Bottom-up accountability in Kenya’s education system

Research Question:

MAIN QUESTION: Is bottom-up accountability a necessity in the process of democratizing Kenya’s education system?
What do I mean by bottom-up accountability?
What can Kenya education borrow from Freire’s “pedagogy of the oppressed”
Ability to safely Critique of authority is essential in democracy (my definition of accountability in this case)
Participatory democracy not just representational democracy?
(Not yet decided if I should include horizontal accountability in my argument as well)
What accountability measures are already in place in Kenya?
*Why is top-down accountability not enough? Why do we need to move from unidirectional accountability to multidirectional accountability for the mechanisms to be effective?
Is top-down accountability unidirectional?
Where does the authoritarian unidirectional approach stem from in history?
Colonialism- education created to teach loyalty, and service to authority, but not rights and entitlement.
Is it because it reinforces hierarchical/authoritarian systems that undermine checks and balance of power from being abused?
What are some weaknesses in the accountability mechanism already in place in the education sector?
Have there been enough efforts in the literature to promote student agency in schools or is it just mostly parents agency promoted through market accountability?
Prefects, and Student councils, Are they really democratic and effective in keeping all parties accountable?
What does a truly democratic education entail according to Freire, and Dewey?
How can bottom-up accountability mechanisms like the yelp system I propose at the end going to resolve the tensions?
What strengths are in bottom-up?
What are prerequisites for them to be effective

Transparency- openness, and accessibility to information/ data

Am I suggesting bottom-up approaches as a panacea to accountability issues in Kenyan education? supplant or supplement? = supplement.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Bottom-up accountability in Kenya’s education system
Just from $9/Page
Order Essay

KEY IDEAS: education vital for democratizing society Bottom-up accountability missing, multidirectional checks and balance system. Going beyond Pedagogical reform to involving students in broader institution decision making through feedback accountability mechanisms, student agency, student-centred learning and decision-making, the democratization of education in Kenya, emancipated learning, transformation in accountability mechanisms approaches, nurturing citizens with high public expectation. Touching on internal political processes in education in Kenya. Ensure learning outcomes align with national objectives of a more democratic country


The Ministry of education in Kenya already recognizes the importance of strong accountability mechanisms in ensuring high-quality education. It already recognizes the vital role education plays in learners/citizens to develop a broad range of values, attitudes, skills, and knowledge relevant to their wellbeing and to their relationships to the community and society. So far the hierarchical/authoritarian system, only emphasizing top-down accountability, that only allows those “above” to give feedback and critique to those “below” is creating a culture of silence and passivity. I expound on this culture of silence and its detriments in the process of democratizing society through Freire’s framework of “the Pedagogy of the oppressed.”

It has made recommendations like increasing school autonomy at the individual institutional level, banning corporal punishment, encouraging open forum systems in schools like prefects and student councils. But such mechanisms have not been fully effective because it is guided democracy and not deeper participatory democracy where students voice truly count.

The research so far on democratising education has mainly focused on reforming student-teacher pedagogy, but has hardly gone beyond advocating for role of students in broader decision making assuming authorities are perfectly rational, as they would be in a utopia Weberian state Further the research tends to concentrate on the rights of the students, but not the rights of the teacher as well in having an avenue for voicing grievances to authority above. Hence, there’s been multiple teacher strikes in Kenya in the last decade. For teachers to teach democracy, they also need to experience it from higher authority to be able to internalize democratic values. They need to be able to hold those above accountable. Blame for inefficiency and poor performance should not just fall on the teachers(UNESCO).

I propose Bottom-up accountability that stretches all across the chain inclusive of all stakeholders may be the way forward, a yelp system essentially. It should still be accompanied by other top-down accountability already in place.


