Concept Analysis of Collaboration paper

Concept Analysis of Collaboration

Aim and objective

Collaboration is among the key qualities required in effective teamwork and is also essential in providing quality health care in the medical field. It is the foundation of building trust and good relationships among nurses and patients. Nurses perform their role in a team of a professional pharmacist, case manager, physician, and social workers.  This paper explains why collaboration is essential in improving health care services. In a hospital health care system, it is essential that physician and nurses work together with other health care professionals to improve mutual understanding. An improved mutual understanding assists in improving healthcare service. The Institute of Medicine  (IOM) recomends collaboration and effective decision-making as a means of enhancing patient safety” (Ponte et al., 2011, p. 163).   Therefore, the concept of collaboration will be analyzed by its definitions, attributes, antecedents, and consequences.


According to Kalisch and Rouchman (2010), collaboration is achieved when experts and medical caretakers are working together. Kalisch and Rouchman (2010) only emphasize on collaboration among doctors and attendants and do not recognize collaboration between other medical services and departments.

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LePine and Soul (2008) added that characterized collaboration is a dynamic methodology that includes two or more medical personnel with corresponding foundations and aptitudes. They two authors also state that collaboration involves offering normal health objectives and practicing purposeful physical and mental action in evaluating, arranging, or assessing the patients’ mind. The writer further states that in health awareness, collaboration is described as those conducts that expedite successful colleague connection with the other medical services supplied (Fernandez, 2008). Other than this, there are few identified thoughts behind the collaboration, which incorporates participation, communication, workload imparting, joint effort, and coordination. Also to note, the results, predecessors or aspects are not comparable. Among health care professionals, the terms, collaboration, may require some level of correspondence and connections.


McKay (2008) defines an attribute as a quality or characteristics given to an individual or group of people. One’s best attribute may be a person’s willingness to assist other people financially or otherwise. In addition to this, Petri (2010) states that attributes are characteristics that constitute the true definition of the concept. The literature indicates that the term “collaboration” has three characteristics. These three characteristics include shared decision making, concerted effort and the attributes of collaboration. Initially, as stated by McCulloch (2008), collaboration is a dynamic procedure including two or more health experts with integral foundations and abilities. according to McCulloch 2008, the collaboration also entails dividing regular health care objectives and practicing coordinated physical and mental action in surveying, arranging, and assessing the patient’s mind.

Secondly, the collaboration includes associated joint efforts. Each member is considered and thought to be helping a critical part in accomplishing the common objective. Different Disciplines are working together to ensure quality. Colleagues are similarly motivated through mutual understanding as a result of working together. After indetifying areas of improvement through team work,  colleagues work together to meet their customers’ needs.

Ultimately, according to Petri  (2010), the collaboration includes equivalent participation of all members in order to think and share decisions. Subsequently, joined choice making is supposed to be another attribute for collaboration. This property is extremely critical because it improves the health awareness of all members and enhances participation to achieve the expected result. The health care members have even a chance to make a change in the customer’s personal satisfaction.


Model Cases

According to Walker and Avant (2011), to better illustrate an idea of a concept, a model case should be introduced. This section is a case study of Mrs. Jones who was admitted with a fall and uncontrolled blood sugar and is to be discharged. Before the discharges, the patient’s health should be discussed with responsible doctors and nurses to ensure that her condition is stable. The responsible nurses will also play the role of giving him advices and further medication suppose.  For instance, during discharge rounding, which incorporates registered nurse, case manager, physical therapist, social worker, persists and home health coordinator, Mor. Jones health condition should be discussed before discharge. before the patient is discharged, each doctors examines patient as per his or her area of major. The nurses present the patient’s overall status and agree with the doctor that the patient is stable to be discharged. The physical therapist shares the patient’s performance and recommends a walking stick if necessary, for helping the patient with Mr. Jones case, this was achieved. The patient was very happy that she was going to go home with a walking stick The pharmacist ought to review the medications and provide instructions on new medications if there are any of the patients before the discharge. This is a perfect example of collaboration where all health care members work together and share knowledge through communication. The sharing and collaboration enabled the nurses provide a quality care for Mrs. Jones.

In light of the introduced model case-study, the health care workers showed understanding of their parts and utilized effective communication to help the patient. Also, they share common health objectives and they are skilled and clinically master in their parts. The characteristics are additionally clear by putting forth an associated joint efforts. The members work together with a specific end goal to achieve the expected result and asked a perspective from colleagues, which show shared decision making. This shows collaborative practice for the profit of the patient. Likewise, the outcomes of collaboration exist on this issue as shown by the patient’s fulfillment, and the best response from the group.

The reverse of coloration is a case where health professionals do not work together (Walker and Avant, 2011).

. Some elements of the collaboration are missing and as a result, the common goal that the health care workers are working on is not met. A contrary case example is  Mrs. Jone’s first Discharge from the hospital where she did not get a walking stick,  and as a result, was readmitted after she fell. In this hospital, the health care professionals worked independently with the absence of imparted choice making and collaboration, and the patient (Mrs. Jones)was not cared for completely. The lack of collaboration among the nurses and doctors is dangerous to patient’s care.


Consistent with Walker and Avant (2011), antecedents are those essential components that must be available to understand a concept. Literature has it that, the antecedents that were found in collaboration contains information sharing and open communication, common health goal, understanding of professional roles as well as two or more health professionals. Two or more health care workers are fundamental in improving collaboration. according to (Pilcher, 2009), lack of support from other healthcare workers creates disappointment and frustration among nurses and doctors as well as patients. The importance of comprehension of individual parts is fundamental in improving collaboration. It is extremely significant to comprehend other health care workers for accomplishment of the desired outcomes. In a health care system, organized interactions have the capacity of improving satisfaction simply by sharing thoughts and through open communications. These components are vital and is applicable to any organizational setting where more than one person are involved to perform a task. The ability to associate and work together is  vital for the achievement of the organizational goals and objectives.


Walker and Avant (2011) state that consequences are events that occurs after or as a result of concept decisions made. The results of the collaboration should accommodate to customers, the association, and forethought suppliers. In order to have positive client’s feedback and improve the quality of services  the healthcare providers give, organizations should ensure that its workforce are united and collaborate. Therefore,  health care professionals should work in a group and steady way with a specific end goal to provide quality care. The collaboration eventually results to improved services and understanding among various departments and members of an organization.

Another potential outcome of the collaboration is the work fulfillment of health care workers. Employees feel they belong to a given organization when they are appreciated by the customers and other organization members. The feeling of belonging makes employees work harder and with more commitments and are also more staified with their positions and organizationEmployees do  feel overwhelmed when there is no collaboration and are not appreciated.  Also, cost control is an alternate outcome of the collaboration. Because of successful collaboration, the health care needs of a patientare conveyed in a sensible time, which diminishes hospitalization and heath care expenses.

Empirical Referents

According to Walker annd Avant (2011), empirical referents are defined as “the means by which one can measure the defining characteristics or attributes” (p.168). according to Strating and Nieboer (2009), “conducted a validation study to identify factors for successful Collaboration in hospital teams based setting by using ‘Team Climate Inventory’ (TCI). They have found that the validity test revealed the TCI’s four sub-scales all proved significant predictors of perceived team effectiveness, with participatory safety being best predictors”(p. 2). They also noted that the key attributes of Collaboration were relationship among team members, shared decision-making, and leadership (Strating and Nieboer, 2009).

Another study conducted by Kalisch et al. (2010) using the Nursing Collaboration Survey (NTS) revealed that “a cross-sectional study with a sample of 3675 nursing staff from 5 hospitals and 80 different patient care units” (Kalisch et al., 2010, p. 943). The participants completed the (NTS), a 33 item questionnaire with a likert-scale type system from always (5) to rarely (1). The study shows that Collaboration in acute care units was high because of shared decision-making. This can lead to job satisfaction with a present position and occupation (Kalisch et al., 2010).

Application to Nursing Practice, Education, and Research

The concept of collaboration might be utilized as a part of the practice, training, and exploration. Collaboration in nursing practice is important since it enhances health care system. In the literature, according to a study by (Vaziraini, Hays 2013), improving communication and collaboration among doctors and nurses can improve satisfaction among participants and improve patients’ satisfaction and quality of care. In addition, collaboration can help in any discipline to improve and enhance the patients care especially in research and education areas where collaboration  is essentialConceptual Map

Figure 1. Given the following map

This conceptual maps indicates summary and integration of collaboration, and it is based on attributes, antecedents and consequences of  collaboration.

Antecedents                                     Attributes                                   Consequences

o   Jobs satisfaction

o   Improve quality of care

o   Satisfaction with services

o   Cost Control

o   Open communication and information sharing

o   Understanding professional rules

o   Shared health goals

o   Concerted effort

o   Interdependent collaboration

o   Shared decision-making


In conclusion, collaboration has a key role in improving health care in a therapeutic field. Both the patients and nurses have a trusting relationship environment in medical health care. The paper discussed some key terms, such as attributes, antecedents, and the consequences of collaboration to better describe the collaboration system. This paper indicated that in order to understand the concept of collaboration, some meaningful definitions have to be discussed.. It was also observed that the preferred concept of collaboration is based on the framework of the theory.


Bredow, S.J, & Peterson, T.S. (2009). Middle Range Theories Application to Nursing Research (2nd ed.).Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Fernandez, R., Kozlowski, S., Shapiro, M., & Salas, E. (2008). Toward a definition of collaboration

in emergency medicine. Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal Of The Society For Academic Emergency Medicine, 15(11), 1104-1112. doi: 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2008.00250.x

Kalisch, B., Lee, H., & Rochman, M. (2010). Nursing staff collaboration and job

satisfaction. Journal Of Nursing Management, 18(8), 938-947. doi:10.1111/j.


LePine, J. A., Piccolo, R. F., Jackson, C. L., Mathieu, J. E., & Saul, J. R. (2008). A Meta-

analysis of collaboration processes: Tests of a multidimensional model and relationships with team effectiveness. Personnel Psychology, 61(2), 273-307. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2008.00114.x

McCulloch, P. P., Rathbone, J. J., & Catchpole, K. K. (2011). Interventions to improve

collaboration and communications among healthcare staff. British Journal Of Surgery, 98(4), 469-479. doi:10.1002/bjs.7434

McKay, C., & Crippen, L (2008). Collaboration through clinical integration. Nursing

Administration Quarterly, 32(2), 109-116

Petri, L. (2010) Interdisciplinary collaboration. Nursing Forum, 45(2), 73-82.


Pilcher, T. (2009). Collaboration and collaboration in critical care. Nursing In Critical Care, 14(2).

Walker, L. O, & Avant, K.C. (2011). Strategies for Theory in Nursing (5th ed.). Upper Saddle

River, NJ: Prentice Hall.


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