of living; takes the career and family needs into consideration, and facilitates re-entry into the home county at the end of the assignment.  ICICI should consider the following compensation package and international reward:

    • 85% base salary as a primary component of package of allowances
    • 12% foreign service stimulant/hardship premium
    • 7% allowances for example, cost of living, accommodation, etc.
    • 5% benefits such as medical services, pension plans, special leave, social security and vacation.

3.0.  Recommendations

Recruitment and Selection

It is recommended that:

  1. Recruitment and selection process will apply the ethnocentric approach in this initial phase of international business establishment.   This is because Awasthappa (2006) suggests that the ethnocentric approach is appropriate because firms at this stage are concerned with transplanting the culture of the firm’s success in the home country.
  2. ICICI’s selection criteria will be based on cross culture suitability, technical ability, country and culture requirement, family requirement and MNC requirements as suggested by Dowling (2008).
  3. Recruiting an internal CEO candidate for the Australian  headquarter will  result in a better control and coordination of their subsidiaries as   PCN is more familiar  with the organizational culture, goals, policies and practices  of the home’s office (Dowling, 2008).

Training and Development

It is recommended that:

  1. Pre-departure training for the ICICI expatriates should be designed to fill the cultural gap between the home country (India) and host country (Australia) and thus the training content should include language training, practical training, cross-culture training, and mini-culture training (Noe, 2002).
  2. ICICI should give pre-departure training especially to its key personnel in the host nation headquarter (Tayeb, 2005).  According to Tayeb (2005), pre-departure training in the host country enables interaction with the host country employees and this aids the expatriates to quickly understand the local customs, social aspects, and cultural insights leading to gaining of intercultural communication skills and thus enhancement of business performance.
  3. The family of the expatriate should be included in the orientation programs in order to enable a better adjustment (Dunbar & Katcher, 1989).

Performance Management

It is recommended that:

  1. ICICI should use performance management model for the Australian subsidiaries which includes first, planning performance; second, monitoring performance; third, analysing performance; fourth, improving performance; and fifth, retaining performance (Cadwell 2000).
  2.  ICICI can choose one of the following approaches in performing employee appraisals: one, rating system; two, ranking system; and three, objective and standard appraisals (Bascal, 1999).
  3. ICICI should give promotion on the basis of negotiation.  Australia has a high individualistic culture in which promotion is given on the basis of an individual’s negotiation ability through the kind of work (Lutahns & Doh, 2009).


It is recommended that:

  1. ICICI should meet certain specific objectives in the development of the firm’s international compensation for the purpose of achieving effectiveness (Briscoe & Schuler, 2004). The objectives include, (i) providing an incentive that is stimulating enough for one to leave the home country for the foreign assignment, (ii) Maintaining a given standard of living in the foreign country, (iii) ensure that both family and career needs are put into consideration, (iv) facilitate re-entry into home country when the foreign assignment is over.
  2. ICICI international rewards and compensation should include the following key components (Shen, 2003):
  • 85% base salary as a primary component of package of allowances
  • 12% foreign service stimulant/hardship premium
  • 7% allowances for example, cost of living, accommodation, etc.
  • 5% benefits such as medical services, pension plans, special leave, social security and vacation.
  1. ICICI should choose a negotiation approach in the initial set up phase for compensating the expatriates (Briscoe & Schuler, 2004).

4.0. Conclusion

The major IHR M issues that ICICI face in its expansion to Australia include recruitment and selection, training and development, performance management, and compensation of the expatriate staff.  After evaluation of the sourced materials, the report has recommended actions that suit ICICI in each of the key issues of IHRM.  These are the use of an ethnocentric approach in recruitment and selection, pre-departure training that included cross cultural content, and on-site training for adaptability; performance management by use of the appraisal and objective standards system, and a lucrative package that will motivate the foreign assignees to deliver on the set targets on the foreign assignment.  Mentorship and family support are other key issues that Ned to be considered during the assignment.  The recommendations is put in action are likely to result in well motivated expatriate and hence performance of the business in the foreign location.  Therefore solutions to address the four IHRM problems are given.

List of References:

Asawathappa, K. 2006. International business 2nd edition. New Delhi:TATA McGraw-Hill. Bascal, R. 1999. Performance management, chapter 8, NY: Mac Grew Hill (Swinburne e book library)

Briscoe, D., and Schuler, R. 2004. International human resource management, 2nd edition New York: Routledge.

Bürgi, P. 1999.  “Don’t Leave Headquarters Without A Personal Mentor”  Expatriate Observer, Winter

Cadwell M. C., 2000. Performance management. AMACOM: Swinburne E book library.

Dore, L. 2008. ICICI bank: a force for the future. http://www.foreign

Dowling, P., Festing, M. & Engle, A. 2008. International Human resources management ,5th edition. Thomson Learning, Melbourne.

Hodgetts, C. & Luthans, D.  2006. International management; culture, strategy and behaviour, Sixth edition. NY: Mc Grew Hill.

Noe, M. 2002. Employee training and development, 2nd edition. NY: McGraw-Hill.

Scullian, H.  2006. Global Staffing, UK: Routledge

Tayeb, M. 2005.  International human resource management: A multinational company prospective. UK: Oxford University Press







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