In this essay, I argue for the addition of bottom-up accountability mechanisms to supplement the top-down approaches already in place in the Kenyan education system. There are numerous definitions of accountability but I focus on accountability in terms of being able to give feedback or critique to authority. There are already professional, hierarchical, and market accountability mechanism already in place in the Kenyan education system. But they are not fully effective in enhancing the quality of education because they are unidirectional flow of order that inhibit students from communication to teachers and other leaders. Such an approach to accountability promotes blind obedience to authority, undermining critical citizenry that is essential in holding people in power accountable and combating corruption in the long run. and is based on the “Weberian state” assumption that authority always acts rationally and knows best. Yet, in reality, there are many institutional capacities and patronage that undermine the transparency of operations. Wallis and Dollery, show that in instances where there is weak institutional and administrative capacity, top-down solutions based on the market failure hypothesis are unlikely to improve state effectiveness (see Wallis & Dollery, 2001). Hence, top-down approaches unaccompanied by bottom-up approaches is likely to result in inefficiencies in quality of education as has already been observed of the Kenyan education system. I use Freire’s pedagogical model” The Pedagogy of the oppressed to make my case, In my paper, I add nuance to the literature of democratizing education in developing countries, focusing on accountability mechanisms and on Kenya in particular. So far the literature on democratizing education or on accountability has mostly focused on democratizing the pedagogical models and giving more autonomy to student learning, or it has focused on keeping teachers accountability. To some extent, this is demoralizing for the teacher, because such literature assumes that teachers are the only gatekeepers to a student accessing quality education. However, often teacher behaviour is shaped by the authority above teachers, the headmasters, and school administration, and education officials on sub-county levels to national levels. Teachers are likely to project the same leadership and authority projected upon them by those above them. If they are oppressed they are likely to oppress.
In most countries, teachers have lost decision-making authority, but governments and school leaders have gained authority (Jeong & Luschei, 2018). Thus, if the education system is to be truly democratized, and quality enhanced, then the ability to safely give feedback to those above one, should be extended to teachers as well, and through the entire chain, from the consumers (parents, and especially students), to the top producers( highest educational officials) By bottom-up accountability mechanisms, I mean those mechanisms that allow those subjected to authority to safely express grievances, and critiques and have power to have action taken for the sake of improving the delivery and quality of education. I will focus on adolescent age, due to the maturity level of students, and the ability to develop political consciousness (psychology source).


In the Sessional Paper “Policy Framework For Education”, the Ministry of Education emphasizes that ‘the provision of education and training to all Kenyans is fundamental to the success of the Government’s desire for the development and protection of democratic institutions and human rights’. 12

“the common goal of all democracies is to prepare children to attain the equipment in knowledge and attitude required to carry on a democratic way of life”
2005 the requirement for democratic school leadership was included in Sessional Paper No. 1.

The government recommended Principals should cultivate a democratic and participatory environment in the schools and encourage regular (open fora) where the teachers and students would be encouraged to express their suggestions and grievances. This would provide students with the freedom to express their grievances leading to less frustration and resulting in the reduction of disruptive behaviour. But this method of feedback lacks anonymity which may hinder someone from truly being honest.
In order to reduce the hostility between school prefects/students representatives and the rest of the students, principals should not use students to spy on teachers and fellow students. Similarly, school prefects should at no time prescribe the nature of punishment meted to students although they could supervise punishment.

The government banned corporal punishment in schools and the ban be harmonized with other legal status. However, in another study, teachers expressed an attitude that corporal punishment was necessary even though it was illegalized. This is why anonymity is key.

This policy is mostly just written not been practised though.

Totally Integrated Quality Education and Training (TIQET) – commonly referred to as The Koech Commission 1999 – had highlighted the need for democratic school leadership, noting that the majority of schools had hierarchical and bureaucratic structures, with no clear communication channels. The Commission observed that the hierarchical and bureaucratic structures ‘hampered the participation of students and teachers in school affairs, sometimes leading to students’ indiscipline and general apathy among teaching staff’

‘schools be encouraged to develop organic structures which have open, democratic, collaborative and participatory working systems’.

Why creating a safe avenue for two-way feedback is imperative: Arson is being used in secondary schools as protest politics. This is indicative of contested conditions of education in Kenya today. It reflects that student shave learned that destructive collective actions are effective in getting a response from authorities.

Many articles on how Kenyan education system, like other African countries, learned their hierarchical structures from colonial times.

There is a copious amount of literature on how developing countries have improved education in terms of access over the decades. But not enough attention has been paid to the quality of education that is being extended. Extending poor quality education can have costly consequences that will make redress harder the longer the sector is heading the wrong direction. Thus, these subjects need immediate attention.
The Ministry of Education (MOE)already recognizes that it is encountering many challenges as it deals with accountability in education due to the idea of accountability not being fully embraced by all stakeholders, thus the implementation is difficult. The MOE has made efforts in the past by decentralizing and devolving responsibilities at the national, county, sub-county and even institutional levels through the Kenya Education Sector Support Programme (KESSP). But the devolvement of decision-making responsibilities has mostly been extended to teachers and sometimes parents, but not enough emphasis on student agency yet. Furthermore, according to decentralization reforms are mostly performative, Clear guidelines for coordination, transparency have not bee set causing these policies to be no more than lip-service than actionable. Generally, the focus on the improvement of education quality has been on improving schooling outcomes on an individual basis, the emphasis of relevant skills, not political consciousness necessary for a democratic society. accountability systems, designed by governments with the expressed purpose of equalizing outcomes and standardizing educators’ work, presumably condense agency, as they force or encourage schools to focus on a narrowed scope of authoritative performance goals ( Fuhrman and Elmore, 2004). Overemphasis on control, narrow learning goals, through test-based sanction drive school accountability and generally disregard for students’ social needs may generate attempts to devise subversive strategies (McNeil, 2000) or may result in exit ([1] Achinstein and Ogawa, 2006). Resistance to accountability demands is probably not widespread (Hursh, 2003) as it may imperil one’s job and organizational survival.

