Social Learning Theory in Entrepreneurship Research
Social learning perspective entails a behavioural theory that was founded by well-known sociologists who included Albert Bandura, Gabriel Trade and Julian Rotter. According to Bandura (1977), the theory suggests that human behavior is primarily guided by mutual interaction between behavior, the environment and cognitive-personal influences. Determinants such as internal personal factors and behaviour operate mutually. This is because of expectations that different people hold more often than not influence their respective behaviors. According to Bandura (1997), the results occasioned by a person’s behaviour potentially alters their expectations. According to Houts & Kasasab (1997), the social learning theory has in the past been applied in a number of environments that include the education sector, the healthcare institutions and the criminology departments. However, the application of the social learning theory has been limited with respect to management science that has primarily adopted leadership theories and managerial education. This paper is meant to relate social learning theory (SLT) to entrepreneurship and highlight the research gap that exists. The paper also looks into the potential gains that might be realized from the adoption of the social learning theory to entrepreneurship research.
According to Fueglistaller and others (2008), entrepreneurship research has failed to develop concepts that distinguish itself from management. According to Stevenson & Jarillo (1990), a number of researchers have consequently taken to several directions to try explaining and conceptualizing entrepreneurship that can be reviewed under the following questions
- What happens when entrepreneurs act? (the consequences of entrepreneurial action)
- Why do entrepreneurs act? (the tendencies of entrepreneurial action)
- How do entrepreneurs act? (the various actions were taken by entrepreneurs)
According to Envick & Luthans (1996); Gartner (2008); Stevenson & Jarillo (1990) the first and second questions have been adequately addressed in economics and sociology disciplines. Similarly, according to Gartner (1989); Timmons (2002); Stevenson & Jarillo (1990) the third question has been addressed in the business management research discipline.
Stevenson and Jarillo (1990) and Gartner (1989) suggest that it is important to consider the behavioural aspects of entrepreneurs and the factors that inform whether they thrive at being entrepreneurs. Schwehm (2007) points out that despite several years of being; not much has published on entrepreneurship research with recent research advocating for an inspection of entrepreneurial tendencies. According to Crossley & Pittaway (2000); Envick & Luthans (1996); Good (1993); Kilby (1971) only five publications were available on this topic with only one study developing data on behavioural tendencies were available when sourcing for information. This goes to show the extent of research on the topic. Brown & Hanlon (2004) voicing their disapproval by criticizing the distinct lack of quality research material on entrepreneurship research. A study that entails entrepreneurial tendencies offers a promising and fruitful area for research work. A number of research questions to address would include:
- What are the activities, roles and tasks of the respective entrepreneurs?
- How does entrepreneurial behaviour compare to and differ from managerial behaviour?
- What are the characteristic tendencies of successful entrepreneurs?
The quality of behavioural research in entrepreneurship research can be improved by adopting the social learning theory as it will aid in the addressing of a number of problems in the field. A number of researchers have criticized observational studies that address human behaviour in management and entrepreneurial fields pointing out that they lack distinct theoretical basics as has been shared by Martiniko & Gardner (1995); Schwehm (2007). Researchers have narrowed their arguments down to research design and methods in particular. According to Stewart (1993) research designs and methods are devised without taking the psychological and theoretical rationales. The adoption of the social learning theory will help researchers to identify the significant factors and the crucial variables for pragmatic data collection. The social learning theory can similarly be used to explain the entrepreneurial research model and help to predict behaviour. According to Envick & Luthans (1996), the adoption of the social learning theory in entrepreneurship research can be used to help generate and formulate hypothesis on shared aspects and the differences that exist between entrepreneurial and managerial tendencies. Pointing out that the theory can be employed to explain the activity patterns of the founders. According to Bandura (1985); Stewart (1993) the social learning theory can be adopted by researchers to inform them on how to influence entrepreneurial behaviour.
To bridge the gaps that exist in entrepreneurial research, the study of the tendencies of the entrepreneurs and what their job entails will contribute to the theory in several ways: the first step would be to share the available information and share knowledge on the tasks and what it entails to be an entrepreneur providing definitions and concepts of entrepreneurship facilitating the validation, rejection and possible enrichment of the same. Secondly, research into cause and effect relationships that exist amongst entrepreneurs will be addressed by the proposed research study by looking into the respective tendencies that enable success and those that facilitate failures. Thirdly, detailing the specific tasks that entrepreneurs address on a day to day basis as it will be essential to entrepreneurship education. According to Mintzberg (1990) entrepreneur education refers to the matters pertaining to the educating and the training of entrepreneurs. Finally, the research study advocates for entrepreneurs to reflect and gain consciousness of their tendencies, encouraging them to point out more efficient ways to work.
The research paper consists of an introduction, this is then followed by a section that elaborates on methodology and the findings obtained from the business research carried out in management and entrepreneurship. The third section addresses the critical constructs of the social learning theory where an extensive description is given to build the foundations for consequent applications. The fourth section entails the formulation and the differentiation of the propositions of the social learning theory with to the methodology employed to explain the entrepreneurial behaviours. Section five gives a summary to the findings of the research paper.
1 Literature review
This section covers the methodological background that was done on the behavioural research in management. Subsequently, the critical findings determined on the managerial and entrepreneurial behaviour are summarized.
1.1 Methodology used to capture behaviour
Henry Mintzberg (1968) was responsible for the pioneering of direct observation and analysis of managerial behaviours. He employed the use of methodical observation as a sociological tool to aid in the capturing of relevant data. According to Kurke & Aldrich (1989); Tengblad (2001) the study that Mintzberg employed challenged and consequently altered the then existing understanding and outset of management.
Mintzberg’s studies and other similar studies mainly employed the following approach to develop their data: The researcher would observe a manager carrying out his duties for a predetermined period of time, while taking note on all the occurrences. According to Envick & Luthans (1996); Martin (1982) the documentation process is undertaken from a number of dimensions. Mainly the description and the duration of the goings-on are noted followed by the purpose for the activity, those involved in the activity and the self-initiation and location of the activity. It is the expected of the researcher to employ a system that categorises the witnessed activities and tendencies. The coding that the researcher adopts should not be informed by existing literature on the activity or tendencies, theorizing of tendencies or the researcher’s prior experience. According to Mintzberg (1997), the coding should be primarily be based on the single event that the researcher is being witnessed to at the very moment. In addition, Mintzberg (1971) noted that the theories and hypothesis that are derived are generated iteratively while the activity is ongoing or deductively after the observation of the study. This was to be followed by all inclusive quantitative analysis meant to identify patterns, time provisions and the respective communication models. Based on what the researcher has established from the information conclusions were made primarily the role theory of management was developed.
However, the approached employed by Mintzberg has been faulted for a number of reasons. According to Lamond (2003); Martinko & Gardner (1985); Stewart (1989) the approach lacked internal construct, coupled by the lack of external validity and reliability. In addition, Stewart (1989) noted that the approach lacked a theoretical foundation of the technique that was reported. Stewart (1989) acknowledged that the rigor of the methodology that was adopted could be improved through various means that included the use of a larger sample size for the study and the use of other complimentary devises. He however pointed out that their will still be questions on whether the right data would be attained for the exploration, analysis and the explaining of entrepreneurial tendencies. This research paper addresses the issue of theoretical foundations through the application of social learning theory.
1.2 Managerial and entrepreneurial behaviour
The focus of early studies on management research mainly focussed on managerial behaviour. According to Mintzberg (1971), managerial actions were informed by acts of brevity and were also guided by external factors and necessities. He developed a managerial role concept which found managers taking up the roles that included interpersonal roles, informational roles and decisional roles. Kurke & Aldrich (1983) also made similar finding in their studies.
However, studies regarding entrepreneurial tendencies are limited in the more recent discipline that is entrepreneurship research. According to Envick & Luthans (1996) entrepreneurs showed similar tendencies as those exhibited by traditional mangers. The only differences have been in the configurations and emphasis. In addition, Choran (1969) noted that entrepreneurs exhibited increased fragmentation of the activities they were involved in. Both the managerial and the entrepreneurial research approaches did not rely on the psychological theory to sculpt, try to predict or explain the respective tendencies. According to Davis & Luthans (1980) the adoption of the social learning theory will aid in the understanding, the validity and the reliability of the research. The subsequent section will illustrate the use of social learning theories to derive prepositions for entrepreneurial research.
2 Theoretical model
According to bandura (1986); Leonard and others (1999) the social learning theory depicts a wide-ranging theory of behaviour. The social learning theory provides a means to explaining and the comprehension of human behaviour as it synthesizes the principles of learning with those of behaviourism and cognitive psychology. The social learning theory relies on a number of fur reaching constructs. According to Leonard and others (1999), the social learning theory does not describe man as being guided by psychological drives or as being controlled by his or her external environment. The social learning theory according to Bandura (1977) consists of interrelated control systems whereby tendencies are informed by the external events, internal processing structures and governing codes. Bandura (2006); Freeman and others (2004) have noted and proposed that ones personality and the activity they are involved in constituting a strong pairing in informing ones social tendencies in standard situations, while situational influences apply more in acute situations.
According to Envick & Luthans (1996); Ginter & White (1982); Schmude and others (2008), a number of researchers have insisted on the adoption of the social learning theory instead of the more traditional leadership theories or the theory can be used to inform the field of organizational behaviour. Davis & Luthans (1980) fashioned a structure for behavioural examination in the context of social learning to organizational tendencies. The approach examines the interactive nature of a situation, the organism, the behaviour and the respective consequences thereby allowing for a functional examination of the environmental, cognitive and behavioural going-on. According to Ginter & White (1982) the definition and the measurement of the variables of the aspects that depict the traits of SOBC is necessary to facilitate the realization of the structure. With regard to entrepreneurship it implies that the respective internal and external variables are measured (S) the possible motivating factors, the values and cognitive abilities are assessed (E), the observations of the tendencies (B) and the recording of the consequences (C).
