Cuban Missile Crisis
The reports of the arrival of missiles capable of carrying nuclear warheads to the island of Cuba. These warheads are capable of reaching almost any part of the continental United States. The presence of these warheads represents an escalation of the conflict with the Soviet Union and its allies, and it represents an existential threat to the United States. For the first time since the arms buildup between the U.S. And USSR began, we are in a situation where mutually-assured destruction is a legitimate possibility. The response of the United States to this conflict represents the most significant challenge faced by President Kennedy to this point in his career, and it is imperative that he authorize the right course of action.
May (2011) posits that Kennedy was aware of and had permitted the arrival of defensive missiles from the U.S.S.R. To Cuba, and in fact had an agreement in place with Nikita Khrushchev that the Soviets would not install offensive weapons in Cuba. The arrival of offensive weapons gave the U.S.S.R. The capacity to strike the continental U.S., mirroring the capabilities of the U.S., which had placed missiles in Italy and Turkey. The arrival of the missiles not only signaled that mutually-assured destruction was a possibility, but it fed into public fears in the West that had been stoked by Kennedy himself during his election campaign about the U.S.S.R.’s missile capacity (Schwarz, 2013).
The arrival of the missiles prompted a crisis that requires careful weighing of interests in order to find an optimal solution. There are several background factors and influences that will contribute to the final policy recommendation. The first is that the U.S. relationship with Cuba is strongly negative, following the Cuban Revolution. Cuba, now a Communist country, had been aligned with the U.S.S.R. Cuba, being just a few miles offshore from the United States, was an embarrassment to American hegemony in its home region, and the U.S. had been trying since the revolution to overthrow the Castro government (Schwarz, 2013). These efforts had angered the Soviets.
Another background issue is the missile imbalance. While Kennedy campaigned on a missile gap that placed the Soviets in front of the arms race, the reality was that the U.S. had superior weaponry, and had been able to place missiles with NATO allies Italy and Turkey. The missiles in Turkey were especially galling to the U.S.S.R. because they were close to the border with the U.S.S.R., representing a threat to everything from Moscow to Caspian oil installations to the U.S.S.R.’s naval bases in the Crimea. The U.S.S.R. would seek a counter to the threat posed by NATO missile installations, and found it in the newly-Communist Cuba (LOC, 2010).
There are two critical factors in the decision regarding the U.S. missiles in Europe. The Italian missiles are obsolete at this point, but Turkey is strongly opposed to the removal of missiles from its territory, owing to the immediate presence of the Soviet Union along its borders and because of Soviet and Warsaw Pact presence on the Black Sea coastline, which Turkey also shares. Its missiles are viewed as a deterrent to further Eastern aggression.
There are four options that are being considered for resolution of the Cuban missile crisis. These are a blockade, an airstrike, a ground invasion and negotiations. The first option, a naval blockade, will have the following effects. It will isolate Cuba, an island that is not believed to be able to sustain itself without importations of fuel, and possibly food as well. The blockade will limit the effectiveness of the Cuban government and military apparatus, and will cripple its economy. The blockade will therefore force action, with the objective of securing the withdrawal of the offensive weaponry. A blockade bears some risks, as it represents the threat of military force, but it is not overt force, so may be seen as both restraint and as expressing a desire to find a solution that does not take us to the brink of nuclear war.
The second option is an airstrike. This option would eliminate the direct threat of the missiles if successful, but would launch open conflict. While the U.S. appears to have military advantage, it is unknown precisely what the capabilities of the Soviets are. For example, they have apparently deployed nuclear submarines to the area, and they may have placed tactical nuclear weapons in Cuba (Chomsky, 2012). Further, the military strength of the Soviets is unknown. There are concerns that a response of open conflict could also see Berlin captured.
The third option is to launch a ground invasion of Cuba. This approach seems riskier than airstrikes. While airstrikes could result in a missile being missed, they are quicker. A ground war would give the Soviets an opportunity to deploy the missiles, would invite open warfare, and ultimately would put the U.S. At risk on invasion as well. The upside of a ground invasion is that the U.S. could not only ensure that all missiles are found, but restore friendly government to Cuba as well, thus making this a more permanent solution that airstrikes.
The fourth option is to negotiate. This option is risky, because Khrushchev has already demonstrated that he cannot be trusted. Furthermore, while there is an offer on the table to withdraw the missiles if the U.S. withdraws its missiles from Turkey, this option weakens the U.S. position in Europe. There is room for negotiation to bring this problem to resolution, but there remains the question of leverage. The U.S. has limited leverage here. While Khrushchev wants to have the missiles removed from Turkey, this is not a crisis to the extent that the U.S. is facing with the missiles in Cuba. Khrushchev therefore has bargaining leverage. Negotiating at this point would be negotiating from a position of weakness, and furthermore there is no guarantee that negotiating would be successful. However, negotiations are preferable to nuclear annihilation, so that is one positive. Furthermore, the world views the balance of power between the U.S. And USSR as roughly equal — no prestige would be lose negotiating. Indeed many European nations favor a negotiated solution and it would reflect poorly on the U.S. To be unable to resolve this crisis without starting World War Three.
