Recent definitions of drug trafficking express the illicitness of the activity from the cultivation, manufacture, and distribution of banned drugs. Drug trafficking one of the most pervasive problems that continue to affect countries all over the globe, making it a global issue. As a result, there has been a need for governments and related institutions to address the issue which is also associated with other high-risk behavior such as violence, human trafficking and the illegal sale of firearms (Beittel, J.S (2011). The following assignment seeks to consolidate the student’s research which can be used to inform policies formulated to mitigate drug trafficking and the resulting consequences. From the list of annotated bibliographies below, one comes to the realization that drug trafficking as a concern requires the involvement of the community in order to successfully reduce the effects on the global systems.
Jenner, M.S. (2011). International drug trafficking: A global problem with a domestic solution. Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies.
Excessive illicit drug consumption
One of the most wanting global issues is the excessive illicit drug consumption among almost all populations. As a result, National governments have instituted dozens of programs to come up with mitigative measures that would be used to attack the illegal drug markets. The author of the cited journal seeks to provide national governments with alternative strategies to fight the illegal sale of drugs within individual countries globally. Due to globalization, the market for drugs (One of the largest and most profitable illegal industry that exists) has opened up to the rich, the poor and everyone in between regardless of their societal status (Griffiths, Sedefov, Gallegos & Lopez, 2010). The globalization of the industry is largely enabled by traffickers who facilitate the transport and delivery of drugs into the hands of the users. Thus, the importance to begin the mitigation process starting with the locations of production, shipment, and consumption.
The author notes that the American government’s efforts to interdict the entry of drugs into the country have borne little fruits since authorities have failed to nab all the merchandise being illegally imported (Jenner, 2011). As a matter of fact, this strategy has promoted the illegal drug market since it actually increases profit. The profits are increased simply because as much as the supply is down, the demand is still high owing to the addictive nature of drugs and therefore the sellers simply raise the prices to get the same value for less supply. The author further suggests that the most verifiable strategy to affect the trade of illegal drugs is to legalize all drugs universally.
The legalization of illicit drugs
The argument that drives the article is that legalization would eliminate the negative effects of the illicit drug trade by ending violence and earning government revenue from one of the most profitable businesses. Thus, local governments can use the legalization strategy to reduce drug sale related to violence by allowing these conflicts to be solved officially in a court of law. Legalization will have detrimental effects on the global market since traffickers will gain substantially lower profits that will eventually demotivate them to leave the drug market for more profitable businesses.
Campbell, H., & Hansen, T. (2012). Getting out of the game: desistance from drug trafficking. International Journal of Drug Policy.
The journal was based on a study carried out along the U.S-Mexico border which is popular for the trade of illicit drugs. The study was set out to examine the various factors that motivate drug traffickers to exit the industry at any given time in their life. It involves in-depth stories and interviews of thirty ex-traffickers/ smugglers in a discussion of their experiences, conflicts, and feelings about the trade. While going through the stories and interviews, one realizes that quitting the business is not always easy as most times traffickers and dealers are faced with the challenge of self-identity divides when they are about to quit. The author further identifies cultural factors as one of the most pressing reasons for smugglers to remain in business. The article, however, provides the reader with a number of factors that successfully drive trafficker and smugglers out of the illicit drug trade.
Most of the interviewed ex-traffickers admitted fearing incarceration, death, addiction to narcotics and prison; seen as a pervasive and acute punishment. One of the former suppliers recognized his reason for exit to be an incident during one of his trips when is closely trusted associate held him at gunpoint while his workers were shot to death. The trauma of the situation did not allow him to revisit the business although he continued to use the drugs. Another motivating factor was ties to the society that allow them to change their life’s course from trafficking for more viable opportunities. The belief is that traffickers are born into the game, which in turn makes it hard to choose to leave. However, most confessed to having left the business as a result of family obligations, death of close friends and family and the obvious fear of becoming a derelict.
The article detrimentally assisted the research in relation to interventions to mitigate the crisis of drug trafficking by informing policies. It takes a different less harmful approach to reduce drug trafficking through the use of ex-traffickers to advocate the message. It is evident from the article that the ex-traffickers maintain their self-image among the residents who still see them as non-conformists and rebels. Thus, national and local governments ought to create an environment where these ex-drug traffickers are allowed to deal with the self-identity dilemma after quitting the business to enforce the lifestyles of law-abiding citizens. By so doing, they allow them to channel this same energy to smugglers to interest them in exciting legal entrepreneurial activities.
Astorga, L. & Shirk, D. A. (2010). Drug trafficking organizations and counter-drug strategies in the US-Mexican context.
One of the most pressing concerns for the US and Mexico is the impunity of organized crime that has seen the sale of a limitless number of illicit drugs between the two countries. The authors recognize that the continuation of these cartels has caused numerous cases of violence and resulted in the deaths of many. There were at least 20,000 deaths caused by this illegal trade carried out mainly by the drug trafficking cartels (Astorga & Shirk, 2010). In response to this concern, the two countries have collaborated and taken measures that address the idea of internationally organized crime. The strategies created heavily rely on the deployment of the armed forces, initiation of counter-drugs organizations and enlistment of military personnel into civilian law enforcing units. The strategies have not yielded many results since there are challenges that limit their success. For example, the author notes that the use of the untrained military in Mexico has resulted in the violation of human rights and escalated the rates of conflict and violence within the drug business.
According to the article, the collaboration between countries needs to go beyond the making of policies and the use of diplomacy to curb drug trafficking. Instead, there ought to be more deliberation on the exchange of information, legal police training and advancing the technology and equipment used to trace traffickers. Countries looking to curb the issue should borrow from Mexico who has mastered the use of the military to enforce domestic security although there are still challenges facing their involvement in corruption especially when they work alongside police agencies. The country is still in the process of making major institutional changes that will tighten the police force by subjecting the agencies to more rigorous vetting. The author advises readers to focus less on measuring the war against drug trafficking against total eradication, production, and distribution. Instead, there should be more focus on the availability of drugs and people’s inclination to consume them based on price and accessibility. It is thus recommended that there is need to re-evaluate approaches that are currently used to measure the need to deal with the illegal drug market.
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