use of the various computer systems



This assignment depicts the use of the various computer systems ,their role in our daily life, different types of computer system which are used  and how these systems have various platforms , further what are the components and how to deal with them in our day to day life and maintaining our computer systems basically a computer is described as a computer is a general-purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a set of arithmetic or logical operations. Since a sequence of operations can be readily changed, the computer can solve more than one kind of problem.

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Conventionally, a computer consists of at least one processing element, typically a central processing unit (CPU) and some form of memory. The processing element carries out arithmetic and logic operations, and a sequencing and control unit that can change the order of operations based on stored information. Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source, and the result of operations saved and retrieved.






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Table Of Contents



Sr.No     Topics                                                             Page. No

  1. Function of Computer systems 3-6
  2. Design of Computer systems 7-9
  3. Built and Configure Computer Systems 10-11
  4. Routine Maintenance of Computer Systems 12-13

Function Of Computer Systems

Role Of  Computer Systems In Different Environments  –

There are different types of Computer Systems depending the size of the central processing unit. A Computer System have a CPU , keyboard , mouse ,big storage space , peripherals units and an operating system and on this basis we can differentiate between different computer systems. A Computer system can be used in different environments as in a home for personal use and very commonly used in many workspaces, schools and colleges.

The Computers Systems are used in our day to day life. Computer Systems are now used that often throughout the world they have many purposes it just depends on what the user wants them for, due to many capabilities of them, as they are used to monitor or create different websites, play games, make or play videos.

The different types of computer systems used are a notebook , laptop, desktop, hand held computer systems , Supercomputers . They are used specifically for their purpose as per the needs of the user. As laptop and notebook have high computing power can be used by a person’s to do his/her work while travelling (Portability) and moreover solves the purpose of the desktop. A desktop is a computer system having high computing power depending in the configuration, but the only cons of this computer system it is not portable. Nowadays we are familiar with the Hand Held Systems such as mobiles ,tablets. They are practically more in use nowadays we can consider it as a small computing device. Supercomputers are quite bulky  and having very very high computing power these are used to solve complex calculations and further used to monitor and regulate various computing systems.

There are computer systems based on the small scale or large scale businesses. There can be minicomputers and mainframes . Minicomputers are in use in few different places now a days The main place that these computer systems will be found is small or medium scale businesses as they can be used for very good purpose. A Mainframe computer system is a large data system that capable of many applications.These could be used for anything from holding thousands of users profiles at one time to even processing financial transactions. Mainframes computers would usually be found in pretty big businesses to keep all the files that they need in one place They would also be used in colleges due to capabilities of how many users they can hold at one time.


The Hardware, Software and Peripheral Components of a Computer System

Hardware, Software and Peripheral are the  Components Of a Computer System-Hardware . The motherboard is a major part to any computer system and the computer system will not be able to work without it. The motherboard acquires all the major components of a computer as the CPU and the memory of the computer, it also contains spaces for all other attached peripherals to be connected to it this could be varying from video to network cards. The Central Processing Unit is one of the most important parts of a computer and is often stated with the term the brain of the computer. The CPU will perform all the major calculations and instructions of the computer, the speed at which  the CPU will do all the calculations and processes will depend on what the maximum speeds of the CPU which is known as the clock rate. The power supply unit of the computer is the major power source of the computer. The power supply unit is inside a  box on the inside of the computer and when it is connected to the power supply  with then have the power to start the computer and all the components inside the computer that needs the power source to run. For storage e.g. hard disc ;optical drives. Storage devices are types of drives that reside inside of the computer. This will be usually be a hard drive and an optical drive. The hard drive is the most important of the two as the computer cannot work without one, the hard drive will hold the operating system on it and it will also hold softwares that the user of the computer has saved on it for personal use. An optical drive will be an item like a CD drive that is capable of playing such items as DVD’s and playing music however they have the capabilities to burn data on to a CD. The CMOS battery is a small piece of hardware that is usually attached to the mother board inside the computer. The CMOS battery will hold all the BIOS settings inside of it. If the computer suddenly starts displaying the wrong time and date this could be a sign that the battery is needed to be replaced.

Peripheral Component Interconnect PCI’s is found on the motherboard of a computer and are used as the expansion buses. The main purpose of PCI’s is to connect hardware devices to the CPU, Ethernet and Wi-Fi use this PCI very often to connect with the network that is available in the area. The AGP is found on the motherboard of the computer and is used mainly to for video cards and 3D accelerators. The video cards and 3D accelerators improve the graphics on the user’s computers and make the computer perform better in  handling graphics. Specialized cards used e.g. network, graphics, modem, sound cards. There are many special cards that are used in computers to help improve the capabilities of the computer. The network card allows the computer to be connected to a WLAN or LAN depending on what type of network card it has, if it has a wireless network card the computer will be able to connect to a network wirelessly, If it do not has the wireless card the connection is made via a wired connection. The graphics card on a computer will decide the capabilities of the computer when it has to handling high-level graphics this could be anything to computer games or high definition films, if the graphics card is not up to the required standards this will not work. The modem card is a very useful card that helps the computer connect to the network that has been set up by the service provider this will allow connection to the internet. The sound card will basically provides sound to the computer so when external devices like earphones or speakers are connected sound will become through the device.


The operating system is the most important program that runs on a computer. The operating systems main purpose is to recognize the input from the keyboard and mouse it provides interface between hardware and user. The operating system keeps track of all the files that reside in the memory in the computer and recognize the peripheral device when they are installed into the computer. Utility programs are programs that do certain task that tells us how the computer works. There are many examples of utility programs that could be a complete disk format this would means completely deleting everything of a device like a hard drive or a memory stick. Another program example could be a file converter that converts an item like an MP3 to an MP4 or the other way round. Utility programs are  quite different to other application software like Microsoft word which is just used to type theword documents. Library programs are files which are stored on computers to help development software. An example of a library file could be a file like a DLL file, DLL stands for a Dynamic link library file these are a small collection of programs that can be used when an executable program is running. Translator programs are programs that convert a high level programming language into another.


Comparison of different types of computer systems –

  1. The type of CPU.As noted, microcomputers use microprocessors– The larger computers tend to use CPUs made up of separate, high-speed, sophisticated components.
  2. The amount of main memory the CPU can use- A computer equipped with a large amount of main memory cansupport more sophisticated programs and can even hold several different programs in memory at the same time.
  3. The capacity of the storage devices-The larger computer systems tend to be equipped with higher capacity storage devices.
  4. The processing speed inmillions of instructions per second (mips)-The term instruction is used here to describe a basic task the software asks the computer to perform while also identifying the data to be affected. The processing speed of the smaller computers ranges from 3-4 mips. The speed of large computers can be 70-100 mips of more, and supercomputers can process more than 200 mips. In other words, a mainframe computer can process your data a great deal faster than a microcomputer.
  5. The number of users that can access the computer at one time- Most small computers can support only a single user; some can support as many as two or three at a time. Large computers can support hundreds of userssimultaneously.
  6.  The cost of the computer system- Business systems can cost as little as $1,500 (for a microcomputer) to $10 million (for a mainframe) and much more for a supercomputer.

Design Computer Systems


Unix server (Sun, HP, IRIX)-In the 1980 and 1990, multiple workstations and the server companies have introduced their own commercial versions of the Unix. These systems were typically based on either an AT&T or Berkeley release and supported high-end features developed for their particular hardware architecture. These systems were Digital’s Tru64, Hewlett Packard’s HP-UX, IBM’s AIX, Sequent’s DYNIX/ptx, SGI’s IRIX, and Sun’s Solaris.

The original design of the Unix, along with the years ofthe  innovation and evolutionary improvement that followed, have made Unix a powerful, robust, and stable operating system.

Linux Server- The Enterprise Linux Server

The IBM Enterprise Linux Server is designed from the bottom for enterprise-class workloads, can help on lower cost software license costs and helps to smooth movement  the IT management. It can secure data from the growing threats from hackers and helps to use less of the environmental resources. It provides a consolidated, virtualized infrastructure with the power and flexibility we need for today’s challenges with great economics and performance.

  • Cost benefits-The Enterprise Linux Server can help us to lower our IT costs with its support for the massive adaptation with the older x86 and RISC servers, running up to hundreds of virtual Linux servers concurrently with each other.
  • Single-server simplicity-The Enterprise Linux Server allows us to run all our modern applications on a single Linux server, which can save us from the software license and management costs, floor space and energy.
    It has the capability to run a large number of parallel workloads in a highly efficient and economical way.
  • Scalability to grow horizontally and vertically-The Enterprise Linux Server allows us to run all our modern applications on a single Linux server, which can save us from software license and management costs, floor space and energy.
  • Unmatched availability and security-The Enterprise Linux Server virtualization software has the ability to virtualize and share all system resources – processors, communication, memory, storage, I/O and cryptographic features – thus providing advanced resource utilization and enabling flexible and dynamic resource allocation with a single point of control. The Single System Image feature allows a cluster to be managed as one system and Live Guest Relocation.


The IBM Enterprise Linux Server can do more for less, providing an ideal platform for IT optimization and cloud computing. Its unique strength is its capability to run a large number of parallel workloads in a highly efficient and economical way.


Apple Server-Mac OS X Server v10.6 Snow Leopard is quite powerful 64-bit server operating system with new features and applications that make it easier for everyone in your organization to collaborate, communicate, and to share information. With Mac OS X Server, users can effortlessly share files, schedule meetings and events, exchange instant messages, send and receive mail on the Internet, access the organization’s network remotely, publish podcasts, and host websites, wikis, and blogs. And Snow Leopard Server is up to twice as fast as its predecessor, improving performance for file sharing, mail, web hosting, and more.

