Bilingual Proposal and Plan
This proposal presents the implementation of the transitional bilingual program by specifying the overarching goals and programs followed in achieving them. They become early-exit programs when learners receive instructions for up to two years and late-exit programs when learners get the bilingual instructions during the elementary stage. The latter typically takes place up to the sixth grade. During those programs, English proficient is often the primary long-term goal. Late-exit programs are associated with accelerated academic gains (Ray-Subramanian, 2011). In this proposal, the focus is on the integration of English and Spanish speakers. It introduces the key players in the programs, such as the teachers, staff, administrators, parents, and the community. This bilingual program proposal integrates instructional structures by offering literacy to students through deploying two languages. The goal is to enhance biliteracy and bilingualism.
To ensure that students attain the goals stipulated in the grade-level standards. While there exist different purposes based on the set bilingual programs, the mentioned goal is a shared milestone in all of them.
Enhance the cultural understanding of both English and Spanish language. This is important because it facilitates cultural integration into the languages and aids in properly utilizing language concepts based on the context.
Structure of the Program
The program is structured to address:
The significance of time. A bilingual education system, just like other education programs, is structured to run over a specified period. For example, the early exit occurs up to two years, and the late exit progresses to the elementary phase (Ray-Subramanian, 2011; Edwards, 2015).
Best time of the day for work- Scheduling for learning is determined by the teachers, administrators, and students. Here, it is essential to highlight that assessments are done to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the students during the intake phase. Parents are also involved, and this helps in structuring a learning road map.
Ambiguities. Cultural diversities primarily govern this. For this reason, teachers should be bilingual and bi-literate.
Size of the workgroup-The administration determines the class’s size through consultation with the teachers (Edwards, 2015). The program must also adhere to the set educational standards.
The bilingual class includes speakers, some with pure English background and others with Spanish. The existence of the two sets ensures that students learn from each other. For total integration of the program, bi-literate and bilingual teachers form part of the program. The significance of their inclusion is to assist students in integrating a second language as part of their instructions. The students are guided on how to receive education in the English language conveniently. Still, it must first be understood in Spanish for them to have a better understanding of the program’s objectives. Here, English is taught as a different class. However, all the other courses are in Spanish, and the progress into English is made gradually. Even after English has been integrated with the instructions, the native languages are still used in some elaborations (Reynolds, 2014; Edwards, 2015). For these reasons, teachers should be fluent in both languages and equally understand the cultural backgrounds of the two languages.
Transitional Bilingual Education (TBE) is structure into both early and late exit programs. Implementation in the early phase uses the student’s native language, which helps the learners understand the foundation of the studies. Besides, this phase sets out guidelines used in the second phase to introduce a different language (Reynolds, 2014). TBE (in this context) recommends up to 40 percent guidance using Spanish during the early exit phase, and the rest should be in English until the 6th grade. In each of the cases, the classes are segregated by separating learners who are fluent in English (Ray-Subramanian, 2011).
The development of TBE to facilitate transition into a fully English integrated class while using instructions in the first language is essential. At any given time, the implementation is configured to allow the students to grasp all the required content at every stage of their learning process instead of discriminating students in the learning process due to language barriers (Reynolds, 2014). Thus, in developing the TBE, curriculum developers must consider and acknowledge that the different languages can stall learning, harming the objectives discussed at the beginning of this proposal. Furthermore, when English replaces a minority language like Spanish, subtractive bilingualism occurs, leading to monolingualism (Reynolds, 2014). Thus, since this is a delicate issue in the TBE programs, it is essential to align the programs with the English-only objectives and assimilate different ideologies.
During the implementation phase, the programs must match the realistic transformations in the education system (Reynolds, 2014). Thus, even though the TBE aspires to strike a balance in Spanish and the English language, the external environment tends to prompt learners to have a faster understanding of the English language in a manner that approximates native language understanding.
