Application of Motivation in Organizational behavior

Organizational behavior

Organization behavior involves the impact of individuals, structures, and groups on organizational performances. Organization behavior incorporates sociological, psychological, communication, and managerial attributes in the operations of an organization. This paper is done with the purpose of culminating the learning obtained in organizational behavior while focusing on real life, and real-time application motivation as a topic. Motivation, in this case, would be applied in a personal working environment within an organizational structure. Motivation has to be considered as a psychological feature that makes an employee act towards the achievement of a set goal or objective. This psychological drive compels reinforcement in action towards achieving the desired goal. Motivation could be in basic impulses of optimizing individual wellbeing, minimizing problem-oriented traits in one’s life, as well as maximizing one satisfaction.

Motivation as an aspect of organizational behavior can be explained in various theories. Some theories explain the general issue of motivation includes mono-motivational theories in which people are thought to do things by seeking to reduce several factors into one such as creating a self-interest motive. Others include motivations that are conscious and unconscious, as well as the Platonic theory of motivation being driven by reason, appetite, and spirit. Theories like Machiavellianism assert that motivation of humans arises from power-seeking and improving on their status. The psychological models and theories of motivation include rational motivation, intrinsic and extrinsic, push and pull, as well as self-control among others (Cofer & Appley, 1967). Each of these theories explains motivation in organizational behavior differently or portrays slight similarities. Rationality is exhibited by all human beings and more even in a practical case of employees in an organization.

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A practical case of motivation brings the topic’s understanding to a limited perspective. Motivation is an aspect of control in organizational behavior. Employee motivation has workers in an organization requiring something that would keep them working for better targets. In most cases, salaries play a key role in the motivational behavior of employees. Salaries determine much of the employees’ decisions to work towards achieving various goals or their decisions to change from one organization to another (Hatch, 2006). Strategic management, therefore, enforces strategies that would motivate employees to a point whereby they would hardly have the will to move to another organization. Poor salaries can have a bad implication on employee productivity. Productivity of workers could deteriorate in quality and in quantity.

The aspect of worker motivation could be linked to the fact that people differ greatly on their personality dimensions referred to as locus of control. This aspect is on a belief by individuals concerning the locations of those factors controlling their behavioral patterns within an organization (Gollwitzer, 1999). While these locations are believed to originate from external factors by some individuals, other believe that the opportunities to controlling people’s behaviors as motivational factors come within themselves.

Motivating groups of people such as workers requires the use of general strategies or one can make use of specific motivational appeals. In general motivational strategies, both soft sell and hard sell can be used (Gollwitzer, 1999). In soft sell, strategies, logical appeals are used alongside emotional appeals, praising and offering advices. The use of hard-sell strategy may consist of a highly sensitive method that can cause emotions on both extremes. The hard sell motivational strategy employs, barter, pressure, outnumbering, and ranking. This strategy highly motivates the best performers in an organization but demoralizes those who are down in the list of organizational performance. On the other hand, specific motivational appeals are found to focus on those facts that are provable, right, and wrong factors, as well as awarding and threatening employees based on their productivities or behaviors (Cofer & Appley, 1967).

The theory established by Job Characteristics model uses job design as a way of improving employee motivation. The model asserts that all jobs have could be assumed to have five characteristics that are key to motivational behavior in the workplace. The first characteristic is skill variety in which any job requires different skills as well as talents if an employee has to complete a set of different activities within the job specification. An employee in this case would be motivates by working on a task that fits within his or her skills and talent abilities. The same factor may be used to motivate workers in developing the skill power through human capital development programs (Cofer & Appley, 1967).

