Effects of Globally Destructive Technologies paper

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction. 3
  2. Weapons of mass destruction. 3

2.1 Counter-proliferation activities. 3

2.2 Non-proliferation activities. 4

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Effects of Globally Destructive Technologies paper
Just from $9/Page
Order Essay

2.3 United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540. 6

2.4 Combating nuclear terrorism.. 6

  1. Bombings and terrorism.. 8

3.1 Improvised explosive devices. 9

3.2 Use of internet in bombings reduction. 10

3.3 International cooperation. 11

3.3.1 Establishment of universal instruments related to cyber-crime. 13

3.3.2 Sharing of data. 14

  1. Global climate. 14

4.1 Nuclear weapons. 15

4.2 Chemical and heat-producing weapons. 16

  1. Conclusion. 17


1.      Introduction

In the article titled, de-territorialized threats and global politics: geopolitics and risk society, Tuathail (1998) suggests that with globalization, more cooperation is needed among member states to deal with various security and environmental issues.  Aware of the transnational dangers resulting from the quidity of borders, nations have been forced to adopt a common front towards curbing terrorism, environmental degradation, ethnic nationalism, and other security challenges. This paper examines ways in which destructive technologies will lead to greater international cooperation.

2.      Weapons of mass destruction

In the past few decades, the possibility for the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction has become a reality. The term weapons of mass destruction have become a common security discourse and it has been existence since the 1940s (Nash, 1975). The term was heavily used during the clod war era and later on during the 2003 Iraq invasion. It is used to describe the atomic explosive, radioactive, biological and chemical weapons, which have a destructive effect.

2.1 Counter-proliferation activities

It requires international partnerships to prevent the proliferation of destructive weapons to hostile states. One of the counter-proliferation components being used by the major actors is the deterrence through the deployment of military forces and declaratory policies. In addition, the main actors have enhanced their intelligence, surveillance, and domestic law enforcement capabilities to enhance detection of the Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). The proliferation of the WMD is also being prevented through coalitions. The purpose of these coalitions is to prevent the transfer and transportation of the WMD-related goods (Pitt, 2002). Another major approach being used is the implementation of the export controls to ensure hostile countries do not acquire WMD.

The cooperation between various countries has led to the establishment of the Proliferation Security Initiative. More than 80 countries are committed to the initiative, and so far it has proved successful in the interdiction of equipment related to missile and nuclear activities (Bentley, 2013). However, the implementation of the initiative requires greater cooperation from all countries and more commitment to enforce national and international laws. International cooperation will also be required in the expansion of the initiative for interdiction of the financial payments between the proliferators and the suppliers. Indeed, according to Bentley (2013) disruption of the financial flows between the proliferators and the supplier countries is one of the strategies that have proved effective. However, to achieve this objective there is a need for more coordination between security and financial agencies in a global level. Some of the measures that could be used to disrupt the financial flow include travel bans and freezing of the proliferators’ assets. Another strategy being used is the use of sanctions. Sanctions are already being applied in Iran, to prevent the country from possessing nuclear weapons. The sanctions have affected business and other economic sectors in the country, and have been effective in forcing the Tehran regime to cease the nuclear program. However, for the sanctions to work, international cooperation will play a key role, not only in Iran but other hostile states.

2.2 Non-proliferation activities

The main actors are committed to using a diplomatic approach to achieve their non-proliferation goals. In this regard, there is a growing consensus to prevent the proliferation of the weapons of mass destruction by inducing the proliferant states to end their WMD programs. To prevent acquisition of WMD by hostile countries, a number of treaties have also been formed including the Non-proliferation of the Nuclear Weapons treaty. The aim of the treaty is to reverse the spread of the military nuclear capabilities and impede the possession of nuclear weapons outsides the NPT. Multilateral regimes such as the International Atomic Energy Agency have also been formed to regulate the acquisition of the WMD and monitor nuclear-related activities. However, for the agency to operate as intended, cooperation between member states is required. The efforts against the spread of the WMD have also led to the formation of the Biological Weapons Convention and the Chemical Weapons Conventions (Graebner, Dean, and Siracusa, 2008). International cooperation is required to ensure that the provisions of these treaties are observed by the state parties and for the enforcement of the punitive measures in case of the breach of the law.

The multilateralist approach which has been adopted by various countries has already proved useful in maintaining international order. At the same time, diplomatic preventive measures have proved helpful in curbing the spread of the WMDs. So far, diplomatic efforts have been used in North Korea and Iran to pressure the proliferators to abandon their programs. In the Iranian case, the political dialogue was widely adopted to force the government to stop the enrichment programs. The negotiations with the Iranian government are still ongoing, and it is expected the international countries could use to force if the diplomatic strategy fails. To further prevent the spread of the WMD international cooperation will be required. In addition, () observes that greater cooperation will be needed in universalizing laws related to biological and chemical weapons. Most importantly, enforcement of the existing laws and treaties will required the cooperation will require the input of all the countries including the developing ones.

2.3 United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540

Under this resolution, countries are empowered to develop and implement measures aimed at preventing the spread of the WMD. However, as expected, some of the countries especially those in the developing world, lack the capacity to implement the resolution. As a result, the developed countries are mandated to help such nations with the necessary resources to ensure they submit their reports. According to the resolution, countries are required to show their capabilities in regard to the implementation of the border, export and transshipment, and financial controls. It is expected that with time, the resolution will become a legitimate legal and political standard, which brings all the countries together in the prevention of WMD proliferation. This strategy of threat reduction is already being used in Russia through the Nunn-Lunar program. The program seeks to reduce the large quantity of the soviet’s WMD and missile-related materials. In future, more countries will enroll in global partnerships to secure WMD-related materials, reduce fissile materials and minimize the use of highly-enriched uranium. Greater cooperation will also be required in helping countries to develop recycle and fuel treatment technologies that are more proliferation-resistant.

2.4 Combating nuclear terrorism


From the graph below it is apparent that incidences involving theft of nuclear and radioactive materials have been reported.

Adopted from Hanley (2005)

In future, global initiatives will be necessary in helping countries to develop capacities to combat the theft of nuclear materials. Already, the cooperation between various countries has led to the establishment of the legal frameworks such as the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism and the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities. These frameworks are geared towards improving physical protection of nuclear and radioactive materials, securing the civilian nuclear facilities, development of the necessary laws and regulations, and for information-sharing. The Global Initiative to combating nuclear terrorism not only requires the participation of the individual countries but also the private sector. According to Bentley (2013) the private sector will play an important role of securing the transit points and protecting the civilian nuclear facilities. Already the initiative has proved successful in removing weapons-usable material from vulnerable areas and reducing the stockpile of old missiles.

3.      Bombings and terrorism

One of the common tools used by the terrorists is bombs which are delivered by the suicide bombers or are planted at strategic places to inflict maximum harm to the victims. Terrorists mainly target civilian traveling by air and road (see the graph below).

Adopted from Sanders (2005)

In the UK bombings have been quite common and a perfect example is the Clerkenwell bombing which led to the death of 12 people while injuring a hundred others. Likewise, in 1919 the Ireland Republican Army denoted 59 bombs within London. Between 1988 and 2001, the number of bombings targeting commercial centers, political figures, and military bases intensified (Hewitt, 2003). Within time, the IRA attacks have become bigger and more destructive as evidenced by the bombing that took place in 1990 leading to the evacuation of the entire trading floor (Miller, 2005). Another such attack happened in 1993 at the Bishop’s Gate in the City of London (Hamm, 2002).   Bombings are not limited to the UK but have occurred in many other places including the United States. For instance, multiple bombings at Al-Adnaniyah and Al-Qataniyah led to 520 deaths while 1500 persons were injured (Kellner, 2007).

