agencies of the Department of Homeland Security.

. Identify and describe the major functions of the three agencies of the Department of Homeland Security. Of the three agencies, provide a rationale for which agency you feel has the most significant responsibility as it relates to federal law enforcement.

The United States Department of Homeland Security is under the federal government. It is tasked with the responsibility of public security, border security, anti-terrorism, cybersecurity, customs and immigration, and disaster management and prevention. It is the youngest cabinet department in the United States and was formed in response to the attacks of September 11, 2001, when al-Qaeda hijacked four commercial airlines and intentionally crashing them into the World Trade Center. Coordination of the Homeland Security policy is done at the White House. The agency brought under one umbrella 22 federal agencies and departments. Some of these agencies were the Transportation Security Administration, Customs and Border Protection, and the Secret Service.

The Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is considered as the largest agency of Homeland Security. The function of CBP is to facilitate and regulate international trade, enforcing customs and immigration regulation, and collection of import duties. CBP also examines and inspects cargo and passengers in 328 entry ports. On top of that, the agency prevents and controls the spread of diseases and pests that may harm humans, plants, and animals. They also prevent bio or agro-terrorism that may disrupt the supply of food.

CBP’s 21,370 agents that are under border patrol protect 1,900 miles of the Mexican border and 5,000 miles of the Canadian border. The agents under the Marine and Air Interdiction control the illegal entry of weapons, people, conveyance, and narcotics by air and water. The CBP agents in the department of revenue have a function of collecting entry taxes and duties by enforcing the trade and tariff law. The Canine Program of the CBP is tasked with the detection of terrorists and their apprehension. This is done using working dogs, and these are assigned to border patrol stations and commercial ports in the United States.

The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is an agency under Homeland Security whose authority is based on ensuring security for the traveling public. The TSA is mainly concerned with air travel, and it employs in airports, screening officers, air marshals who are armed in planes, dog handlers, and specialists of explosives. The screening officers have a function of screening property and people for any unlawful properties, and they also control exit and entry points of airports. The Transportation Security Specialists-Explosives are tasked with the duty of finding explosives and bombs and removing them or detonating them to prevent harm to the public. The Air Marshalls maintain order in flights and are mostly dressed in civilian clothes. They take notice of any passengers or property that may cause danger in the plane and neutralize them.

The Secret Service has the function of performing criminal investigations, including the protection of the leaders of America and their families. The Secret Service also safeguards the financial infrastructure and other critical infrastructure in the US. In its protective function, the agency keeps the President and vice president safe together with their families. Former presidents and presidential candidates are also protected. The secret Service collects intelligence and investigates any threats against protectees. The investigative function includes safeguarding the financial and payment systems of the nation against electronic-based and financial crimes. The Secret Service investigates counterfeiting of currency, bank fraud, wire fraud, mail fraud, and operations that are illicit financing.

The Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is the agency with enormous responsibility as it relates to federal law enforcement. This is because it is the agency that covers the most significant jurisdictions in terms of distance and functions. It also employs the highest number of agents.

  1. Explain the purposes of the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) and the National Crime Information Center (NCIC). Identify and discuss the various weaknesses related to the accuracy of the Uniform Crime Report (UCR).

The Uniform Crime Report is a program administered by the FBI. Law enforcement agencies dating back to 1930 voluntarily gave Americans reliable crime statistics through the Uniform Crime Report. The UCR statistics on crime have various purposes and provide law enforcement with information that is required in planning, data formulation, assessment of operations of the police, and resource allocation. This data enables agencies to tackle crime issues at various levels. The Chamber of Commerce and the Chamber of Tourism examine the provided data and how it influences particular jurisdictions that they represent geographically. Researchers of criminal justice use the same data to study the cause, nature, and the movement of crime over a particular period. In order to adequately draft laws and measures that are anti-crime, legislators use this data from the UCR that comes from law enforcement planners, administrators, and private and public organizations dealing with crime problems. The data from UCR is used by news media to update the public regarding the state of crime. It also gives a comparison across the nation.

The National Crime Information Center (NCIC) is an index that is computerized containing all information regarding criminal justice. This information includes fugitive data, criminal record history, missing persons, and stolen properties. This information is availed to local, state, and federal law enforcement and is available 24 hours a day and 365 days a year. The purpose of the NCIC is to give a database that is heavily computerized regarding criminals and crimes. This ensures ready access by all agencies of criminal justice. Any agent making an inquiry can get access to the information in real-time. The information helps in the apprehension of fugitives. The database is also useful in locating people that go missing and even the identification and the returning of stolen property. The NCIC also facilitates in the protecting officers of law enforcement encountering people described in the database.

The weaknesses that are related to the accuracy of the Uniform Crime Report (UCR) include the fact that the information is not appropriate for the compilation of rankings of particular institutions and jurisdictions and give misleading perceptions that badly affect geographical entities and also their residents. The FBI advises against ranking the participating agencies based on crime data alone. Ranking ignores the unique features of each jurisdiction and ignores other factors that affect the occurrence of crime. Such factors include the level of urbanization, population density, economic conditions, family conditions, mode of transportation in a region, and cultural elements such as religion, education, and recreational characteristics.

  1. Describe the major roles of police executives using the Mintzberg model of chief executive officers. Of the executive roles described in the model, provide a rationale for which role you feel is the most important for a chief executive officer’s success.

The Mintzberg Model is a model that was introduced by Henry Mintzberg, and it states that a police executive has three primary roles. These roles include the informational role, the interpersonal role, and the decision-maker role. The interpersonal role is where the police executive is a head figure offering leadership and performing liaison duties. The police executive, therefore, becomes the head of the precinct, attends parades, gives speeches, attends graduations, swears in recruits, and holding meetings with dignitaries from abroad.

The informational role of the police executive entails inspecting and monitoring the dissemination information, and also acting as a spokesman for the department. The executive gives information to the public and also the members of the department. It ensures that the department is working sufficiently, and operations are as smooth as possible.

The final role of the police executive is the role of decision making. Under this role, the executive works as a disturbance handler, entrepreneur, allocator of resources, and take part in negotiations. It is vital for the leader to handle situations swiftly for problems to be solved quickly and not crop up later.

The decision making role is the most important for a chief executive officer’s success. The ability to make decisions is the most important in any leadership position because all subordinates look up to the leader to offer guidance. Guidance is only provided if the leader can come up with solutions and make critical decisions about the way forward of matters. Decision making is what feeds the other two roles that are informational and interpersonal. Communication is efficient only if decisions have been well thought out. Under the interpersonal role, offering leadership means coming up with solutions and swiftly allocating resources. Therefore, the decision making role is the most crucial role for the chief executive officer’s success.

  1. Examine two legislative enactments that are in place to help combat terrorism. Provide your opinion on the effectiveness of these enactments with regard to combatting terrorism.

Various legislative enactments were formulated after the Al-Qaeda terrorist attack on September 11, 2001. These legislation were meant to combat terrorism and neutralize threats. One of these legislations was the Patriotic Act. The USA Patriotic Act was enacted in 2001 and has since been critical in reducing the chances of a new terrorist attack on America. The act modified the investigative tools to include modern technology hence bringing the investigative tools to the modern era. The law removed barriers to national security investigations and presented investigators with tools similar to those used in non-national security issues. The legislation protected the civil liberties of America and their privacy. It strengthened security at the ports and presented tools to fight the spreading of methamphetamine.

This act has been very successful in combating terrorism because international terrorist attacks have been an uncommon element in the last almost two decades. The fact that intelligence tools were modernized ensured that tracking of threats is done swiftly and in a more accurate manner, and it is at per with any technology any nation in the world may have.

The second legislation enacted to combat terrorism is the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA). This legislative was a bid to modernize the old Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA). By doing so, it aimed at providing an essential tool to help them get crucial information regarding terrorists intending to harm the USA. It allowed intelligence agents to effectively and rapidly monitor terrorist communications in foreign countries but, at the same time, respecting the liberties of USA citizens at home. This was signed into law in 2008 by President Bush. It removed obstacles that were inhabiting the collection of intelligence on targets that were abroad and filled the existent gap in American intelligence.

The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) has been successful in combating terrorism because it had successfully enabled the intelligence agents to close crucial intelligence gaps that were presented before the legislation became law. It has allowed the American government to meet its vital responsibility of stopping new terrorist attacks and protect the American citizens.

  1. Analyze the problems related to determining the actual numbers of hate crimes and what makes hate crimes different from other crimes.

Hate crime is an offense against a person, a group, society, or property motivated by the offender’s hate against the person, the group, the society, or the property. Hate crimes can be applied to the victim’s religion, race, ethnicity, age, gender, or any other personal status. The National Crime Victimization Survey gives a measure of crimes that victims perceive as motivated by the bias of the offender against them due to their association with a group identified by these aspects. For a crime to be termed as hate crime by the NCVS, it has to be reported by the victim within the realm of three types of evidence. One is the use of hate language by the offender, the second is the leaving behind of hate symbols by the offender, and lastly, there must be confirmation by police investigators that the matter was a hate crime.

The problems related to determining the actual numbers of hate crimes include the fact that many cases of hate crime are not thoroughly investigated or are not investigated at all by the police. Many cases are not even reported to the authorities. Proving that an offender said words that are indicative of hate speech could be very hard for victims unless there was another party that witnessed it, or there was some form of recording proving the same. This makes the data collection regarding hate crime insufficient and not indicative of the real scenario on the ground. Another issue is that the data collection system is deeply flawed. This weakness has led the official data that is incomplete and unreliable, and little handle on the hate crime’s true scope. What makes hate crime different from other crimes is that it is hard to prove and what one would call a hate crime, another person would take as casual trash talk. The subjective manner of this crime makes it hard to implement laws or to prove it.

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