Task identity

Another characteristic of consideration is task identity, which refers to the aspect of completing an entire and identifiable work in contrast to a partial activity that happens to be part of the entire task. The motivational factor, in this case, is the urge to be identified with a certain task and recognition on the aspect of being in a position tackle the kind of job. The impact of the task performed on the lives of other people or workers within the organization is another characteristic termed as task significance. A work would handle a given task in a better way if the task were likely to positively impact on the lives of other people or workers within the organization (Hatch, 2006). The other characteristics under the job characteristic model include autonomy and task feedback. Autonomy involves the freedom given to employees or workers in doing their job or in accomplishing a given task. The freedom space ensured in this case motivates the worker by feeling highly valued and trusted such that he has the freedom to do things without being controlled. Task feedback is a great motivational factor. People would always want to get feedback in whatever activities they have worked. Good results act as motivating features in any job description. Feedback may, however, be a demoralizing factor to poor performance in an organization.

Sometimes employee recognition programs may be initiated to improve on organization behavior in motivation. Employees can be recognized through many ways other than providing them with gift or points awards. The culture of the organizational corporate management could be used as one of the many ways of recognizing employees in an organization. Changes in corporate culture can make the organizational management reach or meet most of its goals or initiative. This aspect of corporate culture adjustments happens in collaboration with connection of employees to the core values as well as beliefs of the organization. Employees’ recognition is mainly strategized and is considered the most important program in improving employees’ retention and motivating them as well as positively influencing the organizational situation in finance. Points and gifts were highly used traditionally to motivate employees (Cofer & Appley, 1967). The modern way of ensuring employee recognition is the strategic recognition and it has the ability of serving or leading to a serious business influence in a way that the organization can advance its strategic objectives or goals in a more measurable way. Innovation is a great aspect of motivating credibility and good performance within an organization as a whole (Cofer & Appley, 1967). Organizations are solely motivated by the market characteristics and the prevailing completion in the industry and market.

A look at the Need theories portrays motivation as being the process used in allocating energy in order to maximize the satisfaction of needs. The theory of needs can be specified to Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs that motivate individuals on different scopes. The content theory of motivation is broken into Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs plus the Herzberg’s two-factor theory. Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs theory portrays five hierarchical classes in which case Maslow shows that people are mainly motivated by unsatisfied needs (Koltko-Rivera, 2006). An employee or individual would fit to the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs that are ranked form the most basic to those needs that are complex in nature. The ranking is set to begin with physiological needs that include hunger, thirst, sleep, and other basic human needs. An individual would be motivated to work to achieve these basic needs since he or she can hardly live without. Once a person acquires the basic needs, the next thing he or she needs to work towards is safety, security, shelter, and good health. These needs are basic but not as basic as food, drink, and sleep (Koltko-Rivera, 2006). At a certain point, the individual would want to fit in a certain group usually of better traits and he or she would work towards the achievement of that. The need to be recognized would come after fitting into the desired group. After recognition, the need for self-actualization would then come in and employees would work towards higher ranks in an organization as an aspect of the need for self-actualization.

Motivation is a key aspect in organizational behavior. Employees would always want to develop through their lives a factor that calls for motivation. Motivation should be applied with respect to the culture and customs of an organization (Ash, 1992). It is also great to consider that motivations as an aspect of organizational behavior has to be incorporated along with other organizational behaviors including personality development, stress combating practices, good attitude, good performance management, good leadership, team building, and good decision-making processes for achieving organizational goals. Motivation, therefore, has to be applied in a personal working environment within an organizational structure and be considered as a psychological feature that makes an employee improve on his or her productivity and behavioral patterns.


Ash, M. (1992). Cultural Contexts and Scientific Change in Psychology: Kurt Lewin in Iowa.      American Psychologist, Vol. 47, No. 2, 198–207.

Cofer, C. N., & Appley, M. H. (1967). Motivation: Theory and Research. New York, London,     Sydney: John Wiley & Sons.

Gollwitzer, P. (1999). Implementation intentions: Strong effects of simple plans. American           Psychologist Vol. 54 No.7, 493–503.

Hatch, M. (2006). Organization Theory: Modern, symbolic, and postmodern perspectives, 2nd      Ed. . Oxford: Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-926021-4.

Koltko-Rivera, M. (2006). Rediscovering the later version of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: Self-   transcendence, and opportunities for theory, research, and unification. Review of General         Psychology, Vol. 10 No.4, 302–317.



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