unveiling of the federal bureaucracy
President George Washington unveiled the federal bureaucracy as part of the three cabinet departments in 1789. Today, the U.S cabinet hosts a variety of departments, myriad agencies, corporations, and administrations that enhance federal government operations. Precisely, the federal bureaucracy harbors a variety of agencies that have the mandate to protect the U.S. population from both domestic and foreign security threats. For instance, national security bureaucracy departments such as the Central Intelligence Agency, the Federal Bureau of Organization, and the National Security Agency have in the past worked jointly to thwart various terrorist threats targeting the United States and its allies. Furthermore, the U.S. government reorganized and expanded the federal security bureaucracy after the September 9/11 attacks. Overall, the government has employed four million people in the federal bureaucracy to help handle the daily federal activities. The federal bureaucracy encompasses several departments, agencies, and corporations, can be checked and regulated by the judiciary, is part of the iron triangle, while I have learned vital lessons from this lesson.
The Structure of Federal Bureaucracy
The executive branch has a federal bureaucracy that has the mandate to implement, regulate, and administer federal procedures. However, the judiciary and Congress also have their own bureaucracies. For instance, Congress members have staff that helps them to execute their duties and formulate legislation. Furthermore, the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) and the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) have staff that manages their offices. Precisely, several departments, corporations, and agencies make up the structure of federal bureaucracy. First, the federal bureaucracy has cabinet departments that handle critical government procedures such as the Department of Justice that handles law enforcement and the Department of State that deals with foreign policy issues. Second, the U.S. Congress created some independent agencies that do not function within the cabinet structure. Precisely, the President directs Congress to create these agencies such as President John F. Kennedy’s Peace Corps. Independent agencies such as the CIA, NASA, and the Small Business Administration (SBA) play a vital role in the formulation and execution of governmental policies and programs.
Appointment of board members
Third, the President may appoint board members for limited terms to run some federal bureaucracy regulatory commissions. Regulatory commissions such as the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) deal with a broad range of issues such as licensing nuclear plants and ensuring the safety of products. Fourth, the federal bureaucracy includes some governmental corporations that support the operations of the national government. For instance, TVA Corporation has a mandate to provide electricity, run recreational centers, and manage flood control programs in the Southeastern region of the United States. In my opinion, people should consider the federal bureaucracy as the real government. Indeed, the U.S. government uses federal bureaucracy entities to serve the American population. Furthermore, progressive administrations such as Roosevelt’s and Wilson’s proved that federal bureaucracy enhanced the effectiveness of the government.
The Role and Structure of the U.S. Judicial System
The U.S. judicial system operates independently from the legislative and executive branches. Precisely, the judicial system determines the legality of federal policies before Congress implements and the President signs them into law. Furthermore, the U.S. courts have a mandate to provide a peaceful method of resolving disputes in society. Overall, the U.S. Judicial System has several divisions. First, the U.S. Supreme Court, the highest court in the country, functions under the jurisdiction of Article III Section II of the constitution. Precisely, the Supreme Court handles specific cases such as disputes between two or more states or that involve federal officials such as ambassadors. Second, the U.S. Judicial System has 13 Courts of Appeals that have a mandate to determine whether or not the trial court adhered to the rule of law. Precisely, the court of appeals exists in all the 94 federal judicial districts that fall under a 12 regional circuit organization.
Third, the bankruptcy appellate panels are a part of the federal courts of appeals and hear the appeals of bankruptcy court decisions. Today, several circuits such as the Eighth Circuit and Tenth Circuit have established appellate panels to handle bankruptcy cases. Finally, the U.S. Judicial system encompasses 94 district courts that have a mandate to apply legal principles to resolve conflicts. The courts have a district judge who tries the case and a jury that makes decisions of the case.
The U.S. Judicial system can in some ways control or curb the powers of the federal bureaucracy, the executive, and the legislature. First, the federal judiciary has the mandate to solely interpret rules and statues. Hence, the courts can intervene in situations where federal bureaucracies and powerful governmental officials undermine the individual liberty of American citizens. Second, the Judiciary has the mandate to intervene in situations where the executive branch acts contrary to the jurisdiction of the U.S. Constitution. For instance, the judiciary can curb the executive surveillance powers when the branch violates the human rights of the target individuals. Finally, the Judiciary has the power to check and balance the legislative branch. For instance, the Judiciary has the mandate to invalidate legislative statuses that contradict the Constitution.
The Iron Triangle and its Impact on Government Policy
According to Gordon Adams (1981), the iron triangle describes the policy-making relationship among the interest groups, the bureaucracy, and the congressional committees. Undoubtedly, the iron triangle has a significant impact on the formation and implementation of government policies. For instance, the interest groups utilize aspects such as voter mobilization and campaigns to influence the decisions of congressional committees.
Lessons from This Unit
Indeed, I have learned vital lessons about the inner workings of the federal government from this unit. For instance, I have learned the role of federal bureaucracy agencies such as the CIA and the homeland department in ensuring the safety of Americans. Furthermore, I have learned that the three branches of government, the executive, legislature, and judiciary, have a mandate to check and balance the powers of one another.
Federal bureaucracy plays a significant role in the operations of the U.S. federal government. Precisely, the federal bureaucracy has the mandate to implement, administer, and regulate federal functions. Furthermore, it encompasses several agencies, departments, and corporations. On the contrary, the judiciary has different types of courts that can in some ways curb the powers of the federal bureaucracy, the legislature, and the executive. The iron triangle on its part describes the policy-making relationship among the bureaucracy, interest groups, and congressional committees and has a significant impact on the formation and implementation of government policies. Overall, I have learned vital lessons about the inner workings of the government from this unit.
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