Promedia’s Apple Engineers offer expertise on all of the features of Mac OS X Server including designing, implementing and managing:

  • Directory Services
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Novell Server-Novell Open Enterprise Server (OES) is best thought of  a platform for delivery of shared network services and common management tools which are needed. OES can run  either a Linux or Netware kernel. Clustered configurations can also include nodes with either kernel types, and most of the  services can migrate freely between the different platforms. Thus, customers can deploy the platform selection that suits best their needs, as opposed to being locked to use a single platform.


When installed using Linux kernel, the product is known as OES-Linux. This uses the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server (SLES) as its platform.  The SLES install, daemons are added to provideNCP, eDirectory, NSSiPrint and other services delivered by OES-Linux.


When installed using a NetWare kernel, the product is known as OES-NetWare. This uses NetWare v6.5 as its platform. Atop the NetWare install, NLMs are added to provide the Apache web server, Tomcat, OpenSSH, NCP, eDirectory, NSS, iPrint and other services delivered by OES.


Build and configure Computer Systems


The way a system is set up, or the assortment of components that make up the system. Configuration can refer to either hardware or software, or the combination of both. For instance, a typical configuration for a PC consists of 32MB (megabytesmain memory, a floppy drive, a hard disk, a modem, a CD-ROM drive, a VGA monitor, and the Windows operating system.

Many software products require that the computer have a certain minimum configuration. For example, the software might require a graphics display monitor and a video adapter, a particular microprocessor, and a minimum amount of main memory.

When you install a new device or program, you sometimes need to configureit, which means to set various switches and jumpers (for hardware) and to define values of parameters (for software). For example, program may need to know what type of video adapter you have andwhat type of printer is connected to the computer. Thanks to new technologies, such asplug-and-play, much of this configuration is performed automatically.


Components needed to be installed :


1.PC case

2.Motherboard                                                                                                                3.Processor                                                                                                                   4.CPU cooler                                                                                                          5.RAM                                                                                                                             6.Hard Drive                                                                                                                          7.Graphics card                                                                                                                8.CD-ROM or DVD drive

The following items shouldn’t be forgotten:

  • Monitor
  • Keyboard
  • Mouse

These components are necessary to run the new computer, including its operating system (e.g., Windows, Linux).

Extra Options For Special Applications

Depending on what you’ll be using your PC for, you might need the follow components as well; please note, though, that this list is by no means complete:









Routine maintenance on Computer Systems


Here are ways to maintain your system:

          1. We have to be careful not to drop our computer, and do not put any objects on top of it. The case, although strong, is not made to support extra weight.


          2. When transporting your computer, we recommend that you put it in a carrying case.


          3. Keep diskettes, modular drives, and your computer away from magnetic fields. Magnetic fields can erase data on both diskettes and hard drives.


          4. Never turn off your computer when the hard drive light is on because data on the hard drive could be lost or corrupted.


          5. Avoid subjecting your computer to extreme temperature changes. The case can become very brittle and easy to break in cold temperatures and can melt or warp in high temperatures. Damage due to either extreme is not covered by your warranty. As a general rule, your computer is safest at temperatures that are comfortable for you.


          6. We have to keep all liquids away from our computer. Any liquid can result in extremely expensive repairs that are not covered under your warranty.


          7. We need to avoid dusty or dirty work environments. Dust and dirt can clog the internal mechanisms of the computer system.
  8. We need toset up a regular maintenance schedule accordingly to keep your computer running at its best.

Protecting your computer from viruses

virus is a program that attaches itself to a file on a computer, then spreads from one computer to another. Viruses can damage data or cause your computer to malfunction. Some viruses go undetected for a period of time, because they are activated on a certain date. Protect your computer from a virus by:


1. Using your Norton  Antivirus program to check files and programs that are on diskettes, attached to e-mail messages, or downloaded from the Internet.


2. Checking all programs for viruses before installing them.


3. Disabling macros on suspicious Microsoft Word and Excel files. These programs will warn you if a document that you are opening contains a macro that might have a virus.



           Scanning the hard drive for errors

The ScanDisk program examines the hard drive for surface errors and file and folder problems. ScanDisk corrects these problems so that Windows and other programs run efficiently.

If you use your computer several hours every day, you probably want to run ScanDisk once a week. On the other hand, if you use your computer less frequently, once a month may be adequate. Also use Scandisk if you encounter hard drive problems.

           Defragmenting the hard drive

When working with files, sometimes Windows divides the information of the file into pieces and stores them in different places on the hard drive. This is called fragmentation. In order for the computer to use a file, Windows have to search for the pieces of the file and put them back together. This process degrades the hard drive performance.

The Disk Defragmenter program organizes the data on the drive such that each file is stored as one unit rather than multiple pieces which are scattered across thedifferent areas of the drive. Defragmenting the information which is stored on the drive can improve hard drive performance.

While the Disk Defragmenter program is running,we should not use keyboard or mouse because using them may stop and restart the defragmenting process. Also, if we are connected to a network, log off before starting Disk Defragmenter. Network communication may stop the defragmentation process and cause it to start the process again.


PC case

MotherboardProcessor                                            CPU cooler                                                                                        RAM                                                                                                                           Hard Drive                                                                                                                Graphics card





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