3.1 Improvised explosive devices

Explosive devices refer to bombs and destructive tools that have the capacity to incapacitate and injure a great number of victims. They are used by the terrorist and insurgents and they come in many forms including small pipe bombs. They are delivered by vehicles and are made of explosive chemicals such as ammonium nitrate and urea nitrate. An example of the terrorist IED attack occurred on April 19th in 1999 at Oklahoma. A truck carrying a truck bomb exploded near the federal building (Kellner, 2007). The IED device which was made of ammonium nitrate fertilizer and nitromethane led to the death of 169 victims. Another serious attack occurred on the London transportation system on July 7th, 2005 (Kellner, 2007). The IED attack led to 52 deaths while hundreds were injured. A more serious attack occurred on March 11th 2004 in Madrid (Kellner, 2007). The IEDs were made from bags stuffed with explosives and metal fragments and the event led to the death of 191 people while 1,800 others were injured (Kellner, 2007). The IED attacks not injure innocent victims but also inflict extensive damage to building and public infrastructure. For instance, the IED attacks may lead to the disruption of the power and water systems hence inconveniencing the local businesses.

Terrorist bombings and attacks have negative effect on the affected economies. Just to illustrate further, the September 11th attacks led to huge economic effects resulting from the loss of revenue, business relocation and fall in property values. In addition, the government spent huge resources in rehabilitating the public infrastructure including the damaged underground system. The negative effects of the attack were also felt in the tourism where 25,000 jobs and $13 billion were lost (Kellner, 2007).

3.2 Use of internet in bombings reduction

.           The internet has had major impact on the global business and is constantly used for communicational over the world. While the internet can be used to coordinate business activities, it is also being increasingly used by the terrorists to plan bomb attacks in many parts of the world. According to Stern (2000) terrorists used various tools such as chats, e-mail, and message boards to communicate with each and share vital information. Terrorists have also launched websites which serve as the virtual training grounds and offer the members information related to bomb-making. The websites also contain host messages and propaganda videos to motivate the members and to extend the recruitment and fundraising networks. One such network is the As-sahad, the Al-Qaeda’s media arm, which uses the internet and the technology to post footages of roadside bombings. The importance of the internet is well captured by Stern (2000) who observes that it provides the terrorists with a wide audience. At the same time, terrorists have developed sophisticated encryption tools and creative techniques to communicate information in cell groups while offering them a secure means of correspondence. A common technique, used by the terrorists is steganography, which entails using hidden messages in graphic files and email drafts.  For communication purposes, some of the terrorist groups are using encryption programs which are then released on the websites. A perfect example is the Mujahedeen Secrets 2 which has encryption capabilities and is deigned to protect the identities and the locations of the terrorists.  While internet is used by the terrorist to coordinate bomb attacks, it also provides countries with a perfect opportunity to fight crime. In particular, countries can use the internet facilities to track terrorist activities and come up with innovative strategies of tackling the vice.

3.3 International cooperation

In response to the international terrorism, nations have committed funds towards closing down terrorist sites. At the same time, governments have established agencies to track terrorist groups and individual members. In the UK, the government has increased the funding following the Woolwich attack. Likewise, in the US, the government is committed towards reducing terrorist attacks and apprehending terrorists living the in the country and abroad. As earlier indicated, terrorists use various tools to plan and coordinate terrorist activities. Aware of these facts, countries around the globe have increased their efforts towards collecting data for counter-terrorism purposes. Law enforcement and intelligence agencies all over the world are already cooperating towards developing tools to proactively detect and prevent terrorist activities.

One perfect way in which countries are cooperating to combat terrorism is by establishing online discussions to counter propaganda videos released by the terrorists. The counter-narratives are offered through technology and aim to highlight alternatives to violent activities while urging the members from enlisting in cell groups. Another example of a global initiative is the Center for Strategic Counterterrorism Communications whose purpose is to reduce radicalization and extremist violence by countering propaganda. Using a wide range of communication technologies, the Center has succeeded in countering advertisements promoting extremist violence in the Arabian Peninsula. The counter-narrative campaign has been expanded to include international agencies and commitment from the governments.