A case in Ethiopia shows that Meetings enable students, parents, and others to share their views on conditions and conduct within the school community, serving an important accountability function. Recent reforms broaden local stakeholder participation in structures and processes of school leadership (Mitchell, 2017).

However, this is not enough. A student experience injustice in the form of abuse or any other way may be too afraid, to speak up, if they have to reveal identity. Empirical evidence: Multiple cases of girl pregnancies occurring at all-girls schools (Male teachers left unchecked?) There are other forms of abuses of power (corruption, teacher absenteeism). Thus the choice of anonymity is essential for accountability to work in the education sector.

Democratic education research has emphasized on students been engaged in pedagogical and curriculum reform but there is a dearth of emphasis on engagement in broader decisionmaking involving management of the school. Education needs to develop pupils as significant actors in their socio-cultural contexts (Mclaughin et al, 2015).
Another study identifies three main drivers of change of education quality n developing countries, and bottom-up accountability is one of them: 1) supply-side capability interventions that operate through the provision of physical and human resources, and learning materials; (2) policies that through incentives seek to influence behaviour and intertemporal preferences of teachers, households, and students; (3) bottom-up and top-down participatory and community management interventions, which operate through decentralisation reforms, knowledge diffusion, and increased community participation in the management of education systems (Masino & Niño-Zarazúa, 2016)
Another source shows that there are cultural and historical factors that pose a challenge to the implementation of democratic school reforms in secondary schools in Kenya. Some education practitioners suggest students should not be given the freedom to express their displeasure with teachers and the school administration because they will make demands that are not reasonable and can’t be met by the school.
Other attempts at democratizing education in Kenya:

The teachers and principals identified the students’ participation in the selection of prefects as a major development in democratic reforms in the schools. In most schools, the students nominated those they wanted to hold various positions in the school. In all the schools in phase one of the study, the proposed names were vetted by the teachers who confirmed the final list of the prefects. The principals and teachers considered good conduct, performance in class and ability to manage other students when vetting those who had been nominated.
Student councils, and prefects. They could potentially create an open forum that provides opportunities for open debate and allows for alternative interpretations and perspectives and for seeking consensus on what would constitute appropriate action supported by good reasons.
My critique: But it is not enough accountability because it is not a safe enough avenue without anonymity
My critique: ‘guided democracy sam as representational democracy and it is not enough. There needs to be a more radical and deeper democracy, that gives everyone voice- same idea in devolution decentralized political system, yet corruption persists because those “represented” voices are silenced may be further marginalized, if the representers, such as prefects and students councils get co-opted into the agendas of those in authority and become the sub-oppressor. This article also stresses that for well-designed accountability mechanisms to be created they will need to pay attention to cultural and historical factors

Issues of accountability have been arising from barriers such as the lack of clear communication modes between school administration, students, teachers, and parents. PRescriptions should address this issue n order to reduce chances of information asymmetries leading to exploitation of consumers, quality shading, teacher absenteeism, teacher and student strikes, abuses, and exclusion of marginalized groups from quality education.

Even though feedback is given to the schools after visits have been conducted by MoE officials, the feedback never trickles down to the learners and their parents/guardians. Most of the time the feedback is discussed at the teachers level while other actors in education service provision are left out. The feedback at times reaches the headquarters of MoE but there are no clear mechanisms of responding to such feedback until a crisis emerges.
A two-way approach will ensure feedback is received and also responded to in a systematic and trackable way. Dewey would say that State control of education (and, by implication, the curriculum) could lead to situations where the emphasis was placed upon the needs of the nation rather than the needs of the individual child if education is not truly democratized top-down approaches are not accompanied by bottom-up approaches (Hopkins, 2018)

The system should make it easier for all stakeholders to access information. These include parents, teachers, and students as well as other school administrators. It should be all-inclusive. It should allow each party to give feedback to the party above and also party below (A two-way street).
Technology can enhance accountability systems. It also can strengthen them because of its possible component of anonymity which is vital for those under authority being able to criticize authority safely without the risk of facing unjust repercussions that may deter them from being honest otherwise. Technology can allow one to collect these data in a systematic way.

