ICT integration in public secondary school curriculum


The integration of ICT in the curriculum is becoming a chief issue worldwide. The education system does not only try to pursue the incorporation of ICT into the curriculum due to its acceptance in the market system but as a result of the role it plays in the altering of the curriculum. According to the education system each learner should have the capability to use ICT creatively and confidentially in the development of skills and knowledge needed in the achievement of personal goals and for full participation in the society. The vital role played by teachers in instruction and learning requires them to have a full understanding of ICT incorporation.

Moreover, they ought to be able to scrutinize when ICT assimilation is suitable according to what is anticipated from the student in the training and learning process. Drawing on the proof from a survey of about nine secondary schools in the world, this study inspects how teachers from secondary schools recognize the incorporation of ICTs in the curriculum. The outstanding ideas of how teachers distinguish the assimilation of ICTs into the curriculum arise from what they see as benefits of using ICT and what they see as encounters of assimilating ICT into the curriculum. Contrary to prospects, the degree of ICT incorporation within the program did not agree directly with the accessibility of enough software, hardware, or Internet connectivity. This essay is aimed at research on the challenges faced during the assimilation of ICT in secondary schools.

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  1. Introduction

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) comprises computers, the Internet, and electronic transfer systems like radios, televisions, and projectors among others, and is commonly used in today’s education sector. Kent and Facer (2004) specified that school is a significant situation where students share in a wide collection of computer activities, while the home aids as a harmonizing site for regular commitment in a narrower set of computer actions. Increasingly, ICT is being used successfully in teaching, learning, and assessment.

ICT is measured as a powerful device for educational transformation and reform. A number of preceding studies have revealed that the appropriate use of ICT may raise educational quality and join learning to real-life situations (Lowther, et al. 2008; Weert and Tatnall 2005). As Weert and Tatnall (2005) have pointed out, learning is a continuing lifelong activity where learners change their prospects by seeking knowledge, which advances from traditional approaches. As time goes by, they will have to anticipate and be eager to seek out new foundations of knowledge. Skills in using ICT will be an essential requirement for these students.

ICT tends to increase access to education. Through ICT, learning can happen anytime and anyplace. Online course resources, for example, can be available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Teleconferencing classrooms permit both learner and teacher to interrelate simultaneously with affluence and accessibility. Based on ICT, learning and teaching do not depend completely on printed materials. Numerous resources are ample on the Internet, and knowledge can be attained through video clips, audio sounds, and visual presentation and so on. Existing research has specified that ICT helps in converting a teaching atmosphere into a learner-centred one (Castro Sánchez and Alemán 2011). Subsequently, learners are vigorously associated in the learning processes in ICT classrooms, are authorized by the teacher to create decisions, plans, and so forth (Lu, Hou and Huang 2010). ICT then offers both learners and instructors with increased educational affordances and opportunities.

The beginning of computers has led to expansions and changes not only in corporate sectors but also in education. It is because of the technology revolt that many countries worldwide talk of assimilating ICT into the syllabus. In the 1980s we spoke of computers and education, but lately, a new concept has emerged the incorporation of ICT into the curriculum. What does this mean? The impression of using computers in education is not totally different from that of assimilating ICT into the curriculum. The difference between the two is the way by which computers were used in the historical and the method in which computers are used currently. The continuous changes in technology that we use in our everyday lives like cell phones allure me to believe that expansions in computer hardware, software and connectivity are not still they keep on varying along with other technologies. Technological changes imply changes in their use in education (Ravenscroft 2001). This means the incorporation of computers in training and learning need to address the current curriculum needs.

The concept of assimilation is understood differently by those who perceive themselves as incorporating ICT into the curriculum. According to Morrison, Lowther, & DeMeulle (1999), assimilation is successful when students use computers for their learning, thus offering them a chance to engage intensely and critically with computers. In this study, incorporation will be examined in its broadest sense as a wider term or being at the heart of the curriculum (Kennewell, Parkinson & Tanner 2000). This means assimilation is examined not only with respect how it can benefit learners, but how it is combined by teachers across the Learning Areas (LAs) or subjects in the secondary grades. ICT policies reflect upon what the integration of ICT into the curriculum entails in education within different countries. In addition to the ICT policies, I draw on the previous research to acquaint with the integration of ICT into the curriculum in the different countries. More specific benefits of using ICT in education are described below.

  • Background of the study

ICT is a universally accepted tool in education and training, which improves education access, learning and administration.

The Ministries of Education of all the Countries in the respective countries are mandated by the policies to coordinate, monitor and evaluate all the different ICT school initiatives.

In many countries, the Ministry of Education, sector partners and stakeholders have developed the National ICT Strategy for Education and Training aimed at guiding the sector in the adoption of ICTs across all levels of education and training.

  • Statement of the problem
  • The Ministry of Education Science and Technology (MOEST) has a national ICT education policy and strategy which works with the education stakeholders to ensure implementation of E- School initiatives. Its main aim is to promote the expanded use of ICT in schools, as a tool for effective management, research and development at all education levels.
  • The enactment and implementation of the National ICT strategy on education and training is evidence of the government’s commitment towards ensuring the use of ICT in schools
  • This study sets out to investigate the relevance of integration of information communication technology in improving learning in secondary schools.

Purpose of the study

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relevance of the integration of information communication technology in improving learning in secondary schools in various countries.

  • Objectives of the study
  • To establish the role played by integration of ICT on Curriculum Delivery in Secondary schools.
  • To establish the relevance of integration of ICT on Reduction of Learning Cost in Secondary Schools.
  • To establish the role of integration of ICT on improvement of quality of learning and instruction in Secondary Schools.
  • To establish ways of improving learning, by use of ICT in secondary schools.
    • Significance of the study
  • The study will highlight the current situation of the ICT issues in their schools, and the actual role played by the ICT, towards learning process.
  • The study will give insights on how the ICT can be used in improving curriculum delivery.
  • The study will provide information on the use of ICT in improvement of learning and instruction.
  • The study will provide the school managers with the relevant information the role played by ICT on lowering cost of instructional materials.
    • Scope of the study
  • The study will be limited in scope to the public secondary schools in the Country.
  • This country was selected because the county has a vast number of public secondary schools. The infrastructure enabling integration of ICT in schools is well developed.
  • The public secondary schools were selected because the government has been funding schools for the ICT integration.
  • The government has been organizing training programmes for schools principals and teachers on ICT compliance.
    • Limitation of the study
  • The study will be carried out in public secondary schools the Country. The findings of this study may not reflect the case of other public secondary schools within areas with poorer infrastructure.
  • There researcher will not be able to reach all the schools in the county, due to financial constraints, as travelling and data collection expenses are limited
  • Time will also be a limiting factor during this study, as the researcher will allocate limited time to the interviews, and this may affect the data collected, with the limited time.
    • Assumptions of the study

The study will be based on the following assumptions

  • The respondents in this study will be in a position to accurately give us the information the study seeks to establish.
  • The study participants will be willing to respond to the study honestly.
  • Secondary schools in the county have integrated ICT.
    • Theoretical framework

The study will be based on the Diffusion of Innovations Theory by Rogers (1995). An innovation is defined as an idea, practice or object that is perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption.

It is the perceived newness of an idea for an individual that determines whether an innovation is an innovation, even if the individual is part of the late majority or laggards.

  • Characteristics of adoption of an innovation (Rogers 1995)
    • Relative advantage
    • Compatibility
    • Complexity
    • Trial ability
    • Observability
    • Conceptual framework
    • Research questions

The major question that framed this study was:

To what extent do teachers in the secondary schools assimilate ICT into the school curriculum?

Subsidiary questions that were addressed were:

  • What access do teachers have to computers?
  • What software are teachers able to use?
  • What type of training (if any) have teachers received in computer literacy and in integrating ICT into the school curriculum?

How do teachers use computers at schools?

  • What are teachers’ perceptions of the benefits of using computers at school, including integrating ICT into the curriculum?
  • What are the teachers’ perceptions of the challenges encountered in integration ICT into the curriculum?



  • Chapter 2
  • Literature review

School administration is a key factor for the realization of anticipated outcomes and success in both public and private schools hence is seen as vital by all stakeholders. Gray and Smith (2007) observe that the twenty-first-century principal administrator faces many challenges emanating from the technology. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are progressively used and viewed as significant in all spheres of process including education. This requires actual and dynamic school administration. In this study, Information and Communication Technologies, ICT, refers to technologies that offer access to information using telecommunications generally, but specifically to computers.

Globally, a number of national, state and city agencies and school districts have devoted heavily in computers for schools with the twin goals of refining student achievement and preparing students for the new kinds of work and contact that will be integral to a future world. The scope and variety of involvements include provision of laptops for teachers, provision of computers to students or to teachers and students countrywide provision to pilot schemes relating only to a small number of schools and interventions that test and trial different types of computers within general or specific contexts. While there are many evaluative studies that assess the impact of these initiatives, the body of evaluative literature available that assesses the impacts and outcomes of teacher laptop schemes is surprisingly limited.

To understand what effects school communities or individual teachers to become involved in such arrangements has been examined rarely in reports. The reasons for individual teacher participation may be quite diverse from those when whole schools choose to become involved in an enterprise. In one pilot, Tablet PCs in Schools, teachers became involved just because their school was part of the plan. Most schools had become involved as a result of specific benefits given by the technology, such as flexibility and the saving of space.


The virtues of ICT in education have been inscribed in the literature. This includes:

Helps students in retrieving digital information professionally and effectively

As Brush, Glazewski and Hew (2008) stated, ICT is a tool that students use to discover learning topics, explain problems, and offer solutions to the difficulties in the learning procedure.

ICT makes knowledge achievement more accessible, and conceptions in learning areas are assumed while engaging scholars in the submission of ICT.

Support self-directed and student-centered learning

Students currently are more frequently involved in the meaningful usage of computers (Castro Sánchez and Alemán 2011). They build fresh knowledge by selecting, interpreting, accessing, and organizing data and information. Centered on learning through ICT, learners are more proficient in using information and data attained from various sources, and disparagingly the learning material quality is assessed.

Create a creative learning atmosphere

ICT creates students’ new understanding in respect to their learning area (Chai, Koh and Tsai 2010). ICT offers more creative explanations to different kinds of learning inquiries. For instance, in an evaluation class, e-books are mainly used in reading aloud activities. Students can access all kinds of texts from the beginning to the advanced levels with easiness by using personal digital assistants, laptops, computer, or iPads. More precisely, these e-books can come with various reading applications, that give a reading-aloud interface, appropriate vocabulary-building happenings, games connected to reading services and vocabulary attainment, and more. Thus, ICT contains purpose intended applications, which provide advanced ways to meet a variety of learning needs.

Promotion of collaborative education in a distance-learning atmosphere

Koc (2005) stated that using ICT aids students in communicating, sharing, and working collaboratively anywhere, and any time. For example, a teleconferencing classroom can invite students from around the world to meet together concurrently for a topic conversation. They could have the opportunity to scrutinize problems and discover ideas, as well as developing perceptions. They could further estimate ICT learning solutions. Learners not only gain knowledge together, but can also share varied learning practices from each another with a motive of expressing themselves and replicate on their learning.

Offer more chances to develop serious (higher-order) thinking abilities

Centered on a practical learning method, ICT aids students’ center on higher-level perceptions rather than fewer evocative tasks (Levin and Wadmany 2006). McMahon’s study (2009) indicated that there were statistically important correlations amongst studying with ICT and the achievement of critical thinking services. A longer experience in the ICT atmosphere can foster students’ higher serious thinking skills. Therefore, schools are intensely advised to assimilate technology in all of the learning ranges and among all learning stages. Where this is done, learners are able to relate technology to the achievement of higher stages of thought within specific learning circumstances.

Improving the learning and teaching quality

As Lowther et al. (2008) stated, there are three vital characteristics are desired to grow noble quality learning and teaching with ICT and they include creativity, autonomy, and capability. Autonomy refers to students taking control of their learning in respect to their use of ICT. Thus, they become more proficient in working with others and themselves. Teachers may also allow students to finish certain tasks in groups, or with peers. Through cooperative learning with ICT, the learners have more chances to develop the new knowledge to their background understanding, and become more self-assured to take possibilities and learn from their faults.

Additionally, Serhan (2009) decided that ICT nurtures autonomy by permitting educators to develop their own material, thus giving more control over progress content than is imaginable in a traditional classroom location. With respect to capability, once learners become more confident in learning methods, they can advance the competence to apply and handover knowledge while using fresh technology with proficiency and effectiveness. For instance, in an ESL speaking and listening class, students could be asked to exercise their pronunciation via online audio dictionary.

They are required to not only to listen to the instinctive pronunciation but also to study the explanations and samples of a new vocabulary article. They then have to give a recording of their personal pronunciation and offer examples regarding how this new word is used in circumstance. Before finishing this task, learners have to know which browser is appropriate to search a seemly online audio dictionary. Students will have to browse numerous online dictionaries, and choose the one that best encounters their learning needs. Moreover, finding better software to record their singing is another requirement for these learners. Thus, the whole learning procedure improves students’ learning skills and increases their knowledge past what they now know. By applying ICT, students’ creativeness can be enhanced. Students can discover new multimedia devices and develop materials in the styles eagerly available to them via games (Gee 2007, 2011), television, and CD’s. With a mixture of students’ capability, autonomy, and creativity, ICT application and use helps improve the quality of learning and teaching.

Support teaching by enabling admission to course content

Watts-Taffe et al. (2003) noted that teacher can be catalysts for the assimilation of technology through the use of ICT. The availability of equipment, encouragement, and the appropriate tools for teachers from the institution, the creation of an ICT class would be a little easier. The vital responsibility that teachers will have is to change their course style, explain and create new assignments, and arrange from computer labs through the use of technology assistants or specialists

In sum, as Reid (2002) has stated, ICT gives student extra time to look beyond the course mechanic allowing them to understand their concepts better. Using ICT changes the learning and teaching relationship. Based on the results of Reid’s study, lecturers stated that the relationship between the learner and the teacher is somehow reversed as a result of information technology. The relationship created boosts the confidence of students, thus they able to help their teachers in matters regarding technical issues in the class. Hence, ICT brings a change to the traditional teacher centered manner, and requires teachers to be a bit creative in adapting and customizing their own material.

Since ICT is bringing a change to the learning and teaching in several ways, the current literature has also come up with hindrances. The following section will classify these hindrances to four categories based on the perspective of teachers, students, ICT infrastructure, and administrators. Various strategies for addressing these hindrances are also explained.


Despite the advantages associated with the use of ICT have been presented in former researches, there are challenges and barriers that are linked with its use still prevail. Frederick, Schweizer and Lowe (2006) indicated that special needs, student mobility, and anxiety regarding standardized test results remain to be the greatest challenges associated with the use of ICT. These challenges can be handled by the provision of more authentic problem and group-based learning methods, and enough learning (Whelan, 2008).

Whelan (2008) also recognized other barriers rising for the students’ perspective like subpar technical values, which reduces the access to ICT in classes and reduced interaction among the instructors and peers. Consequently, the author endorses the following approaches to enable the learning process like orientation, more induction, and training for students, an increased emphasis regarding the instructors’ access and good administration, and the development of online conferencing and podcasting devices. Generally, curriculum development, policy, capacity building, infrastructure, and government support are necessary to lessen students’ barriers and increase ICT effectiveness in the class. Additionally, Castro Sánchez and Alemán (2011) inspire learners to gain specific technical values to enable learning in ICT atmosphere.


Barriers to effective technology assimilation based on a teacher’s perspective include:

  • Expectations of teachers is low and they lack a clear goal regarding the use of ICT in class (Al-Bataineh et al. 2008);
  • The lack of pedagogical suportb and teacher collaboration and experience lack between cooperating  (Ertmer and Otternbreit-Leftwich, 2010);
  • The absence of sufficient time for mastering new software or assimilation of ICT in class (Almekhlafi and Almeqdadi, 2010);
  • Insufficient abilities associated with managing teaching materials (Frederick, Schweizer and Lowe, 2006);
  • Low habitual ways and software competence regarding the conceptualization reading how and what students needs to learn (Goktas, Yildirim and Yildirim, 2009);
  • Limited experience and knowledge regarding ICT teaching contexts (Honan, 2008);
  • The absence of precise knowledge regarding technology and its combination with the current pedagogical content knowledge for supporting student learning (Hutchison and Reinking, 2011);
  • Extreme focus on teaching practical or operational abilities other than course content (Lim 2007);
  • Pressure to advance scores on countrywide examinations (Liu and Szabo, 2009);
  • A lack of acknowledgement and inspiration of the timely and real use of ICT (Tezci 2011a);
  • A lack of professional training regarding the use of ICT (Yildirim 2007);
  • Practical problems in the classroom (Yildirim 2007);
  • Classroom organization with large class sizes (Tezci 2011a);
  • An absence of motivation, and practical and financial backing (Liu and Szabo 2009);
  • Uncertainty regarding the likely benefits of ICT use in the schoolroom (Yildirim 2007); and
  • Absence of specific and certain ideas regarding integrating technology into teaching will expand student learning (Al-Bataineh et al. 2008).

Various strategies for diminishing these challenges have been recommended. Schools are encouraged to:

  • Provide professional expansion activities connected to technology to bring up-to-date teachers’ abilities and knowledge, and give practical support when required (Al-Bataineh et al. 2008);
  • Support partnerships which help teachers share active technology exercises and experiences (Ertmer and Otternbreit-Leftwich 2010);
  • Provide workshops which allow teachers to replicate upon effective policies for technology incorporation into instruction and expose issues that are vital to understanding the progression of technology amalgamation into instruction (Almekhlafi and Almeqdadi 2010);
  • Offer opportunities to practically observe instructors who use technology (Frederick, Schweizer and Lowe 2006);
  • Augment programs with technology-improved materials (Goktas, Yildirim and Yildirim


  • Provide enough liberty for teachers in choosing and covering curriculum resources

(Honan 2008);

  • Provide operative, timely, and continuous exercise to advance ICT abilities and achieve a technology-rich schoolroom (Hutchison and Reinking 2011);
  • Encourage positive approaches about the consequence of assimilating ICT into training (Lim, 2007); and
  • Provide suitable technical support (Liu and Szabo 2009; Tezci 2011a; Yildirim 2007).


Technology needs to be used for more than just backing of traditional teaching means (Tezci,

2011a). According to Tezci (2011a), teachers needs to learn technology to enhance their traditional teaching or to expand productivity, but should also learn from the perspective of student-centred regarding how ICT assimilation will promote learning activities. This implies that teachers must use ICT in more productive and creative ways as a way of creating more rewarding and engaging activities, plus more effective lessons (Birch and Irvine 2009; Honan 2008). Henceforth, Castro Sánchez and Alemán (2011) stated that teachers need to have an open mind regarding the integration of ICT in classes. It is imperious that instructors learn new teaching methods so that they can adapt with the new material when training with technology.

However, Yildirim (2007) understood that teacher make use of ICT more rapidly due to the preparation of tests and handouts than for the promotion of critical thinking.  Similarly, Palak and Walls (2009) knew that teachers make us of technology as a way of supporting their current teaching methods and rarely aids in student-centred learning. Conferring to the authors, a possible explanation is the absence of models regarding the use of technology as a way of facilitating learning, and limitations associated with contextual factors like student ability and class size. Additionally, Brush, Glazewski and Hew (2008) established that teachers pre-service preparation does not offer enough knowledge regarding ICT for the support of technology-based teaching, nor does it completely demonstrate appropriate ways of integrating technology in a program. Increased training should be offered in pre-service teachers’ curricula, and the skills of ICT should be practiced in the classroom as a way of integrating effective technology strategies (Supon and Ruffini 2009). To assist teachers manage with these challenges, Chen (2008) recommended that apart from the provision of education concepts,  ICT researchers needs to document samples regarding how teachers need to accomplish meaningful and efficient technology integration to achieve their pedagogical needs and goals.


Chapter 3

  • Research methodologies
    • Introduction

Research design provides facts of how a research process is steered. This chapter describes these procedures beginning with the research alignment that informed my study the nature of reality, the origin of knowledge and the choice of the methodology which directed my study and helped to preserve coherence during the study. The purpose of the study is attained by addressing the research questions. The study sites are clearly labeled to inform the reader about the detailed environment in which the data was composed and includes an explanation of the participants how they were designated, and how they were used in the study. The chapter then explains the method, tools and techniques of collecting data. The process of collecting data is linked to a discussion of the measures adopted to ensure the quality of data collected. Following this is a discussion of the ethical issues, which describes the process of involvement of participants in the study and of how participants were respected throughout the research process. The chapter ends by discussing how the data was analyzed including the methods of analyzing data and the tools used. The design to be incorporated is the descriptive research survey.

  • Research aim

The study seeks to establish whether secondary school teachers in the country incorporate ICT into the curriculum and if so, how they integrate ICT into the curriculum and how they cope with the challenges of integrating ICT into the curriculum.

  • Research method

Yin (1993) defines a case study as an experimental inquiry that investigates a modern phenomenon within its real life framework, especially when the limits between phenomenon and setting are not clearly obvious. He further expounds upon the reason for using a case research and suggests that you can use the case study method since you deliberately wanted to cover related conditions believing that they might be appropriate to your phenomenon of the research (Yin 2002). The case study method was espoused in this study to examine the phenomenon within the diverse circumstances of the various types of public or government schools.

I applied to use an interpretive approach since I wanted to focus on the lived involvements of teachers, and because interpretive case studies contain rich thick description (Merriam, 2001). Since the research constituted a number of different sites it was considered to be a multiple case study (Yin, 2002).

  • Location of the Study

Public secondary schools in the country

  • Target Population
  • Head teachers, 50 teachers and 736 students.
    • Sampling Procedures

Random sampling for Head teachers, random sampling for Teachers and Simple Random for students

  • Sample Size
  • Head teachers 20 Teachers and 200 students.
    • Research Instruments

Questionnaires and Interview schedule. Hart (1998) outlines questionnaires as a series of structured questions addressing a specific theme or issue and is used as the foundation of the survey approach. In my study questionnaires were used to find out what teachers know about ICT, why they use ICT, and how they use it. Even though the study did not focus on age and gender, such questions were asked to enrich the study.

Merriam (2001) defines interviews as a person to person discussion in which one person the interviewer or the researcher elicits information from another who is the interviewee. The purpose of interview is to find out what is in and on someone else’s mind (Patton 2001). According to Merriam (2002) interviews varies from highly organized, where specific questions and the direction in which they are asked are resolute ahead of time, to formless interviews ,where one has a topic to explore, but neither the questions nor the order are predetermined.

  • Piloting

Will be done on 2 head teachers, 4 teachers and 20 students from public boarding primary schools in the neighboring country

  • Validity

Schwandt (1997) defines validity as a property of a statement, argument, or producer. To call something valid is to indicate that it is sound, cogent, well grounded, justifiable, or logically correct. Because researchers work within different paradigms, the criteria used to establish validity within studies differ. In quantitative studies researchers normally use tried and tested measures, experimental arrangements and statistical techniques to ensure that accurate conclusions can be drawn from the research results (Terre Blanche & Durrheim, 1999). Contrary to this validity in qualitative research has to do with description and explanation and whether or not the explanation fits the description. In addition, qualitative researchers do not claim that there is only one way of interpreting event. There is no one correct interpretation (Denzin & Lincoln, 2003). The validity process in this study is informed by an interpretive paradigm hence criteria used are alternative to those used in quantitative positivist paradigm techniques. Validity of an instrument is improved through expert judgment. As such, the content validity will be ascertained by supervisor, lecturers and colleagues.

  • Reliability

            Spearman’s brown prophesy formula of split-half technique will be used to test reliability of the research instrument

  • Data collection and procedures
  • The researcher will get an introductory letter from the University
  • A research permit will be obtained from the National Commission for Science, Technology and Innovation.
  • The permit will be presented to the County Director of     Education in the Country, to be allowed to conduct the research within the County
  • The researcher will also seek permission to carry out the study from the head teachers of the schools.
  • The researcher will visit all the respondents to administer the questionnaires interview schedules.
  • The respondents will be given 3 days to respond to all the items adequately. Raw data will be collected using questionnaires distributed to respondents.
  • Data analysis
  • Data from the field will be collected, cleaned, coded and recorded.
  • Analysis procedures to be employed will involve both quantitative and qualitative techniques.
  • Quantitative data will be coded and analyzed, using Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) version 21 for windows.
  • Qualitative data will be analyzed thematically, whereby similar responses will be tallied to come up with frequency counts and then percentages calculated based on the total number of responses.
  • Data will be presented in summary form using the frequency distribution tables, bar charts and pie charts.


Denzin, K. N. & Lincoln, S.Y. (2003). Introduction: the discipline and practice of qualitative

research. In K.N. Denzin & S.Y. Lincoln (Eds). Handbook of Qualitative Research second

edition (pp1-45). London. Sage.

Terre Blanche, M. & Durrheim, K. (1999). Histories of the present: social science research in

context. In M. Terre Blanche & K. Durrheim (Eds.). Research in practice: Applied methods for

the social sciences. (pp. 1-16)

Schwandt, T. A. (1997). Qualitative Inquiry: a dictionary of terms. Calif. Sage.

Merriam, S. B. (2001). Qualitative Research and Case Study Application in Education. Revised

and Expanded from Case Study Research in Education. San Fransisco. Jossey Bass.

Merriam, S.B. (2002). Qualitative Research in Practice. Examples for Discussion and Analysis.

San Fransisco. Jossey Bass.

Yin, K.R. (1993). Application of Case Study Research, Design Method. London, Sage


Yin, K.R. (2002). Case Study Research, Design Method. London ,Sage Publication.

Morrison, G.R., Lowther, D.L. & DeMeulle, L. (1999). Integrating computer technology into

the classroom. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Merrill.

Kennewell, S., Parkinson, J & Tanner, H. (2000). Developing the ICT capable school.

London: RoutedgeFalmer.





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  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

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