limitations and capabilities of intelligence for corroborating homeland security efforts?
Sharing of intelligence and extensive threat analysis
There are quite many intelligent agencies working round the clock analyzing the data yet no single agency is working on analyzing the incoming data regarding terrorism in United States of America. No agency is presently working to gather intelligence and look for trends (DHS, 2002). Under the United States’ president, a new department was formed which analyzed the data taken from government reserves such as DOE, DEA, INS, FBI, NSA, CIA and DOT along with public records. The department has the task of looking for trends keeping the big picture in mind. It is ready all-the-time to counter any probable terrorist activity underway (DHS, 2002).
An Example: Distribution of important pharmaceuticals
Potassium Iodide (KI) is quite a drug assisting in countering thyroid cancer when exposed to radiation. The drug needs to be taken during early hours of exposure for cancelling effect (DHS, 2002).
In case, the person lives inside the ten mile parameter of the nuclear establishment, the dispense process of Potassium Iodide falls under Nuclear Regularity Commission (NRC). NRC has the job of providing this life saving drug to the affected. However NRC has important duties too such as licensing nuclear establishments rather than providing emergency supply of medicines to a probable radiation affected population. Federal Emergency Management Agency works outside the ten mile radius for distributing and regulating KI. Apart from that, Department of Health and Human Services manages KI kept in stocks and sends it off to places required. Government agencies also work in evacuating the emergency zone as well. Sometimes the Department of Energy also comes into play when distributing KI comes into the picture (DHS, 2002).
In case of exposure to radiation, the states should collaborate with different government organizations for delivering much needed pharmaceuticals whose boundaries are exist by a stretch of ten miles. Take this scenario in consideration: NRC and state think of allotting KI to people within a ten mile parameter. FEMA has a problem with that and gives a red signal to the decision. Hence it doesn’t distribute the drug in that ten mile radius. The turmoil between NRC, FEMA and state exists; meanwhile an evacuation process starts at the same time. In this scenario, people exposed won’t be able to get cured from deadly radiation (DHS, 2002).
After the 9/11 commission reports, a presidential order had been passed keeping in mind the recommendations of the commission. Under the presidential order, the department would be busy with allocating the KI reserves to the exposed population as soon as possible. The ten mile barrier only exists on paper. The department would be liable to work with agencies and local officials for evacuation purposes to a safe zone (DHS, 2002).
According to history, security challenges need visible line of attack and strategy whilst working with the U.S.A. government. History has taught us new challenges require new ideologies and structure (DHS, 2002).
For instance before 1945, United States of America had separate forces. The navy and war departments were segregated while the intelligence agencies were scattered. They couldn’t cooperate that well before. Then World War II occurred which was followed by Cold War that was when American really needed amalgamation of its armed forces to win battles and accomplish mission (DHS, 2002). American requires a new national security foundation which can avert another 9/11 terrorist attack on its soil, mobilize resources for countering such an attack and safeguard the ideals of American government and population. President George Bush instigated a counter attack requesting the Navy and War department become one single entity. The president thinks that it’s time now to dispose of the useless organizational forms and work for a future where the armed forces have an easy carefree framework. He thought that it was a plausible way of attaining peace (DHS, 2002).The rearrangement of United States national security framework was necessary in order to fortify and strengthen the huge threat facing after 9/11 attacks. Hence it was a turning point in history of USA. Apart from that, prevention is a must from different terrorist groups (DHS, 2002).
Human Element: Domestic vs. foreign intelligence
The idea of domestic intelligence as opposed to foreign intelligence gives rise to a number of vital questions, as well as issues related to individual civil liberty within a free and liberal democracy (Logan, 2010; Martin, 2004). Martin (2004) writes, “Risks to civil liberties are inherent in the very nature of domestic intelligence. This is because intelligence necessarily operates in secret and, as a result, it is exceedingly difficult to subject intelligence activities to the checks and balances that the Framers of the Constitution understood as essential to prevent abuses of power (page 8).” At the same time as gathering domestic data and intelligence might give rise to issues related to individual civil liberties; it additionally backs up a similarly fundamental requirement — the protection and safeguarding of nation-state (Logan, 2010).
Fortifying and maturing the DHS along with the whole Homeland Security structure, the individual and collective duties of federal, local, tribal, state and territorial, private sector cohorts, NGO’s, people, individuals, families and societies are important for the facilitating the core missions and jobs aligned. It consists of having shared concerns for threats, risks, making communities more able and resilient, enabling new methods and solutions by breakthrough sciences and technology and lastly instituting a culture of sustainability, resilience and efficacy (DHS, 2002).
Combining all of the 22 diverse federal departments as well as agencies in on singular DHS has been more of a nuisance than a seamless operation. There are management issues and public policy matters at hand. QHSR and BUR along with other initiatives will assist in Secretary’s Efficiency Review looking at the latest work done by department in unifying 22 departments.
DHS Efficiency Review program was launched way back in March 2009. It has been instrumental in implementing 36 projects to attain the aims necessary while keeping accountability, customer contentment and transparency in mind. With the help of this Efficiency Review, the department has seen perfection in every nook and cranny. Supporting the employees, physical assets management and daily expenses are all being taken care of in a fine manner. Apart from that, Acquisition Workforce is being developed constantly as their employees are exposed to many training sessions and given guidance on leadership skills and professional development (DHS, 2002).
Examine the operational capability of homeland security of USA in order to tackle the future challenges and national threats
In order to achieve success, Homeland Security needs to update its systems and amalgamate the tools needed to be wielded to attain necessary aims while closely working with their collaborators and partners. The military power must be in supreme form in order to prove its efficiency. With the existence of nuclear missiles, the nuclear prevention capacity, having the power to avert probable threats, striving for world peace and fortifying the partners are all imperative. The job of Homeland Security is to invest in development phases, diplomacy and institutions in ways which strengthens and supplements the global cohorts. The Homeland Security must be capable enough to recognize and avert potentially dangerous threats; categorize conventional threats from asymmetric threats giving timely data on the spot. Homeland Security will need to be integrated with the bigger national security approach in mind (NSS, 2010).
Analyzing the mission integration
Homeland Security is constantly enhancing the skills and capabilities in civil and military institutions hence they work wonderfully well with each other and work flawlessly. Homeland Security is also busy with policymaking and planning whilst building up the stronger areas which are weak. Congress is playing a pivotal role in this case. It’s a delicate interagency process which is undertaken in order to integrate the combined efforts and implement systems and monitor functions, oversee strategies and policies. In order to jumpstart this venture, White House combined the National Security Council staff with Homeland Security Council (NSS, 2010).
But in any case as of yet, adequate amount of coordination is still needed within agencies and departments. The fundamental step is to keep fuelling the pool of resources along with national security objectives, updating the education and training sessions of national security employees enabling them to deal with modern issues and challenges, looking over authorities and mechanisms to put in effect and collaborate on assistance programs while going through various policies and programs fortifying synchronization (NSS, 2010).
Defense: Homeland Security is busy with fortifying the military with resources in order to avert any future wars, prevent threats to national security, whilst protecting the interests and plans of its allies and partners along with securing United States of America in terms of national and international threats. Homeland Security will be busy scrutinizing the military potential of the armed forces in order to counter terrorism, counter insurgency, securing peace and stability and tackling extremely difficult security threats whilst making sure that armed forces are equipped well with dealing with a full scale operation. It involves being equipped with dealing with tough enemies, preventing attacks and defeating enemies in hard-to-access locations, securing United States whilst voicing support for civil authorities. The most valuable asset is apparently the vast reservoir of all volunteer force which consists of both men and women. They are capable of great resilience, are so adaptable, have room for improvement as Homeland Security will be providing all the necessary resources which are required for success whilst providing support of all forms and looking after the military families and injured soldiers. The armed forces should be on the road to sustainable deployment cycles while maintaining the long-term viability of the armed forces through competitive hiring, retention and giving values to those serving willingly (NSS, 2010).
Diplomacy: Diplomacy is so necessary for the national security of United States of America. The diplomats act as the mediators; they listen to their cohorts, learn from them as well, they have respect for each other and work on ironing out their differences. The diplomats and development experts working on the United States government should be working side by side in order to attain greater goals. Sometimes skills are needed for fostering communication for connecting, mobilizing and convening with foreign governments and international organizations. They also need input from NGO’s, corporations, schools, universities, think tank and organizations based on faith; all of whom have their own respective roles to play in different diplomatic frames. In order to attain these goals, workforce needs to be expanded so should the projects. The security challenges in the 21st century are certainly quite daunting. The relevant authorities must be having the access to resources and mechanism necessary. The government needs to be helped along its way to sort out their issues whilst expanding the civilian expeditionary capacity (NSS, 2010).
Development: Development is a given in terms of strategy, morality and economic viability. The aim is to help the third world nations and their population to cope with security lapses / threats, exploit the advantages of economic viability and initiate organizations which are able to protect and address human needs. With the help of an aggressive and valiant program helped along its way with wondrous resources, the cohorts can be assisted in ending skirmishes and tackle criminal webs, developing a stabilized economy and look for new methods of prosperity, make way for human rights and democracy, address the global challenges at hand, positioning democracies and other states in order to work with them in the future. In order to attain all this, Homeland Security is busy with civilian development tasks, work with international financial organizations which will help Homeland Security to attain the tasks and goals at hand. Apart from that, making a budget better suited for goals lying ahead is imperative whilst the policy also aligns with the practical goals of Homeland Security (NSS, 2010).
Homeland Security: Homeland Security is deeply rooted in historic and conventional operation of society and government for instance:
After the 9/11 attacks, the department of Homeland Security were founded, these duties acquired primary importance. Homeland Security keeps evolving and adjusts itself to the conventional operations addressing the newer threats as well. Government initiative isn’t enough sometime, as an entire nation can be needed at a time. The main approach is to combine the efforts and avert the threats, avert the terrorists from negotiating within the borders, having total control of national borders, maintain legal trading, travelling to and from USA, avert terrorist activities and dismantle criminal networks and lastly ensure resilience in the face of a national security threat. Working in this pattern will ensure a safer United States and protection from terrorist plots where Americans can live and thrive as they please (NSS, 2010).
Intelligence: Homeland Security works for the safety of U.S. And its population. It gathers quality intelligence from reliable sources and analyze it accordingly. Homeland Security is also able to share the data along with other agencies and avert possible terrorist attacks. Executive decisions are made on the data passed along by Homeland Security as it works along with local, state, tribal governments, troops and armed forces. The intelligence community is tightly wound all due to Homeland Security, whilst enhancing the capacity of the Intelligence Community on the whole. Apart from that, it is also working with foreign intelligence services and collaborating on key information. Investments are made continuously in men and women working in the intelligence circles (NSS, 2010).
Department of Homeland Security (2002). The Department of Homeland Security as approved by the President of the United States. Defense Homeland Security.
Kate Martin. (2004). Domestic Intelligence and Civil Liberties. SAIS Review 24, no. 1 (Winter-Spring 2004): 8.
Logan, K. (2010). Homeland Security and Intelligence. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger Security International.
National Security Strategy (2010). National Security Strategy as approved by the President of the United States. Defense Homeland Security.
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