In response to the increasing terrorist activities, countries all over the world have dedicated their efforts towards eradicating the vice. The fight against terrorism has taken an international dimension, whereby countries have pledged to commit resources in the fight against the vice. Indeed, as the US president Barrack Obama indicated, the global fight against terrorism is no longer a bounder-less war, instead, it will require the cooperation of all countries. Global cooperation against terrorism is already a reality as evidenced by the initiation of the international military campaign. The campaign was initiated following the 11th September 2001 terrorist attacks. The US government under the leadership of the U.S. president George Bush and in cooperation with the UK and NATO countries developed a plan to diminish the underlying conditions that promote terrorists. These partners also initiated a global strategy to identify, locate and demolish terrorists and deny them the necessary funds required to sustain their terrorist activities.

Despite these efforts, the internet provides terrorists with many benefits. For instance, the speed, global reach and the anonymity associated with the internet use, ensure that the terrorists are able to quickly preach their propaganda to as many people as possible. Individual countries may also find it hard tracking individual terrorists, hence the need for global cooperation towards eliminating the vice. The global cooperation towards combating terrorism is being promoted in the following fronts.

3.3.1 Establishment of universal instruments related to cyber-crime

Countries are increasing their combined efforts by providing extradition and mutual legal assistance in cases related to terrorism. One of the major legal frameworks being used by countries is the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime which requires the cooperation of the individual member states in combating terrorism and other transnational organized crimes. The union requires the member countries to establish compatible legal mechanisms and universal counter-terrorism instruments. Another such international union, is the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime which encourages cooperation through police and other agencies. The parties in this convention are mandated to share information related to cyber-terrorism and given the dangers associated with terrorism it is expected that the countries will continue to embrace this initiative.

To improve global cooperation, the UK had increased its police and judicial cooperation with the United States. Through agreement the two countries are committed towards sharing strategic information and personal information related to terrorism. In addition, the two states have established treaties to provide extradition and legal assistance. According to Pastor (2009) this treaty helps the two countries to effectively combat cyber-terrorism by simplifying the extradition process, promoting information sharing and enhancing prosecutorial cooperation. Another important step in the fight against cyber-terrorism is the tracking and suppressing terrorist financing. As indicated earlier, terrorists used technological tools such as the internet to collect funds from the sympathizers all over the world. In a bid to track and prevent terrorist financing, member countries are improving their cooperation through international agreements. For instance, countries have formed jointed efforts to improving international financial investigative tools. Through enhanced collaboration, member countries have worked together towards designating terrorist individuals and groups. According to the existing legal framework, for an individual or a terrorist group to be removed from the list, there must be a unanimous agreement among all the member countries. As a result of the increasing partnership between countries some of the terrorists groups such as the Kurdistan Worker’s Party and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia have been added to the terrorist list. However, to ensure these groups do not access the required financing, global cooperation is required.

3.3.2 Sharing of data

The internet has made it possible for the terrorist to clandestinely perform terrorist activities, an event which calls for greater partnership. Aware of this fact, the US and the EU countries have recognized the importance of sharing information by establishing the necessary agreements. At the same time, governments are improving the investigative capabilities of their security agencies. Just to illustrate, with the cooperation from other intelligence agencies, the U.S. National Security Agency has initiated surveillance activities. However, there have been privacy concerns about the PRISM programs and unless such concerns are addressed, the international counter-terrorism activities are likely to continue.

4.      Global climate

Scientists suggest that the planetary ecosystem is changing as result of accumulation of greenhouse gases. One of the common sources of the greenhouse gases are the industries and it is for this reason that countries have committed to cutting down industrial emissions and reduce carbon foot print. According to Ruddiman (2005) the increase in the GHG emissions is associated with the industrial revolution which started in Britain in 1700s. Factory facilities and machinery has also led to the depletion of natural resources, leaving the environment permanently damaged. Another likely cause of the greenhouse gases emissions is the nuclear weapons.

4.1 Nuclear weapons

According to Weart (2012), a major nuclear exchange could negatively affect climate change. Weart (2012) uses the example of the nuclear exchange between Pakistan and India which led to a rise in temperature around the Asian Monsoon regions. The intense heat generated by the nuclear weapons and the smoke resulting from the burning of the building would drift into the stratosphere. Air pollution also occurs during the development and testing of all aspects related to military weapons. Nuclear weapon testing has the most adverse effects by releasing smoke and heat into the planet’s systems. However as indicated on the graph below, nuclear testing activities have decreased tremendously. Testing of the artillery shells, bombs and chemicals also affects the quality of the air.

Adopted from Weart (2013)

4.2 Chemical and heat-producing weapons

Chemical weapons were used extensively during the WW2 and most recently in the Iraq-Iran war. The chemical weapons not only pollute the air but also cause deaths and injuries. Use of incendiary bombs has been found to produce firestorms which lead to air pollution. The available literature has also shows that during the World War I, World War II, the Spanish civil war, and the war of Ethiopia, temperatures increased dramatically due to the extensive use of ballistic missiles, flying bombs and atomic bombs. International cooperation will also be necessary in the development of environmentally friendly technology and:

  1. Regulating the use of destructive technologies
  2. Development and deployment of new technologies (Victor et al, 2005)

5.      Conclusion

The international security is threatened by the proliferation of WMDs in the hostile states. In response, the international community has adopted counter-proliferation strategies whose successful implementation requires the participation of all countries. International cooperation will particularly be important in putting pressure on non-compliant states and putting into place effective monitoring mechanisms. The available literature has also established that international peace and order is under threat from bombs and explosive devices. To combat the vice, countries have adopted a common approach by establishing the necessary anti-terrorist laws and by establishing legally binding pacts. International cooperation will remain vital in tracking and profiling terrorists and cell groups and prevention of terrorist activities. In addition, the global climate is threatened by heat-producing weapons and nuclear testing activities.













Reference list


Bentley, M., 2013. War and/of Worlds: Constructing WMD in U.S. Foreign Policy. Security Studies, 22, 68–97.

Graebner, N. A., Dean, B. and Siracusa, M., 2008. Reagan, Bush, Gorbachev: Revisiting the End of the Cold War. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University

Hamm, M., 2002. In Bad Company: America’s Terrorist Underground. Boston: Northeastern University Press

Hanley, C., 2005. Nuclear security is up, smuggling’s down, but terrorism’s ultimate nightmare lingers on. San Diego, CA: Associated press

Hewitt, C., 2003. Understanding Terrorism in America: From the Klan to Al Qaeda. London; New York: Routledge

Kellner, D., 2007. Guys and Guns Amok: Domestic Terrorism and School Shootings from the Oklahoma City Bombing to the Virginia Tech Massacre. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers

Miller, R., 2005. Writing at the End of the World. New York: University of Pittsburgh Press

Nash, T., 1975. Nuclear Weapons and International Behaviour. Kluwer Academic Publishers

Pastor, J. F., 2009. Terrorism & Public Safety Policing: Implications of the Obama Presidency. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.

Pitt, W.R., 2002. War On Iraq: What Team Bush Doesn’t Want You to Know? New York: Context Books

Ruddiman, W. F., 2005. Plows, plagues, and petroleum: how humans took control of climate. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University

Sanders, K. 2005. After Oklahoma City: A Grieving Grandmother Uncovers Shocking Truths about the bombing and Herself. Arlington, TX: Master Strategies.

Stern, J., 2000. The Ultimate Terrorists. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press

Tuathail, G., (1998) De‐Territorialized threats and global dangers: Geopolitics and risk society. Geopolitics, 3:1, 17-31

Victor, D. G. et al., 2005. A Madisonian Approach to Climate Policy. Science 309: 1820–1821.

Weart, S., 2013. The Rise of Nuclear Fear. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2012

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper