Management for Community and Social Services

Management of community resources

Management of community resources and services may at a point require financial accountability that will entirely rely on the use of financial tools to determine the position of firms that operate as Non-profit organizations. This requires a vast focus on financial analysis of the activities that are conducted with the aim of making the bet of the operation. In order t achieve this, it is crucial to use financial tools in the field of sociology during research and analysis of the outcome.

“Assessment of measurement tool for Reliability and validity”

Research studies have been used on many occasions to find out more about a scenario or a demanding question that a particular group of people are interested in knowing. This requires a model that will best explain each step that is used to gather such information used for analysis. In order to have these data gathered appropriately, a prior scan on the field is recommended. This is referred to as an assessment of the field of study. Assessment there3fore has basic tools that must be employed to ensure appropriateness and accuracy during and after the research study in the field.

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There are two major aspects that most researchers must employ to ensure that their work is accurate. Reliability and validity of the information given to the end-users of the research must reflect these two key aspects. In order to achieve this, there must be appropriate tools of measurement that can be used to justify the validity and reliability of research work. These tools must be used in the field of study and during the process of analyzing the data collected. In the study of sociology, therefore, there are various methods or tools of assessment that can be used to validate given information and to make it reliable to users.

People with disabilities form a large percentage of the population in most parts of the world and requires a research study to find out the main cause. When a research study is carried out, a tool of evaluation that would lead to validation and reliability is often required. In order to carry out research on the disability in adults in a particular area of study, an assessment must be conducted. For an ideal assessment, a tool of measure meant will be required. Well-being will be appropriate when determining the extent of accuracy for validity and reliability. Most researchers use well-being tool of evaluation since it will provide variables that will form the basis of data collection in the field.

Reliability and validity can be based on several types depending on the variables that will be used in the data collection. Survival tactics, for instance, may be used as a way of validating the data. Also, movement and income generation means can also be relied on to determine the amount of well-being support required by the disabled people in society.

             “How support groups benefit the health and well-being of people with a rare genetic disorder

Support groups provide first-hand information that is required by researchers in the field. This makes it easier to know exactly what is required during assessment and how to deal with the situations on the ground. Support groups ad the researchers or social workers since they connect and report the requirements to the rele3vant persons who can attend to the disabled people in the field.

            “Quantitative or qualitative research study”

There are often two approaches that are used in the field during a research study; these are either qualitative or quantitative approaches.  These two approaches are ideal depending on the nature of the research work. Taking into consideration a sociology research perspective, it will be ideal to use a quantitative approach. This approach will be ideal for studies of disorders in various people in the society since it allows for the one on one interaction with the target group. It will also employ the use of interviews as a means of collecting data from the respondents. Primary data collection is often considered ideal when dealing with a research study that focuses on health conditions and issues among people.

The benefit of quantitative research is that it offers a large amount of related data on the same case under the study. This makes it ideal to analyze and come up with information that can be validated and relied on by end-users or other social workers.  Similarly, qualitative research will rely on giving quality information that is gathered from a sampled research work from the field. This will make it ideal for social workers to identify quickly the areas that require their attention among the disabled people in society.

However, a quantitative research method may present large data that would be too difficult and time-consuming to analyze. Qualitative research method may also have small margins or data sources compared to the population size hence invalidating the information gathered.

             “Single-system research study”

In every research work, there must be a method of data collection and validation process.  Single system research is a way in which methodology is applied in the research work. It denotes the approach that experts or researchers will use in the field to gather relevant information that is required for analysis about a scenario or the case study.

Single-system research method can be used by research by going to the field and literally gathering primary data. A specific example of this method is the use of a questionnaire in the field to collect raw data for analysis and validation. This process requires the identification of the sample, population, and target area of study. In the case of social works, the questionnaire would be ideal since it allows respondents to give their views on various scenarios that are under study. Again, it offers the best approach to deal with respondents who do not corporate in the area of the study. Questionnaires are significant in primary data collection method since there are high accuracy and multiple choices of responses that can generate answers that are ideal for the analysis of a specific situation in a given research study area.

The main advantage of a single research study approach is that it offers the chance to collect multiple data and carry out repeated data analysis for purposes of validation and reliability. It also offers an alternative to another approach that may be considered unsystematic means of data collection. In addition, for a social worker, this method offers a chance to allow for easy assessment of variables that are used during the study.

There are often two variables that can be identified with kind of methodology, and these are dependent and independent variables. The chosen dependent variables are the frequency of disability occurrences and the independent variables are the affected victims in the society who require support from other social workers and people in their sane states.

Financial cash flow determination methods

Implications and applications of financial study require various approaches to determine particular aspects.  Regarding economic evaluations and valuations of assets, there are a number of tools or approaches that practitioners must employ to obtain relevant information and statistics that can be used to gauge or determine the position of a firm among its competitors in the market platform.

Similarly, in finance time is a key factor that must be properly analyzed and evaluated to ensure that a positive result is achieved through management. This will require the use of software for data analysis that will enhance performance and timeliness in the determination of such econometric values. STATA is, therefore, the ideal software that can be used in analyzing technical data from various sources of financial values. Time-series econometrics models are very necessary in dealing with financial accounting. This implies that the amount of output will be determined by time take to raise a single unit of a product or service based on its financial spending. Example of a stata code that can be used in the econometric analysis is scattered y x if x < 10.

Below is a data code that can be used in the STATA software to determine time series in the econometrics valuation.

y265 y267 y269 y271 y273 y275 y277 y279 y281 y283
1.465248 0.479354 -1.75346 -0.292415 0.4226884 0.2091497 1.400652 0.9498465 1.512959 -0.5936786
0.5703003 1.38395 0.2902705 -0.9369771 -0.8942438 0.5955387 -0.9572875 0.4484942 0.0206231 -1.481797
-0.3371507 0.4506865 0.9319822 1.463505 -0.1176168 -0.431972 0.882265 -0.8461719 -0.909491 0.4699998
8.57749 4.644412 5.726359 9.257461 6.244791 6.356962 2.846215 6.671024 6.022622 8.066555
9.915342 9.016611 12.53046 8.943461 10.46239 7.507285 9.097888 9.709125 8.107504 12.65828
9.8797 13.30424 11.60002 12.08437 13.02481 12.31796 14.25738 14.14829 12.46637 11.94876
12.1553 13.60705 15.1946 16.16602 14.52039 16.15118 17.29049 16.32838 16.20972 14.07643
11.99595 15.03055 12.15735 16.27457 14.06341 17.09861 17.89787 18.5907 18.99561 13.26327
16.94649 13.88944 15.37031 19.86564 14.02943 17.33837 18.07598 18.3941 20.15047 13.98531
15.80559 16.3337 12.71508 18.35982 15.1026 16.95772 17.34345 15.5677 17.9921 15.64277
16.70486 18.92415 12.15709 18.68223 17.02415 15.41312 16.08319 15.99662 21.88074 16.52537
15.51236 18.75143 10.81065 19.10452 19.4782 14.68459 17.52361 14.92306 14.892 15.56802
14.44465 16.37151 14.4618 19.0817 19.49536 13.76237 16.36249 14.39202 15.06148 14.82618
17.19215 14.59168 16.05562 16.63589 18.45441 19.01651 17.51109 14.64103 14.84406 14.26773
16.58829 14.07616 17.49254 17.49399 19.66024 15.58567 15.59484 17.42184 12.67381 13.62993


STATA can be used in the determination of the following based on the time series provided.

Risk-free asset

(a) Return Relative= (Ending value of Investment)/ (Beginning value of Investment) = 111,619,295.48/73,441,529.02=1.5198

(b) Holding Period Return (HPR)= Return Relative-1=1.5198-1=0.5198

(c) AHPR= (Return Relative) ^(1/(324/52))-1=(1.5198)^(1/(324/52))-1=0.0695


The $5 million cash is invested in Macquarie Cash Trust (CMA) and the rate of return is 3.3% p.a. Ending cash value==$5,000,000*(1+0.033)^(324/52)=$6121048.97

Portfolio return

(a) Return Relative= (Ending value of Portfolio)/(Beginning value of Portfolio)

= 169479751.76/100,000,000


(b) Holding Period Return (HPR) = Return Relative-1=1.6947975-1=0.6947915

(c) Portfolio Annualized holding period return (AHPR)=[(Return Relative)]^(1/(271/52))-1



S&P ASX200 Index return

(a) Return Relative= (Ending value of S&P ASX200 Index)/(Beginning value of S&P ASX200 Index)=  5248/6389.4=0.8214

(b) Holding Period Return (HPR)= Return Relative-1=0.8214-1=-0.1786

(c) AHPR = [(Return Relative)]^(1/(271/52))-1=(0.8214)^(1/(324/52))-1=-0.0311


Nike: Calculation of Free Cash Flow Using Reformulated Statements
Year ended May 31, 2010
Method 1:
C – I = OI – change in NOA
Operating income, 2010 1,814.4
NOA, 2010 5,513.9
NOA, 2009 6,346.2 (832.3)
Free cash flow   2,646.7
Method 2:
C – I = NFE + Change in NFA + d
NFE, 2010 4.0
NFA, 2010 4,370.5
NFA, 2009 2,468.3 1,902.2
Net dividend, 2010 740.4
Free cash flow   2,646.7







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