Nothing stays with us in life as powerfully as the images of our parents we take with us into adulthood. A harsh father, a loving mother, a single parent who was on the edge of exhaustion, but always available… The emotions attached to these memories affect our adult decisions. These recollections influence how we see ourselves, who we believe we can be in the adult world, and who we see when we look in the morning mirror.
In the equity of the universe, it seems unfair that the species which spends the most time in its home before heading into the world is most influenced by its parents. When looking across the animal kingdom, lion cubs are ready to hunt for themselves after a number of months. Sea turtles are born on the beaches, devoid of any parental influence.
Those lucky enough to make it back to water are immediately on their own. What about birds that sit in the nest for a few weeks, and then are pushed out, to fly, or fail?
Many young adult homo-sapiens leap into maturity with much the attitude. It’s my time to fly. Yet as people, we live in social system infinitely more complex than lions, turtles, or birds. So why, in the cosmic order of things, do human children spend 16-20 years under the care of their parents, only to leap into the world, and still be affected by the images of their parents strengths and weaknesses, sometimes for the rest of their lives?
Langston Hughes and Anzia Yezierska were as different from one another as turtles and lions. Each started their lives in this country as part of poor minority families. Anzia lived in the ghettos of early 20th century Manhattan, and the Langston in the conflict between slave owners and abolitionists of the Midwest. Anzia’s father lived in her home, and her family had a strong heritage as Russian Jews who had immigrated to the U.S. with hundreds of others from their homeland. Langston grew up in the care of his grandmother, in a lonely farm in Kansas. His father was a lawyer in Mexico, and his mother made her livelihood on the stages in Kansas City. In the midst of this dissimilarity, these two writers left images of their desires, and their experiences with their parents, particularly their fathers, on the pages they penned. One could say that their fathers were the silent partner, contributing in unseen ways to all their work.
Anzia Yezierska’s the Bread Givers
Anzia Yezierka’s life rise to popularity, and financial success was a classic retelling of the American dream for a poor immigrant family. Her family immigrated to the United States in the late 1890s. They settled in the lower east side of Manhattan, and set about to both recreate the culture of their homeland, and make a new living in the new world. Much of Anzia’s life was a declaration of this same sort of conflict. And to understand the writer and woman she became, one must first examine these skirmishes between old vs. new, and desire vs. reality. She lived in a new world where the land flowed with milk and honey, but in the Manhattan’s lower east side, people lived in air ducts, and children sold fish in the streets for pennies. The culture of her homeland was woven into the threads of her family, yet all around this new world offered the promise of a new life for those who could reach out and embrace it. Successful immigrant families pulled themselves up out of poverty, purchased businesses, and eventually left the crowded foul streets, but Anzia’s experience was different.
In this swirling maelstrom, where the old and new collided, a family needs its father to chart a course through the confusion. In Anzia’s world, the patriarch was the decision maker, and the provider. He is the one who was responsible for bringing the family to the new world, and the family looked to him for guidance. However, in Anzia’s case, her father would not take on the role of provider. Her father was a Talmudic Rabbi. His chosen purpose was to study the Hebrew scripture, and pray, and be able to bring the light to the world. The rabbi’s did not work, but spent their time studying, and discussing the holy books in the synagogue. The burden of supporting the family was pushed down onto the wife, and children. It was the wife’s and children’s sacred duty to support the rabbi, and embrace this shift in responsibility regardless of the hardship it brought, because of the blessing the rabbi could bring to the world through the reading, and preaching of the holy books. As Anzia wrote of the patriarch in The Bread Givers, who was also a rabbi, “He has chosen to have his portion in the next world, not in this one.”
The culture of Russia accepted this shift of family responsibility. The economic and social influence of a Russian Jewish family very likely limited to the same neighborhood for an entire lifetime. In Russia, the family would know those who were rabbis, and even come together to help a growing family so the rabbi could be free to study, and pray. This environment could meet the emotional and social needs of the family, and life continued in the same pattern for generations. However, in America, each man, woman and child were not only expected to pull his or her own weight, but the promise of a better life was held out like a carrot on a string before them. All around Anzia’s family was the evidence that men and women could better themselves. Glistening white buildings on the upper end of Manhattan rose in stark contrast to her family’s dirty, dreary apartment. Some men and women had clean clothes, carriages, and enough money to eat in restaurants. The evidence, and the opportunity was a daily reminder of what could be, yet Anzia’s own father remained locked in his heritage, and his chosen clerics role.
From this conflict, Anzia’s personal experiences splashed onto pages with unusual clarity. The Bread Givers is seen as her finest work, possibly because it flowed from her heart, and her personal experience.
On these pages she was able to argue with her father. She was able to describe in detail the choices her family had to make in order to survive.
She was able, with some sort of finality, to justify her own actions to the world, possibly to herself, but most importantly, to her father. She was able to put her own family onto paper, and look at it from outside the day-to-day experience of begging for bread. She was able to say, “This is what I was, this is what I have become, and this is why.”
There are four elements from The Bread Givers that give specific insight into the person Anzia became, and how this formation relates to her father’s role in her, and her family’s life. Each is a point of conflict is a skirmish between old and new or an emotional battle between what is, what Anzia wanted, and what could be. The first, as already discussed, is the difficult economic situation created by her father’s rabbinical duties. Her father was expected to lead, and provided for the family. Anzia’s father lead, but did not provide. His time was given to God to study the holy books. So the economic responsibility was passed along to mama, and the children. Thus father was indirectly responsible for the lingering poverty which engulfed Anzia’s early life.
Secondly, and adding to this first conflict was that religious life for Anzia’s family was not like that of other American’s. Many religious practices are more of a club membership. Christians attend church once, or twice a week. Beyond this, their religious involvement is a title. Anzia’s Jewish heritage, however, was a lifestyle. Every aspect of life was affected by the Orthodox Jewish tradition. The family followed dietary laws. On the Sabbath, when other children played, the Jewish community closed their doors, and rested. The Jewish calendar has 7 different festivals throughout the year, each of which points them back to ancient times when God forged his personal people form the tribes of the earth, and set them apart as his own.
In a closed social system, such as the one rural Russia provided, this lifestyle was the norm. But in America, this cloistered Jewish culture was accented by the comparison to a fast moving, promising new life. In Russia, life had continued unchanging for generations, but the enticement of America was to find the pledged new life. America was the land of freedom, personal as well as economic. To throw off her past lifestyle, and accept the promises of the new world, Anzia had to discard that which her father devoted his life to, holding onto the Jewish heritage of the past. In choosing to pursue economic progress, she was choosing to reject him. This perceived abandonment of her father, and her father’s leadership in her life left Anzia empty. She later wrote that pursuing the obsession to lift herself out of material poverty left her with poverty of the soul.
The magnitude of Anzia’s decision to move from her family’s heritage toward her own destiny can only be understood from the perspective of the family. And the familial considerations further created emotional strife from which Anzia could never separate herself. In Russia, and in America, the family was the foundation for success. One partner was the bread winner. The other kept the home, and provided a safe haven from which the warrior could come forth, compete in the marketplace, and return to find safety, and shelter. In Anzia’s New York, families built successful teams, and rose out of poverty to receive the promise of a better life. Family was also the source of identity. Within the family children received the comfort and nurturing they needed to find courage to step into their own adult lives.
This experience was also the cultural understanding of the Jewish community. It was the hope that a man would rise to a place of economic success, so that his wife could be released from economic responsibility. A successful man’s gift to his wife was that she could keep the home and the kids without any other worries. This strong family structure identified the Jewish life, and its continuance was dependant the woman’s growing economic dependence. To shed this lifestyle meant that Anzia was further distancing herself from her heritage and a relationship with her father.
A fourth factor that shaped Anzia was in relation to her father’s distant involvement was the anger over the conditions which his choices created. This anger, directed at others, family, children, fathers foolish decisions surfaced repeatedly in The Bread Givers.
Mother in the book continually reprimands her children severely for the least transgression. Father buys an empty store, having been swindled by a smooth talking shop keep, and mother unleashes a tirade like water finally forcing its way through a failing dam. But the anger is most clearly seen in a chapter regarding the landlady, and her request for the monthly rent.
The land lady appears at the door one day, requesting her due rent. Father pretends not to hear her, and continues to pray. In frustration, the landlady knocks the holy book from father’s hand, steps on it, and demands her late rent. Father’s response is to slap her twice, from which she gets a bloody nose, and father is arrested. The whole scene is an amusing juxtaposition of the old values which father holds against the new world necessity of paying the rent. When Reb Smolinsky (the father) says he can’t pay because the kids are not able to find work, the landlady explodes “Why don’t you go to work?” For this railing accusation, she becomes the villain of the rest of the chapter, but was this not the question burning inside Anzia? She was the character in the story that had to sell fish on the street to buy bread for dinner. She was the one who shared a single toothbrush with her siblings. She was the one who used a piece of torn shirt for a towel, which really had lost its ability to be a towel. “We only had a small piece of one of father’s torn shirts as a towel, which we used to wipe the dirt from one or our faced to the other as we washed.”
Something happens in the heart of a person when living is reduced to existing. For a while the person will look to themselves for an answer to solve the problems. If none can be found there, he or she will look to the community for reasons for the troubles. Lastly, and reluctantly will a person turn and begin to assess blame to those who should be protecting and providing for them. After a childhood of poverty, Anzia finally turned her blame into anger, and then the anger into a motivation for personal change. This place of personal emotional disorder was the cauldron which forged Anzia fiercely independent spirit. Her decision was that her life would be her own.
She became a self-directed person. Her emotional struggle and the refreshing bluntness with which she caught the details of life on the lower east side of Manhattan earned her attention, and fame, and a steady rise out of poverty’s sticky grasp. Yet she was a person caught between two worlds as an adult. She has torn herself from the heritage and cultural identity of her father, yet that heritage left he unsuited to be completely a member of the wealthy caste into which she had ascended. She moved for a short time to the wealthy community of Hollywood, only to return after a year to the neighborhood she called home.
In one of the final chapters of The Bread Givers, Anzia reflected on her leaving, and returning through a poignant story of her mother’s death. Her character had left the family, and become a teacher. At the news of her mother’s failing health, she returns home to find her sisters gathered. They each have remained in a poverty-strewn life. In the middle of the chapter, the father arrived home, and as they discuss the future without mother, one daughter reminds her father of the joy of having their departed sister home again. “And what will she do?” Cries Reb Smolinsky. “Take her teaching wages, and give them to her father like a good daughter should?” Even in the death of her mother, at her father’s moment of greatest need, and in her own emotional watershed, she is unable to have his approval.
A person’s process of building self assurance and personal confidence begins in a family, with healthy emotional connectedness to that primary unit. Anzia aborted that process, and left the nurturing relationship within her father’s home. She set out on her own dangerous journey of Americanization, and along the way fell victim to the idea that the American dream was reaching for someone else’s dreams, or having someone else’s values. Her father and mother found their American dream, as did the sisters in the book. Anzia’s opinion of her success may have well been captured in the title of another of her books, published in 1932, All I Could Never Be.
Langston Hughes was born on February 1, 1902 in Joplin, Missouri. His father left his home early. His mother was Carrie Mercer Langston Hughes, and sought her living on the stages of Kansas City. His grandfather was Charles Langston, an Ohio abolitionist. As a young boy he grew up under the care of his grandmother on a rural farm in Lawrence Kansas. In 1914, his mother, and his stepfather moved the family to Lincoln, Illinois. In high school back in Cleveland, he was elected class poet, and editor of the senior class yearbook. He taught English to some families in Mexico in 1921 and also published his first prose piece, “Mexican Games.” An excerpt from an article about Langston Hughes in Encarta 97, it says that he was discovered in 1925, while he was working as a busboy in a restaurant in Washington, D.C., when he accidentally left three of his poems next to the plate of Vachel Lindsay, an American poet. She helped him get publicity for his works which launched his writing career.
Langston Hughes was the father of the Harlem Renaissance and made many contributions on the behalf of African- Americans which led to the end of discrimination and segregation. Hughes was an important figure in the Harlem Renaissance because he was one of the most talented and famous black writers in his time. The Harlem Renaissance was the black movement during the 1920’s which allowed the world got to see another side of African- Americans. People saw that blacks were poets, writers, talented artists with a valuable contribution to make to the American melting pot. Many barriers like segregation were decreased noticeably as a result of this urban artistic reformation.
Hughes was influenced by Jean Toomer, another black writer and poet. It seemed as though Hughes used his poetry as a way to combat against the ongoing struggle that African- Americans still face today. Many believe that his best poems were inspired by the city of Harlem. He was even called the “Poet-Laureate of Harlem” because of his understanding for the city.
One of Hughes’s works mentioned in the book, The Langston Hughes Reader, is entitled, My Most Humiliating Jim Crow Experience. This short story is a true recollection from his childhood, and demonstrated the constant struggle against segregation, and prejudice. Hughes and a white friend of his go into a restaurant, and after being served, the white clerk charges him six times what the food is worth. He argued with the clerk and finally left with his friend. This story served as motivation for men years later. A group of white and black workers walked in and demanded to be served, together, and with equal treatment. They did get their meals and ended the segregation in that particular restaurant.
As was true with Anzia Yezierska, the experiences of Langston’s youth built within him the motivation to pursue his talents. He pursued just and equitable treatment for men and women of color. He also boldly pursued his creative desire to write, and communicate to others the lessons and longings he had learned while growing up under the care of his grandmother.
As a young man Langston was not raised with a distant father who placed other duties above those of his family. Langston matured through most of his life without a father. His mother and father’s marriage lasted only a short time, after which his father moved to Mexico to work with a successful American company. Langston’s idea of a better life was not anchored to climbing an economic ladder. His experiences were far removed from the lower east side’s chaos, and economic desires.
Langston grew up on the lap of his grand mother, as she told him the stories of his grand fathers. They had fought, and died during the abolitionist movement. His grand mother was also involved with the Underground Railroad, and had helped many slaves escape the South to an accepting Northern culture. Like many southern black children of the time, Langston was also raised on the biblical stories of how everyday people overcame injustice, and persecution. His grandmother’s oral recitation painted pictures in young Langston’s heart of a time, and place where black and white folk would be treated equally. Every young person develops his or her own dreams for the future, and Langston planted his desires in the fertile history of his grandmother’s heritage, and dreams of equality, friendship, and personal expression to find root, and grow.
Langston’s book, The Big Sea, is his autobiography. His four line introduction sums his life’s philosophy: “Life is a big sea, full of many fish. I let down my nets and pull.” Langston had learned that like sailing on the sea, life is not something one controls. It is a journey, filled with characters, experiences, fish, and sailors to share the trip. He felt that life was a destination to travel to, and like the sea, there were obstacles and opportunities to be experiences along the way.
The first chapter, “Beyond Sandy Hook” launches Langston into the big blue sea as cabin boy on a ship to Europe. He tells his reader so much about himself, his education, and his unique ability to blend with the group of people with which he travels. The journey starts as he throws into the bay the books from Columbia University. Langston spend one year there, and found the experience so distasteful that he threw the book in the bay as he began his adult journey. Behind him also lay New York, and all he called familiar. He had found the confidence on his grandmothers knee, and during his high school career in Cleveland, Oh that upon reaching adulthood, 21 years, he was ready to throw off those things that he personally did not like, and strike out on his own.
His bunkmates, a Puerto Rican named Rico, and a man from Kentucky called George. These two didn’t understand more than every 10th word that the other spoke, but it kept them laughing, and Langston laughed right along with them. When men grow up with injustice, such as was normally seen by a Negro at this time in our country’s history, they have a choice to make. A man can get bitter. His anger at how things should be, compared to how they are can overtake his emotional balance, and send him spiraling down a self-destructive pathway. Or he can learn that injustice is a part of that big sea, like pulling up a boot when you are fishing for lobster. The injustice can be thrown back into the sea, and the nets let down for another catch.
Langston likely learned the latter while in his grandmother’s care in Kansas. It takes the perspective of an elder to see past the difficulties of today, and be able to “live at peace with all men, as much as it is possible with you.” His ability to peacefully set this tone to his book is evidence of the wisdom that was passed from his grand mother’s generation to his own.
The Big Sea is a collection of stories, non-linear events that expose the inner workings of Langston Hughes. So while the first chapter is the launch of his sailing journey to Europe after a year of studies at Columbia, later in the book he presents stories from high school, Columbia, and visiting his father. While in Mexico to see his father, he says “My father was unlike any man I had ever met. He was only interested in making money, and I didn’t like him.” His father was an educated man, has schooled in a law degree in the South, but because of lingering bigotry, he had moved to Mexico to practice law. He worked for American companies, and banks, and thought “like other white men.” The patriarchal connection between Langston and his son did not languish unfulfilled as it did with Anzia. Anzia had grown up under her father’s care, only to never have the connection she sought. For Langston that connection was never an option. He was a lonely child, a creative and educated man. But somewhere along the way his need for acceptance and love was met, which left him more whole, ready to move on into life.
Langston makes a large presentation of his heritage, in this chapter as he describes his father, in the first chapter as he talks about his bunk mates, and in the chapters which discuss his time in high school. He is neither fully black, nor white. He has French, Indian, Jewish, Scotch and African blood in his veins. From his perspective, he is a man of all races, and convinced that all races can live together peacefully. This may be reason for some of the distaste for his father. He did not know this man as he matured, and the values which Langston had chosen for his own were opposed to those of his father. For Langston, people were the value of life, and his father traded in the currency of printed money.
Herein is another difference between Anzia and Langston. Anzia matured within the social and moral framework of her father, only to reject it as a means to find her own identity. Langston matured outside that same framework of his father, and once exposed to the goals and morals of his father, he found them distasteful, though not a part of his own heritage.
However, these two creative authors share a similar distinction. Each had trouble finding the close association with their surroundings, and contemporaries. Great accomplishments do not take the place of personal connectedness. Money, personal acclamation, or recognition cannot replace a personal value-base that is built through close contact with parents, family, and community. While a person matures from adolescence into adulthood, the connectedness is pulled upon by social complexities. But in a final evaluation, how a person sees himself, and who he believes he is, and can be, are a set of values that can only be built in a person’s innermost desires by the mentoring relationships, emotional connectedness, affirmation of those to whom to look for approval.
Anzia felt that she had traded material poverty for poverty of her soul. While Langston gave out of the richness of his spirit to the black community, and was the founder of the Harlem Renaissance. His contribution was in the opposite spirit of his father, who wanted to get money to keep, and his mother, who wanted to get money to spend and have a good time. His richness came from wanting to trade in the currency of the human spirit, to benefit, and bless others. This attitude could only have come from his grandmother, who lived similarly, and who had the longest duration of influence on young Langston’s life.
Yet, at the end of his life, Langston had made no lasting relationships. He died in a Harlem hospital, having made no lasting relationships with either men or women. His life spent engaging the afflictions of others; he passed from this live as he spent most of his youth, lonely, and alone. This final epitaph also speaks to the importance of the paternal figure in each of our lives. Anzia returned to the New York she knew at the end of her life to find a degree of connectedness. Langston never really knew a connection with his contemporaries, and he too died alone.
There is no other relationship so filled with potential for good, or potential for harm as that of a child without his or her father. Eighty percent of men currently incarcerated in the country grew up on homes without fathers. In cities where there is a high degree of fatherlessness, there is a measurably higher degree of crime. In communities where social and religious agencies, such as the YMCA or Chuck Coleson’s Prison Fellowship, have focused on helping rebuild tied between fathers and their children, the crime rates have measurably improved, and the children’s scholastic achievement has risen. While some segments of the modern population have challenged the value of a paternal figure in the home at all, the modern and previous centuries experience paints a different picture.
Fathers are the representation of authority in the home. Fathers have a sense of guiding the family in a direction that is for the benefit of every member. It is not that the maternal figure in a home cannot fill these roles, they can. But there is a connectedness between childhood, when all authority and care giving is in the hands of others, and adulthood, when the job of care giving falls at the individual’s feet, that must be passed along from parent to child. Perhaps the most important connectedness, that which makes the largest impact in the child is the approval of the father, and the security this will create his son or daughter. Are there any words more desirable for a child to hear from his or her father than “Well done. I’m proud of you?”
Bloom, Harold. Blooms Major Poets: Langston Hughes. PA: Chelsea House, 1999
Cooper, Floyd. Coming Home from the Life of Langston Hughes. NY: Philomel Books.
The Holy Bible, American Standard Version. IA: Parson’s Technology Inc. 1998
Hughes, Langston. The Big Sea. NY: Knopf. 1940
Hughes, Langston. The Langston Hughes Reader. NY: Amereon Ltd. 1976
Yezierska, Anzia. The Bread Givers. NY W.W. Norton, and Co, 1980.
Yezierska, Anzia. All I Could Never Be. NY: Brewer, Warren, and Putnam. 1932.
The Bread Givers, Intro, xvii
The Bread Givers, p. 81
The Bread Givers, p. 248
Cooper, p. 8
The Big Sea, intro.
The Big Sea, p. 6
New American Standard Bible, Romans 12.18
The Big Sea, p. 39
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