Integration of Teachers and Administrators into TBE Programs
One of the fundamental considerations in TBE programs is hiring teachers who are already bilingual and bi-literate. These teachers must depict an excellent understanding of the program, the curriculum, differentiation methods, instructional methodologies, and how to proceed with the assessments (Edwards, 2015). The teacher must understand the grade levels in a particular field at the entry point and possess the Bilingual Education Endorsement. This means that the teachers understand the expected standards and are well-equipped with the skills needed to prepare students for assessments. These qualifications are also crucial during introductions as it makes the students confident during the learning process. That is, they feel that the educators connect with their culture and learning journey. Teachers who understand the structure of the Spanish language and who share common cultural norms with the students are likely to connect easily with the students (Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2019). While a common culture is not a requirement in TBE, it is an added advantage in the teaching practice.
For administrators, the qualifications approximate those of teachers but should have managerial knowledge (Edwards, 2015). They must possess all the basic requirements to professionally manage students, teachers, parents, and the community. This means adherence to the TBE standards.
Family and Community Integration into the TBE Programs
Parents and guardians must active participate in the TBE scheduling. First is the understanding that their children have the right to language support during the learning process, which allows them to participate in the program and other related activities. For example, during the intake phase, language assessment consultants should engage the parents in analyzing the results of bilingual assessments. The choice of language can be either English or Spanish, depending on the nature of the engagement. During this stage, recommendations are made that help formulate the best TBE program that matches the child’s competency. The interaction also allows the parent to seek clarifications and have a clearer understanding of the TBE program. Parents should also be informed about the significance of giving instructions in the first language and how it builds on the knowledge of English (Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2019). They must also understand that the enhancement of the first language is not among the TBE program’s goals.
I is essential to indicate that students in TBE programs can face trauma, and familial social-emotional support aids in assisting the students adapt to the learning environment. In response to this, TBE integrates parent education through handbooks, TBE curriculum sharing, and instructional nights. When parents are equipped with such information, they become part of the learning process and support their children in realizing some of the TBE’s goals. Equally, the community, through the school, can help the students access the necessary resources for learning. Furthermore, TBE allows community interactions, and for this reason, most of the staff come from the community. As a result, this enables the staff to engage with students’ cultures, leading to a healthy coexistence. Besides, parents who speak and are fluent in the partner language can form part of governance, for example, through volunteer programs (Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2019; Edwards, 2015).
Assessment and Exit
TBE assessment is guided by the set standards that ensure accountability in all student levels (Edwards, 2015). Assessment is done at each level, which aids in enhancing the program’s quality and ensures student growth. Summative and formative assessments indicate the students’ learning process and offer a more flexible learning approach. Reclassification and monitoring are also essential assessment tools in TBE programs (Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2019). Assessments are also done at the entrance level to determine the baseline of the student’s learning process and strengths.
The program enhances the development of advanced cognitive skills. Learners import knowledge from both languages and employ analytical skills to establish relationships and connections (Fodor, 2017).
Integrated cultures and a broad learning environment enhance the thinking skills among learners.
Learners cultivate cultural understanding and awareness. Each of the languages comes with new cultural practices. To attain an adequate knowledge of the new language, they must understand what the root culture offers. For this reason, teachers are equipped with the necessary expertise to enlighten the students (Fodor, 2017).
Learners enhance reading skills because bilingualism goes beyond the understanding of dual language. Learners are exposed to a new language different from their first one.
Bilingual programs enhance memory and the learners a resistance to dementia.
Research reveals that bilingual learners outperform monolingual ones.
Bilingual adults stand better opportunities for both careers and salaries (Fodor, 2017).
Edwards, V. (2015). Literacy in Bilingual and Multilingual Education. The Handbook of Bilingual and Multilingual Education, 7591. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118533406.ch5
Fodor, Z. (2017). Successful teaching benefits of Content-Based Instruction in Bilingual Education. ICERI2017 Proceedings. https://doi.org/10.21125/iceri.2017.0290
Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education. (2019). Guidance for Defining and Implementing Transitional Bilingual Education (TBE) Programs.
Ray-Subramanian, C. E. (2011). Transitional Bilingual Education. Encyclopedia of Child Behavior and Development, 15011501. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-79061-9_2941
Reynolds, P. (2014). Common Bilingual Education Program Models in the United States of America. Studies in Language and Literature, 34(1).
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