Yelp system can help show how funds are received and spent. But still, mostly I want to talk about accountability specifically who do you complain to? Not just student but also teacher has an avenue of expressing grievances or commending good services. Every stakeholder should be able to. The Yelp system will help ensure development plans are followed up on and will reduce the chances of poor plans. It can help with the teacher and other administrative performance, leading to students achieving higher and more political consciousness citizens of society who uphold values good for democracy. In this way, two-way accountability is necessary to lead to deepening democracy. Democratic society can’t just happen magically, it has to be embedded into its policies and day to day actions, in this case, education policies,

It will require training on how to best respond to reviews.

Participation in decision making, fosters a sense of ownership, and belonging, and is likely to boost morale for both teachers and students, and overall, enhance quality delivered and outcome of education.

emphasis on promoting bottom-up forms of accountability needs to be balanced by efforts to strengthen and legitimize public authority in developing countries.


Political will is lacking
Institutional incapacities.
Experience has taught Kenyan to have fatalistic attitudes that situations are immutable

Alegre, M.Àngel & Ferrer, G., 2010. School regimes and education equity: some insights based on PISA 2006. British Educational Research Journal, 36(3), pp.433–461.

Anderson A.J. (2005). Accountability in Education. The International Academy of Education (IAE) and the International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP).

Anderson et al., 2015. Transformations in Kenyan Science Teachers’ Locus of Control: The Influence of Contextualized Science and Emancipated Student Learning. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 26(7), pp.599–617.

Anon, 2017. Don’t just blame the teacher when the system is at fault – UNESCO. Ghana News Agency (GNA), pp.Ghana News Agency (GNA), Oct 30, 2017.

Bush, T., 2016. Autonomy, accountability, and moral purpose. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 44(5), pp.711–712.

Chege, M., 2015. Re-inventing Kenya’s university: From a “Graduate-mill” to a development-oriented paradigm. International Journal of Educational Development, 44, pp.21–27.

Commonwealth Secretariat, 2003. Education Values in Primary Schools: An Experience of Human Rights and Democracy Education. In A Framework for Heritage, Multiculturalism and Citizenship Education. Commonwealth Case Studies in Citizenship Education. London: Commonwealth Secretariat, pp. 55–64.

Dewey, J., 1966. Democracy and education: an introduction to the philosophy of education. 1st Free Press paperback., New York : London: The Free Press; Collier-Macmillan.

Dargusch, Joanne, and Jennifer Charteris. “‘Nobody Is Watching but Everything I Do Is Measured’: Teacher Accountability, Learner Agency and the Crisis of Control.” Australian Journal of Teacher Education 43.10 (2018): 24-40. Web.

Dumay, X. & Dupriez, V., 2013. Educational quasi-markets, school effectiveness, and social inequalities. Journal of Education Policy, 29(4), pp.510–531
Education for Democracy and Human Rights in African Schools: The Kenyan Experience
Africa development. , 2000, Vol.25(1/2), p.213-23

Eleweke, C. J., & Rhoda, M. (2000). The challenge of enhancing inclusive education in Developing Countries. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 6 113-126.

Fraser, N., 2008. “Reframing justice in a globalizing world” Scales of justice: reimagining political space in a globalizing world, Cambridge; Malden, MA: Polity. Pp 1-29.

Freire, P., 2001. Pedagogy of the oppressed 30th anniversary., New York: Continuum.

Green, A., Preston, John & Janmaat, Jan Germen, 2006. Education, equality and social cohesion: a comparative analysis, Basingstoke ; New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Ganimian, A.J., 2016. Why do some school-based management reforms survive while others are reversed? The cases of Honduras and Guatemala. International Journal of Educational Development, 47(C), pp.33–46.

Hassid, J. & Brass, J.N., 2015. Scandals, Media and Good Governance in China and Kenya. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 50(3), pp.325–342.

Hickey, S. & King, S., 2016. Understanding Social Accountability: Politics, Power and Building New Social Contracts. The Journal of Development Studies, 52(8), pp.1225–1240.

Hopkins, N., 2018. Dewey, Democracy and Education, and the school curriculum. Education 3-13, 46(4), pp.433–440.

Hossain, N. & Sengupta, A., 2009. Thinking Big, Going Global: The Challenge of BRAC’s Global Expansion. IDS Working Papers, 2009(339), pp.1–42. On managerial expertise and authoritarianism.