Before a strategy is chosen, it is worth considering what the end game is for the United States. The optimal solution is a peaceful resolution of the crisis. Further objectives would be to maintain leadership of Western interests. Ideally, the balance of power in the world should be maintained. Turkey would like to keep its missiles, but in reality this is flexible, given the stakes at hand. The underlying principle should be to end the crisis peacefully, and if peace is not possible then to end the crisis decisively.
It is recommended that the U.S. pursues the blockade option. The military options are unadvisable because they represent a step in the direction we are trying to avoid. If the objective is to remove the threat of mutually-assured destruction, then the military option is an incredible gamble. Airstrikes are quick enough, but in order to guarantee success of this option would require perfect intelligence. We know from reports that there are several large missiles in Cuba — locals reported them being transported in the middle of the night. The problem is that we are not 100% certain how many there are, and where they are located Airstrikes would require perfection in order to avoid triggering a nuclear response. There is the potential for tactical airstrikes to eliminate this threat, but there is also the risk that such a move would escalate the conflict. A land invasion would similarly represent an escalation, and it also runs the risk of taking too long to execute — missiles could be launched as a response to a land invasion.
The negotiation option holds some promise. There are conditions that we believe Khrushchev will agree to, such as the removal of missiles from Turkey and Italy. The Italian missiles are redundant, and we can put the Turkish missiles on the table It is entirely possible that Khrushchev manufactured this entire crisis to gain sufficient leverage to have the missiles removed from Turkey. At this point, such an outcome is the closest to optimal. The problem is that we have limited leverage because we need these missiles removed as soon as possible. Further, the United States may not be able to trust Khrushchev.
The blockade option is therefore optimal. The blockade is a means to avoid armed conflict, first and foremost. This option moves us in the direction in which we want to go, which is away from mutually-assured destruction. The armed response is appealing but the risk of nuclear annihilation makes it an inappropriate gamble, especially when we would be increasing the risk of the worst possible outcome. The blockade moves us away from that
The blockade also serves as a means of improving our leverage in the negotiating process. It does this in two ways. The first is that it cuts off Cuba from critical supplies, especially of oil. Cuba is a partner of the U.S.S.R. In this, so putting pressure on the Castro regime might be a way to improve our bargaining position. Second, the blockade is a quasi-military action that allows us to show force in the region. Negotiations may seem weak, which would have negative long-run consequences. The blockade is a means of demonstrating our military strength without actually using force. By doing this, we are not backing down, yet we are not escalating the conflict either. We can bring Khrushchev back to the negotiating table.
The blockade option serves as a precursor to negotiations. By increasing the pressure on the U.S.S.R. And on Cuba, we put ourselves in a position where both parties are equally motivated to find a resolution to this crisis. We can open negotiations on this relatively even footing. As long as we are prepared to withdraw our missiles from Italy and Turkey, the blockade as a precursor to negotiation option can be effective. When we implement the blockade, the end result is to improve Soviet desire to negotiate a solution we can trust. If they have reason to fear us they are more likely to dismantle their missiles and take them back to the U.S.S.R.
It is recommended therefore to defuse the Cuban missile crisis through the use of a blockade to cut Cuba off from critical supplies The blockade achieves two objectives, the first being to reduce the likelihood of nuclear conflict and the second is to improve our bargaining position for negotiations about a permanent resolution to this crisis.
Chomsky, N. (2012). Cuban missile crisis: How the U.S. played Russian roulette with nuclear war. The Guardian. Retrieved November 17, 2013 from http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2012/oct/15/cuban-missile-crisis-russian-roulette
LOC. (2010). Cold war: Cuban missile crisis Library of Congress. Retrieved November 17, 2013 from http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/archives/colc.html
May, E. (2011). John F. Kennedy and the Cuban missile crisis BBC History. Retrieved November 17, 2013 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/coldwar/kennedy_cuban_missile_01.shtml
Schwarz, B. (2013). The real Cuban missile crisis. The Atlantic. Retrieved November 17, 2013 from http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2013/01/the-real-cuban-missile-crisis/309190/
Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?
- Plagiarism free papers
- Timely delivery
- Any deadline
- Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
- Subject-relevant academic writer
- Adherence to paper instructions
- Ability to tackle bulk assignments
- Reasonable prices
- 24/7 Customer Support
- Get superb grades consistently
Online Academic Help With Different Subjects
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!