Identify and define the two types of deterrence. Explain different categories of risk factors for crime and provide examples of factors within each category
The two main types of deterrence are general and specific deterrence. General deterrence is aimed at having an impact on more people and not just the offender Lab ()
The punishment that one person is given will hopefully be an example to other potential law violators. The main aim of general deterrence is preventing a criminal act in advance, and this fits well in primary crime prevention. Specific deterrence aims at ensuring that an offender does not commit a crime in the future. Using punishment as an experience would ensure that an offender is deterred from performing any criminal activity. This type of deterrence is only aimed at the offender, and it is not expected to have an impact on others. Since specific deterrence focuses on the offender who committed a crime and aims at ensuring that the offender does not violate the law again, it fits well into tertiary crime prevention.
The main categories of risk factors are peer, family, biological, psychological/personality, and community. Peer factors are mainly related to the influence that an individual will receive from others of his/her age. Adolescent behavior is greatly affected by the influence of peers. Adolescents who participate in youth gangs are more likely to get involved in criminal activities in the future. This is because they have been initiated early. Antisocial behavior amongst siblings is viewed as a potential predictor to delinquent activity. Family factors and situations that a person is raised up in will determine the individual’s later behavior. The lack of good parental supervision and receiving harsh and inconsistent discipline are some of the risk factors that can lead to deviance in the future. According to research it is clear that there is a strong relationship between the offspring’s and their parents. The present and future behavior of a person is greatly contributed by the individual’s family functioning.
Biological factors do not get the same attention that other risk factors receive, though they have been identified in some studies. The main reason is because social scientists dominate the field of criminology, and they focus on other variable. Some of the biological factors are perinatal and prenatal complications, which include use of drugs when pregnant, low birth weights, poor nutrition, and pregnancy complications. Other biological factors are neurotransmitters, and a heart rate that is low resting. There are a couple of psychological/personality factors that have been identified to cause aggressive behavior. Preteens who are hyperactive have been reported to have violent behavior in their young adult years. Another contributor to adolescent deviance is concentration problems and impulsivity. Low IQ, learning disabilities, and issues that inhibit a person’s success in school are also risk factors.
The community an individual is raised in will have an impact on the individual’s future behavior. An individual who grows up in a community that has disorder, economically depreciated, and poor neighborhood is most likely to have some deviant behavior. Communities that have gangs and firearms are also contributors to risk levels. Individuals who also perform poorly in school and drop out are also likely to become delinquent.
Offer several examples of situational prevention in action including the evaluation evidence on those techniques. Demonstrate how situational techniques can be used with personal crimes
Situational prevention involves managing, manipulating, and designing the immediate environment to ensure that crime opportunities are reduced, and the risks criminals perceive are increased. Fare avoidance and transport system vandalism is not an easy crime to respond to because of the diversity in transport systems. Avoiding paying fares in the British Columbia transport system was determined to be caused by several factors. This led to the redesign of bus passes, ticket machines, and new campaigns encouraging purchase of passes. There was also increased investigation on counterfeit tickets. A significant reduction in fare avoidance was witnessed. For the Dutch transport system, it was discovered that the existence of a rear door was the main cause of fare avoidance. This door made it easy for passengers to enter and exit the bus, thus avoiding the driver. To curb this, monitors were introduced on the buses, and the removal of the rear door to ensure that passengers entered the bus from the front to prove payment. These changes reduced fare evasion significantly. To reduce case of fare evasion in the London and New York subway system, both systems introduced new ticketing systems and automatic gates or barriers. The automatic gates were installed in select stations in London while in New York, there was an increment in the number of staff controlling the entrances. There was a decline of fare avoidance in those stations, but there was increase of fare avoidance in stations without new systems.
The New York subway system has been the most affected with public vandalism. Graffiti artists used to paint on the trains and any efforts of securing rail yards and using graffiti proof paint bore no fruits. Further investigation revealed that the artist’s main interests were for their works to “get up” and be seen. To thwart this vandalism, the only logical solution was to ensure that these graffiti would never be seen, which would deprive the artist his/her audience. A policy of cleaning each train car was introduced. This meant that each car would be cleaned of any graffiti, and if vandalized again it would be immediately cleaned. This made sure that the artists graffiti was never seen, and eventually stopped graffiti vandalism. There have been various solutions proposed to curb theft of motor vehicles. Analysis done in Wales, West Germany, and England showed that using steering column locks lead to reduction in motor vehicles. This was because the difficulty of stealing the car was increased. The use of immobilizers has also reduced the number of motor vehicle theft. The requirement for wearing helmets when riding motorcycles has reduced the number of motorcycle thefts. Since most offenders do not have helmets, this requirement made them easily identifiable by other.
What is SARA? Provide insight to the extent of drug use in society and among offending populations
SARA is an acronym for Scanning, Analysis, Response, and Assessment. SARA is a problem solving method commonly used by law enforcement agencies. In a community using the problem solving method helps reduce the impact of crime and disorder problems. Scanning involves identifying incidents that are related or similar by reviewing information. The incident is analyzed and compared to others to determine its priority. Analysis involves the determination of why a problem is occurring, those affected, those responsible, where it occurs, and the problem form. The crime has to be analyzed to establish its patterns, which will explain the conditions facilitating the crime. Response is the process of executing some set of actions aimed at addressing the findings in regards to the problem identified. The main aim is preventing the problem from reoccurring again, protecting the community and likely victims, and making the crime location less conducive. Assessment is the measurement to determine if the responses have had any impact on the problem. This is done by collecting information from different sources after responses are implemented.
It is not easy to determine the extent of drug use in society. This is mainly because it is not easy to measure the private behavior of people. The data available regarding drug use is mostly from self reports, or information regarding known offenders. The most prominent drug used in society is alcohol. Marijuana is second, and the rest of the drugs are not used by many people. This shows that drugs that people are mostly concerned with are not that commonly used in society. These drugs are crack, cocaine, and heroin. Alcohol, which is a legal drug for anyone above the age limit, is most commonly used drug. This information was obtained from self reporting data. In terms of illicit drugs, the problem of drug use in society is relatively minor, but it has been faced with increases recently.
The main assumption made is that offenders are people who use illicit drugs. This would mean that the use of drugs is related to crime in the society. Research conducted indicates that there is a slight correlation between crime and drug use, but there is no clear relation established. The one true fact is that by using drugs a person can be influenced to commit a crime, and a drug user can result to crime to sustain their drug use. The use of drugs can also be used to predict a person’s criminal behavior. Research has indicated that each behavior (drug use and crime) can lead to the other. This means a criminal may result to using drugs, and a drug user can become a criminal. For intervention, targeting drug users who are highly likely to commit crimes would help in crime prevention. This would only reduce crime that is associated with drug use, but crime related to other risk factors would still remain.
Outline the Minneapolis Domestic violence experiment, cite its findings and discuss the results of its replication studies. Compare and contrast collective and selective incapacitation with suitable examples
The Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment was an evaluation of how effective the Minneapolis police responded to various domestic violence calls. The experiment was conducted between 1982 and 1982 by Lawrence W. Sherman, and the Minneapolis Police Department. Funding was supported by the National Institute of Justice. From a pool of known domestic violence offenders who there was a possibility for arrest, the study required the officers to select randomly one third for arrest, one third for counseling, and one third for separation with their partners Buzawa and Buzawa ()
. From the three methods suggested for dealing with domestic violence offenders, arrest was found to be the most effective. Those arrested during the study had been deterred from committing the offence again. The offenders who were sent away temporarily and those who were counseled had a high rate of committing the crime again. Deterring the offenders was most effective with arrest and this was the conclusion that the report made in regards to domestic violence.
The findings of this study lead to the mandatory arrest of domestic violence offenders with probable cause. Some of the states that quickly implemented this report were New York, Dallas, and Houston police departments. In 1986, the National Institute of Justice sponsored independent studies that replicated the Minneapolis study. The studies included Nebraska, Omaha, North Carolina, Wisconsin, Florida, Miami-Dade, Colorado Springs, Charlotte, and Milwaukee. The studies had varied methods and measures although they were all replications of the Minneapolis experiment. The study was never completed in North Carolina. The studies differed in the results obtained depending on alternative treatments, repeat offending measures, and study site. There were some results that favored arrest, others indicated arrest led to repeated offense, and others reported no difference. There was no study that indicated the same effects as those reported by the Minneapolis experiment. This indicates that the adoption of the Minneapolis experiment by majority of police departments was not the right thing to do in the fight against domestic violence. There should have been other factors considered before the report was adopted, like was the case during the sponsored studies. Some critics of the study have also stated that the experiment was not conducted long enough, because the 6-month period that they analyzed the offenders after arrest, counseling or time away was not enough to receive conclusive results.
Collective and selective incapacitation differs mainly depending on the extent to which they focus on an offender prediction of committing a crime again. Collective incapacitation deals with sentencing offenders without analyzing their previous records. Providing long imprisonment terms to deter repeat offenders is the main aim of collective incapacitation. Collective incapacitation also hands the same sentence term to criminals who are convicted of committing the same crime regardless of their nature. It does not consider first time offenders and repeat offenders. For example, an offender who has been arrested severally for petty theft should not be handed the same sentence as a first time offender. The repeat offender should be given a harsh sentence in order to deter him/her form repeating the crime again.
Selective incapacitation promotes long-term imprisonment of criminals who have a likelihood of committing repeat crimes. This is determined by analyzing the criminals past records. Though, the information might not be easily obtained as a criminal becomes old the chances of them repeating of offense reduces. There is also the moral issue of determining if a criminal has the probability of repeating the offence. If it could be possible to determine the offenders who have the probability of repeating a crime, then those offenders are the ones who should be given longer prison terms. Selective incapacitation does not believe in imprisonment depending on the crime committed.
Compare and critique basic problems of relying exclusively on the “hard line” approach toward dealing with terrorism. Also compare and critique problems of relying exclusively on “soft line” approaches. How useful are economic sanctions as a counter-terrorist option? Explain your answer
Taking an uncompromising, sturdy, or inflexible approach towards dealing with terrorism could lead a country to major losses Wilkinson ()
. The losses will mainly be because the country is determined to fight terrorism, and it will do anything in its power to fight terrorists. Having a hard line approach, the country would not be ready to listen to others and instead will forge ahead with its mission. This would result in blunders due to lack of negotiation. There might be other reasons behind the hard line approach that are motivating the country towards this stance. There might be hate related concerns that the country is dealing with, which would not allow it to negotiate or come to an understanding with the terrorists. Having a hard line approach would mean a country will never listen or back down from its stance towards terrorists.
The soft line approach requires the various parties to treat each other as friends and be prepared to listen to each other. The main issue with taking this stance exclusively is that the other party might not be prepared to back down on its demand. This would leave one party to compromise while the other does not. The soft line approach is the best way to resolve conflicts especially involving terrorists. Terrorists would be treated as friends in the hopes that they will not perform any terror activities. This would leave a country vulnerable to terrorist attacks.
Economic sanctions are very useful in countering terrorism. This is because when the assets of the terrorist group are frozen they will not have the finances to promote their activities. Economic sanctions also prohibit other companies from dealing with terrorists because if they are discovered their businesses may be affected as they would also be put under sanctions. With economic sanctions been placed against specific individual or nations, it becomes hard for them to access any funds they might have in foreign banks or accounts. This demoralizes the terrorists. Countries that had been placed under sanctions like Libya were finally forced to negotiate with the United States in order to have their sanctions lifted. This benefited the United States as it was able to ensure that Libya would not be involved in any terrorism activities.
Buzawa, E.S., and C.G. Buzawa. Domestic Violence: The Criminal Justice Response. 1 Oliver’s Yard: SAGE Publications, 2003. Print.
Lab, S.P. Crime Prevention: Approaches, Practices, and Evaluations. Maryland Heights, MO 63043: Elsevier Science, 2013. Print.
Wilkinson, P. Terrorism vs. Democracy. Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4SB: Taylor & Francis Group, 2011. Print.
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