Hudson, J. & Lowe, Stuart, 2004. “Structures of Power,” Understanding the policy process: analysing welfare policy and practice, Bristol: Policy. Pp 115-125.

Jeong & Luschei, 2018. Are teachers losing control of the classroom? Global changes in school governance and teacher responsibilities, 2000–2015. International Journal of Educational Development, 62, pp.289–301.

Jwan, J., Anderson, L. & Bennett, N., 2010. Democratic school leadership reforms in Kenya: cultural and historical challenges. Journal of Educational Administration and History, 42(3), pp.247–273.

Kogan, M. (1986). Educational accountability. An analytic overview. London: Hutchinson.

Masino & Niño-Zarazúa, 2016. What works to improve the quality of student learning in developing countries? International Journal of Educational Development, 48(C), pp.53–65.

Mbiti, I.M., 2016. The Need for Accountability in Education in Developing Countries †. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 30(3), pp.109–132.

Mclaughlin, Swartz, Cobbett, and Kiragu. “Inviting Backchat: How Schools and Communities in Ghana, Swaziland and Kenya Support Children to Contextualise Knowledge and Create Agency through Sexuality Education.” International Journal of Educational Development 41.C (2015): 208-16. Web.

Meja-Pearce, A. (1998). Disabled Africa: Rights not welfare. Index on Censorship, 27, 177-195.

MINTROP, H., 2012. Bridging accountability obligations, professional values and (perceived) student needs with integrity. Journal of Educational Administration, 50(5), pp. 695-726.

Mitchell, R., 2017. Democracy or control? The participation of management, teachers, students and parents in school leadership in Tigray, Ethiopia. International Journal of Educational Development, 55, pp.49–55.

Mitra, D., 2018. Student voice in secondary schools: the possibility for deeper change. Journal of Educational Administration, 56(5), pp.473–487.

Mpungose, J.E.E. & Ngwenya, T.H.H., 2017. School leadership and accountability in managerialist times: Implications for South African public schools. Education as Change, 21(3), pp.

Nguyo, Reuben. Accountability in Education in Kenya: Challenges and Strategies. International Journal of Research, September 2016.

Odhiambo, G., 2005. Teacher appraisal: the experiences of Kenyan secondary school teachers. Journal of Educational Administration, 43(4/5), pp.402–416.

Otengho, S.-J. et al., 2016. Government Official’s Perspective on Regulatory Mechanisms to Mitigate Unabated Corruption in the Education Sector in Kenya: A Case Study, pp.ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.

Ranson, S. (1986). ‘Towards a political theory of public accountability in education’,Local Government Studies 4, 77–98.

Rao, N., Morris, P. & Sayed, Y., 2014. Democratisation, rights and accountability in education systems. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 44(3), pp.309–313.

Republic of Kenya (2015). Ministry of Education, Science and Technology National Education Sector Plan Volume One: Basic Education Programme Rationale and Approach 2013 – 2018.

Republic of Kenya (2012). The Report of the Task Force on the Realignment of the Education Sector to the Constitution of Kenya.

Republic of Kenya (2015). Ministry of Education, Science and Technology National Education Sector Plan Volume One: Basic Education Programme Rationale and Approach 2013 – 2018

Sanborn, H. & Thyne, C.L., 2014. Learning Democracy: Education and the Fall of Authoritarian Regimes. , 44(4), pp.773–797.

UNESCO: Accountability in Education: Meeting our Commitments. Global Education Monitoring Report.

World Vision Kenya (2012). Enhancing Responsiveness and Effectiveness of Basic Education Service Delivery in Kenya Project Reports

Yoon, J. & Järvinen, T., 2016. Are model PISA pupils happy at school? Quality of school life of adolescents in Finland and Korea. Comparative Education, 52(4), pp.427–448.

Zanoni, K. & Gross, Z., 2017. Kenyan girls as agents of peace: Enhancing the capacity of future women peacebuilders. Research in Comparative and International Education, 12(1), pp.110–126.


Sanborn, H. and Thyne C L. Learning Democracy: Education and the Fall
of Authoritarian Regimes


Wambua, Patrick. Influence of Principals’ Involvement of Students in Decision Making on Discipline in Secondary Schools, Kenya. European Scientific Journal August 2017 edition Vol.13, No.22 ISSN: 1857 – 7881 (Print) e – ISSN 1857- 7431

The Future of Competition and Accountability in Education
by Allen, Rebecca; Burgess, Simon

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper