Global advertising can be defined as the concept applied by business marketers to develop adverts that will create awareness about a specific product or service across the world using a single advert. Global advertising in most cases applies to businesses and organizations that have set their businesses in the global front and are pursuing to woe more global consumers to purchase their products and services. According to Sinclair (2017), global advertising was majorly developed in the mid-20th century after advertising became a potential source of business spread and global advertising agencies were given a chance to create global adverts since they are better placed to understand the needs of the global consumers.
One major characteristic applied in global advertisements includes the global consumer interest, which is considered as the major determinant of the type of advert that will be created. Most global companies focus on the interest of their consumers when developing such adverts by creating adverts that the consumers can easily relate with. Another significant characteristic of global advertisements is the mode of display, which tends to cater to all individuals including people living with disabilities. Global adverts also use a simple language that can be understood by people around the world and be accepted in all societies in spite of their culture. As such, most global advertisements are considered easy to understand and to relate with when determining what is being portrayed in the adverts.
Glocalized advertising is the use of adverts to enable global products to enter into a new market in most cases entry into a foreign market (O’barr et al., 2008). Glocalized advertisements can, therefore, be termed as ads that are used for entry into foreign markets by foreign companies, businesses, and organizations. The main aim of glocalized advertisements is to create awareness of a new product or service in a foreign environment. In glocalized advertising, firms will try to restructure their adverts so that they can be more relatable with the local people in the foreign country and adhere to the culture and beliefs of the people so that the people can easily accept the ads and the products being advertised. An example of a glocalized advertisement is the advertisement used by Nivea products when they ventured into the African market after dominance in the American and European markets.
The main reason for advertisers to consider globalized, glocalized, and localized advertisements is to achieve market stability in the market that they are venturing into. Global advertisements are essential in introducing products to the global market. This introduction is backed up with glocalized advertisements, which work to ensure that the product and services being advertised become more understandable to the foreign market. Finally, localized advertisements help in reaching the local market with the ease of creating a more intense relationship with consumers in this new market. As such, advertisers aim at incorporating the three modes or advertising to cater for all the needs in creating awareness of the product or service in the market and make sure that all the consumers effectively relate to the ads and understand what is being advertised.
Some of the major advantages of global advertising include attracting consumers from diverse markets in the world, increased awareness of the product and assuredness of new consumers in the global market. However, global advertising has various challenges, which include ensuring that the advert does not go against the social and cultural norms of the people in an offending manner. Achieving a socially acceptable advert that will be accepted all over the world, which is challenging for advertisement developers (Crane et al., 2016). Another potential challenge advertisers face include incapability for other people to understand some of the languages used in the advertisements as such as advertisements made in English being played in other non-English speaking countries, e.g., some nations in Asia.
As companies move from national to global branding, they are likely to experience numerous challenges with the most significant one being a language barrier and cultural differences. For instance, Chinese companies are used to advertising in local Chinese language because most of the buyers over time have been Chinese. As such, they face a problem when transforming their businesses into the global scale since they have to end up learning new languages to best serve the consumers of their products and services (Zhou et al., 2012). However, Chinese advertisers have developed the use of both their language and a translation to a more understandable language by the people their businesses aim at reaching such as English, Spanish, and French in ensuring that they are able to communicate to the consumers about their services and products effectively.
In most feminist theories and approaches, the male gaze is considered the use of female characters, their bodies, and their actions to pleasure men especially when they are considered as sexual objects (Monk-Turner, 2008). In the modern world, the concept is often understood as sexualizing female characters to majorly attract the male consumer to be part of the product being advertised. In other terms, the concept of male gaze is always understood as using the female character as an attraction to lure men into buying products.
Just like male gaze, the racialized gaze is the use of specific characters from a certain race to come up with adverts that will attract people from other races to buy the product (Hardy et al., 2018). Racialized gaze is often understood by the fact that people from a certain race are likely to deliver an advert better as expected by a company than people from another race can do. For instance, in most cases, blacks are preferred for advertising beauty products, a perfect example of the advertisement by Unilever under the brand Vaseline petroleum Jelly where the girl portrayed in the advert is a black, yet Vaseline can be used by all people in the world, no matter the race of the individual using it.
A combination of the male gaze and racialized gaze in adverts can be able to achieve the concept of power dominance and hierarchy in society. In most cases, women appear more in adverts compared to men and as such, male gaze is achieved within the advert (Monk-Turner et al., 2008). Women dominated advertisements will in most cases aim at addressing a certain theme that will generally be accepted by both the men and women in the society. Taking an example of the Vaseline video advert, the woman is sexualized such that most of her body is left out in the open creating room for sexualizing the advert and the advert uses a black woman. This advert creates an impression that all black ladies are beautiful and at the same time makes men view women in a sexual way since it is sexually captivating to them. As such, there is a feeling of achieved power dominance in the society where men consider themselves as powerful and cannot be used for making adverts such as that displayed in the Vaseline advert.
The advert chosen for this question is the Vaseline Petroleum Jelly advert in which it compares using Vaseline for the skin and how important it is for the skin to avoid skin cracks. It is evident that the male gaze has been achieved in the ad. Analyzing the ad will majorly dwell on the male gaze theory by Laura Mulvey as it used in advertising. Sexualizing female characters and their bodies are dominant in the text showing that a male gaze concept is a common form of selling body products. Most of the men might have been attracted to the ad because it sexually displays a woman’s body. It is possible that Vaseline received an increase in their sales as a result of this advert, especially from the males who bought it because of the thought that “Vaseline would make other women’s skins and their skins as well just like it turned the skin of the lady advertising it.”
Crane, D., Kawashima, N., & Kawasaki, K. I. (2016).Culture and globalization theoretical models and emerging trends. In Global culture (pp. 11-36). Routledge
Hardy, J., Macrury, I., & Powell, H. (2018). The Advertising Handbook. Routledge
Monk-Turner, E., Wren, K., McGill, L., Matthiae, C., Brown, S., & Brooks, D. (2008). Who is gazing at whom? A look at how sex is used in magazine advertisements. Journal of Gender Studies, 17(3), 201-209.
O’barr, W. M., Lazarus, S., & Moreira, M. (2008).Global advertising. Advertising & Society Review, 9(4)
Sinclair, J. (2017). Globalisation of advertising: an overview of trends and issues.In Global Advertising Practice in a Borderless World (pp. 30-39). Routledge
Zhou, D., Zhang, W., &Vertinsky, I. (2012). Advertising trends in urban China. Journal of Advertising Research, 42(3), 73-81
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