Bandura (1986) further noted that the social learning theory possessed prediction capabilities that lied in micromeasures as opposed to mixed conglomerates, arguing that the social learning theory was aware of the differences that humans had and that their reactions to influences were not totally unique. According to Bandura (1986); Davis & Luthans (1980) this allowed for the various general principles of tendencies. The adoption of the social learning theories therefore will bring about consequences for research design and the adopted methods. Similarly, it will support the formulation of research questions.
3 Development of propositions
3.1 Propositions regarding methodology used to capture behaviour
The adoption of the social learning theory exposes the mythological short comings that have in the past been adopted in management and entrepreneurship. Early research primarily addressed behaviour via internal dispositions. An example of this is the practise that saw mangers successes and failures being attributed to their behavioural tendencies. According to Chomsky (1967); Fueglis-taller and others (2008) the approach had several weaknesses as it was mainly unidirectional in its advances to collect relevant data on the personal tendencies of the managers and their personalities. According to Yuki (2005) environmental factors and personalities influence the behavioural tendencies of the entrepreneurs, in this effect adopting a contingent perspective. According to Stewart (1993) the methods that were being adopted extracted relevant information from the environment but were however not consistent in their assumptions and theoretical origins. The social learning theory calls for the taking of ideographic and interactionist views whereby, the cognitive and other external events including environmental factors are all responsible for a behavioural outcome. The first proposition therefore refers to the choosing of variables to incorporate in the practical examination and succeeding explanation and the modelling of entrepreneurial tendencies:
3.2 Propositions regarding entrepreneurial behaviour
The following arguments depict how social learning theories when adopted facilitate the development of propositions on entrepreneurial tendencies with emphasis made to distinguish it from managerial tendencies without going into much detail. According to Davis & Luthans (1980); Stewart (1993) the research questions should address the findings of the existing literature on management and entrepreneurship from the social learning theory perspective.
Taking to account the various situational stimulus (S) and the respective entrepreneur (E) as the interactive factors that facilitate behavioural tendencies we can conclude that the respective entrepreneurs and managers are active in their respective environments. This is occasioned by the fact that both are in charge of the management of their respective firms or organizations as all of the necessities arise from the same. According to Cunningham & Lischeron (1991); Fueglistaller and others (2008) entrepreneurs are suppose to engage in their respective managerial requirements to facilitate the survival of their undertakings. Freeman and others (2008) point out that the arising of strong necessities from the environment tends to pre-empt predictable behaviour from people. This allows for the following preposition.
P2.1: Entrepreneurs engage in all activities comprised in a general manager’s activity profile
According to Gardner & Avolio (1998); Llewellyn & Wilson (2003) there have been little overlaps found by respective studies on the general tendencies of mangers and entrepreneurs (E). According to Gartner (2008) the aspects exhibited by the environment in which the entrepreneurs operate (S) are unstable and are more dynamic. According to Envick & Luthans taking into consideration the differences exhibited by the entrepreneurial tendencies and the nature of the environment one can rightly conclude that some of the tendencies shown by entrepreneurs and managers are likely to differ on the times spent doing specific tasks.
P2.2: The activity profile between entrepreneur and manager exhibits differences in terms of time allocated to activities
According to Chandler & Hanks (1994), entrepreneurs are constantly concerned with the happenings of their external environments. They constantly lookout for new products and services that they could employ, market advancements and are in constant communication with external players and parties. In contrast, according to McMcall and others (1978) managers are primarily concerned with the internal aspects of their organizations. We can, therefore, formulate a research question that states entrepreneurs dedicate more of their time to attend to matters beyond their organizations’ boundaries than managers.
P2.3: Entrepreneurs dedicate more time to matters beyond organizational boundaries than managers
At the introduction section of the paper, I pointed out the research gap that exists in the discipline of entrepreneurship particularly on the studies pertaining to entrepreneurial tendencies. In addition, I noted that there was not sufficient existing research material addressing the topic. The adoption of the social learning theory has been found to comprehensively address the issues that have been raised by a number of researchers. The theory advocates for the elaboration of an adequate research design, the construct and the breaking down of the entrepreneurial tendencies as well as the formulation of the respective propositions, particularly pointing out that data collecting mechanisms and techniques should focus on the development of information on entrepreneurial tendencies, environmental aspects and the role of the respective entrepreneur. Similarly, the differences that exist between managers and entrepreneurs should be proposed using the social learning theory. An elaborate social learning theory on entrepreneurship could yield more findings on the behavioural construct for entrepreneurial and managerial research as this research paper is not that detailed.
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